81
Law n Order profile image

Law n Order

Joined 6 years ago

102

18

0

The information contained in these hubs are general legal information and should not be misconstrued as legal advice. Legal advice is the application of law to an individual’s specific circumstances. Legal information is not the same as legal advice. The author of these hubs is not giving out legal advice.

Show: All
  • All
  • Education and Science (93)
  • Games, Toys, and Hobbies (1)
  • Gender and Relationships (1)
  • Politics and Social Issues (7)
  • What is Juvenile Delinquency?
    1

    What is Juvenile Delinquency?

    5 years ago

    Juvenile delinquency refers to the criminality of nonadult persons and to certain forms of behavior on their part which, within the context of different cultures, are regarded as socially deviant. The concept has gained...

  • What is Juvenile Court?
    2

    What is Juvenile Court?

    5 years ago

    The juvenile court is the pivot around which revolves the machinery for the treatment of juvenile delinquents. Juvenile courts are found in every region of the world, but in the Far East and the Middle East the movement...

  • What is Prerogative?
    0

    What is Prerogative?

    5 years ago

    Prerogative, in law, is an exclusive or peculiar privilege or power vested in an official body or in an individual by reason of his occupying an official position. Originally in Roman law the term designated a...

  • What is an Easement?
    0

    What is an Easement?

    5 years ago

    An easement, in law, is the right to make some limited use of another person's land for a specific purpose, or the right to have another person refrain from making certain uses of his own land. An easement involving the...

  • What is Penology?
    1

    What is Penology?

    5 years ago

    Penology is that part of the science of criminology that studies the principles of punishment and the management of prisons, reformatories, and other confinement units. Francis Lieber, the political philosopher and...

  • What is an Injunction?
    0

    What is an Injunction?

    5 years ago

    An injunction, in law, is an order or command of a court prohibiting or requiring the doing of certain acts. Although the issuance of injunctions is within the inherent power of equity courts, statutes sometimes define...

  • What is an Attempt?
    0

    What is an Attempt?

    6 years ago

    An attempt, in criminal law, is an act that is done with intent to commit a crime and that, if not prevented, would result in commission of the crime. Three elements are present in an "attempt" to commit a...

  • What is Bailment?
    1

    What is Bailment?

    6 years ago

    Bailment, in law, is the delivery of personal property by one person (the bailor) to another (the bailee) for a particular purpose. The legal concept of bailment may include, under appropriate circumstances, many...

  • What is an Attainder?
    0

    What is an Attainder?

    6 years ago

    An attainder, in English law, is the revocation of the civil rights of a convicted criminal. The practice began in medieval England and lasted until the end of the 19th century. Attainder originally was imposed on...

  • What is a Procedure?
    0

    What is a Procedure?

    6 years ago

    A procedure, in law, is the judicial process for enforcing rights and duties or for punishing crimes. It is the body of rules governing the steps in a legal action, including the course of proceedings to bring the...

  • What is an Attachment?
    0

    What is an Attachment?

    6 years ago

    An attachment, in law, is the act of taking, apprehending, or seizing a person, his goods, or his estate by virtue of a writ, mandate, or other judicial order. It is distinguished from the process of arrest because an...

  • What is a Chattel?
    2

    What is a Chattel?

    6 years ago

    A chattel, in law, is a term used broadly to denote property. It is defined generally as including all kinds of property except real estate. It is more comprehensive than "goods," since it includes animate as...

  • What is an Indictment?
    0

    What is an Indictment?

    6 years ago

    An indictment, in law, is a written statement that formally accuses a person of committing a specific crime. It is one of several ways to bring a suspected person to trial. A bill of indictment is usually prepared by a...

  • What is a Bailiff?
    0

    What is a Bailiff?

    6 years ago

    A bailiff is a keeper or protector, a steward or agent; more commonly, a minor court official, deputy sheriff, or other ministerial official. Under the English common law, a "bailiff in husbandry" was one...

  • What is a Complaint?
    0

    What is a Complaint?

    6 years ago

    A Complaint, in law, is a formal written statement made at the beginning of a lawsuit in a civil court. The plaintiff "complains" of the wrong done to him by the defendant. The defendant's response to the...

  • What is an Exemption?
    0

    What is an Exemption?

    6 years ago

    An exemption, in law, is freedom from a general burden of levy or liability, particularly for debt or for taxes. Thus a person's specified personal belongings, such as wearing apparel, household furniture, or tools of...

  • What is Fraud?
    0

    What is Fraud?

    6 years ago

    Fraud is an intentional deception whereby the person or persons deceived are deprived of money, property, or other advantage. Generally, fraud involves the intentional misrepresentation of a material fact, resulting in...

  • What is an Executor?
    0

    What is an Executor?

    6 years ago

    A executor is a person or corporation named by the maker of a will, the testator, to carry out the provisions of the will. After the death of the testator, the person named as executor petitions to probate (prove) the...

  • What is Criminal Profiling?
    0

    What is Criminal Profiling?

    5 years ago

    Criminology studies the causes and nature of crime. There is a widespread tendency to equate crime and sin, but there are many offences against the law that are not regarded as sins by the accepted moral codes of the...

  • What is Legal Aid?
    0

    What is Legal Aid?

    6 years ago

    Legal Aid, in Anglo-American law, refers to the provision of legal advice and representation, free or at a nominal cost, for persons who are financially unable to employ a lawyer. Legal aid generally includes assistance...

  • What is Liability?
    2

    What is Liability?

    6 years ago

    Personal Liability, in its technical legal sense, denotes a legally enforceable responsibility as against merely moral obligation. More specifically, personal liability means the state of a person after he has breached...

  • What is a Burglary?
    1

    What is a Burglary?

    6 years ago

    A burglary is a crime that was specifically defined in English common law as breaking and entering a dwelling house at night with intent to commit a felony therein. In the United States, although burglary is usually...

  • What is a Waiver?
    0

    What is a Waiver?

    6 years ago

    A waiver, in law, the surrender of a known right or an excuse for nonperformance. The term "waiver" is used with different meanings and must therefore be related to particular situations. An agreement for...

  • What is Perjury?
    0

    What is Perjury?

    6 years ago

    Perjury, in law, the crime of making a false statement under oath or affirmation in a court of law or other legal proceeding. For perjury to be committed, the false statement must have a bearing on the issue under...

  • What is an Inclosure?
    0

    What is an Inclosure?

    6 years ago

    Inclosure, in English law, was the act of dividing and setting apart for private ownership (by fences, ditches, and other barriers) an area of land formerly in common use. Under the manorial system, "open" or...

  • What is a Writ?
    0

    What is a Writ?

    6 years ago

    A writ, in Anglo-American law, a documentary order issued in the name of a court or of an executive officer, directing the person to whom it is addressed to do or refrain from doing a particular act described in the...

  • What is an Affidavit?
    0

    What is an Affidavit?

    6 years ago

    An affidavit is a written or printed statement or declaration of facts made voluntarily, under oath or by affirmation, before an officer, such as a notary public. It is used in applying' for a license or passport and...

  • What is a Barrister?
    2

    What is a Barrister?

    6 years ago

    A Barrister, in England and Wales, is counsel (lawyer) permitted to try cases in supe­rior courts. The legal profession in England and Wales is divided into two branches: barristers and solicitors. The legal...

  • What is Alimony?
    2

    What is Alimony?

    6 years ago

    Alimony is a payment ordered as part of a matrimonial proceeding in a court of law. It is the judicial measurement of a wife's (sometimes a husband's) right to financial support. Temporary alimony (pendente lite) is...

  • What is an Expert Testimony?
    0

    What is an Expert Testimony?

    6 years ago

    Expert testimony is scientific information or opinion, given in court by an expert who is qualified through specialized education, skilled practice in his occupation, wisdom or information about the matter at issue, and...

  • What is a Brief?
    0

    What is a Brief?

    6 years ago

    A brief, in law, a document prepared by an attorney as the basis for the argument of his case, usually in an appellate court. Supplied for the information of the judge and the opposing party, a brief has three...

  • What is a Search and Seizure?
    0

    What is a Search and Seizure?

    6 years ago

    Search and seizure is the examination or inspection by an officer of the law of a suspect's premises or person, in order to discover stolen, contraband, or illicit property, or some evidence of guilt, to be used in the...

  • What is an Appeal?
    0

    What is an Appeal?

    6 years ago

    An appeal, in law, is a complaint to a higher court of an injustice done by a lower one. In English law the earliest meaning of "appeal" was "to accuse". Not until the late 13th century was the term...

  • What is Trespass?
    0

    What is Trespass?

    6 years ago

    Trespass, in law, an act that unlawfully injures another person or his property. For example, assault and battery is a trespass against a person, and uninvited entry on another's land is a trespass against property. The...

  • What is a Threat?
    0

    What is a Threat?

    6 years ago

    A threat, in criminal law, is a declaration of intent to cause harm to the person, property, or rights of another in order to coerce the victim to engage in specified conduct. Crimes involving threats include...

  • What is a Summons?
    0

    What is a Summons?

    6 years ago

    A summons, in American law, a formal document that gives notice to a person, in a criminal case, to appear in court to answer a charge against him or informs him, in a civil proceeding, that an action is being started...

  • What is a Summary Judgment?
    0

    What is a Summary Judgment?

    6 years ago

    Summary Judgment, in law, a means of obtaining a judgment in a civil lawsuit where there appears to be no triable issue. This avoids waiting the usual period of months, or even years, for the case to be reached on the...

  • What is a Trial?
    2

    What is a Trial?

    6 years ago

    A trial, in law, is the judicial examination of the issues of law and of facts in a civil suit or criminal proceeding. In a more limited sense, a trial relates only to the determination of issues of fact. A case may be...

  • What is Vagrancy?
    0

    What is Vagrancy?

    6 years ago

    Vagrancy is the wandering or going about from place to place by an idle person without visible means of support, not working for a living although able to do so, and subsisting on charity. In feudal times, vagrancy...

  • What is Slander?
    0

    What is Slander?

    6 years ago

    Slander, in law, is spoken defamation, a false and malicious oral statement that injures another person's reputation. The distinction was first made between spoken injury (slander) and printed or written injury (libel)...

  • What is a Subpoena?
    0

    What is a Subpoena?

    6 years ago

    A subpoena, in law, is a legal order requiring a witness to appear at a specified time and place and give testimony. It may be issued by a court, a grand jury, or some other authorized agency, such as a Congressional...

  • What is a Detective?
    2

    What is a Detective?

    6 years ago

    A detective is someone who is employed to investigate persons suspected of crime, or to get other evidence that is not readily available. Generally, the work of a detective involves at least the possibility of legal...

  • What is a Nuisance?
    0

    What is a Nuisance?

    6 years ago

    A nuisance, in law, is a catchall term denoting various kinds of wrongful behavior, rather than describing a single type of culpable act. The term refers to both a violation of the criminal law and to a particular kind...

  • What is a Mistrial?
    0

    What is a Mistrial?

    6 years ago

    A mistrial, in law, an erroneous or invalid trial, or a case in which the jury is discharged without having reached a verdict. In legal effect, it is equivalent to no trial at all. A mistrial is declared because of some...

  • What is Cruel and Unusual Punishment?
    0

    What is Cruel and Unusual Punishment?

    6 years ago

    Cruel and Unusual Punishment is prohibited by the 8th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution and by most state constitutions. The prohibition, first appearing in the English Bill of Rights (1689), became part of the...

  • What is the Statute of Limitations?
    1

    What is the Statute of Limitations?

    6 years ago

    The statute of limitations, in law, legislation that sets time limits after which specified types of civil and criminal cases may not be brought to court. These statutes aim at avoiding the injustice that may occur if a...

  • What is Parole?
    0

    What is Parole?

    6 years ago

    Parole is the conditional release of a convict who has served part of his term in prison. Paroles, regulated by state laws, are usually granted by a parole board to a prisoner with a good early record and good conduct...

  • What is an Oath?
    0

    What is an Oath?

    6 years ago

    An Oath, in law, a pledge or attestation, signifying an intention to be bound in conscience to the faithful and truthful performance of certain acts. The most familiar example of an oath is the pledge made by a witness...

  • What is an Informer?
    0

    What is an Informer?

    6 years ago

    An informer, in criminal law, a person who informs law enforcement authorities of the commission of a crime or the identity of the offender, or even tells where the offender may be found. In underworld slang, he is...

  • What is a Hostage?
    0

    What is a Hostage?

    6 years ago

    A hostage is a person or thing held (usually by an enemy) as pledge or surety for the performance of certain actions. Although taking or giving hostages, formerly almost universal, has largely been discontinued, there...

  • What is Indemnity?
    0

    What is Indemnity?

    6 years ago

    Indemnity, in law, is an agreement by which one party (the indemnitor) promises to make good the loss or damage that may be caused to the other party by the occurrence of a specified event. Typical instances are...

  • What is an Infringement?
    0

    What is an Infringement?

    6 years ago

    An infringement, in law, means the wrongful invasion of some legal right. The term has no technical meaning except when associated with other words, as, for example, in the phrase "infringement of a patent."...

  • What is a Misdemeanor?
    1

    What is a Misdemeanor?

    6 years ago

    A misdemeanor in law is an act committed or omitted in violation of public law. In the classification of crimes a misdemeanor is a relatively minor offense, as distinguished from a felony. Generally misdemeanors...

  • What is Probation?
    0

    What is Probation?

    6 years ago

    Probation is a method of rehabilitating convicted persons by allowing them to stay in the community under close supervision, rather than sentencing them to prison. It is similar to parole, which is the early release,...

  • What is Jeopardy?
    0

    What is Jeopardy?

    6 years ago

    Jeopardy, in law, is the state of being in danger of conviction and punishment for committing a crime. A person is usually considered to be in jeopardy when, after a proper indictment, a trial jury has been impaneled...

  • What is Manslaughter?
    0

    What is Manslaughter?

    6 years ago

    Manslaughter, in law, the crime of killing someone without malice or cold-blooded intent. It is a less serious kind of homicide than murder and is punished less severely. The law distinguishes between voluntary and...

  • What is Negligence?
    0

    What is Negligence?

    6 years ago

    Negligence, in law, is the failure to act with as much care as a situation demands, resulting in damage to person or property. For example, a bus driver who goes through a red light and hits a car has been careless in...

  • What is a Jury?
    0

    What is a Jury?

    6 years ago

    A jury, in law, is a group of persons whose duty it is to decide questions of fact in legal actions. The word comes from the Latin jurare, meaning "to take an oath," because a juror swears that he will give an...

  • What is Libel?
    0

    What is Libel?

    6 years ago

    Libel, in law, is a published statement that injures the reputation of a living person, makes him an object of ridicule, contempt, or hatred, or causes him financial loss. Generally the statement must be false and in...

  • What is a Witness?
    0

    What is a Witness?

    6 years ago

    A witness, in law, a person called upon to give relevant testimony under oath, as in a court of justice, with respect to something he has seen, heard, or otherwise observed. It is generally held that a witness is...

  • What is a Deed?
    0

    What is a Deed?

    6 years ago

    A deed, in law, is a signed writing that immediately transfers ownership of land. Such a transfer is a conveyance. Ownership of land means having the legal or equitable title to real property. The transfer must be made...

  • What is Embezzlement?
    0

    What is Embezzlement?

    6 years ago

    Embezzlement is a special kind of theft in which the thief is, at the time of his act, in rightful possession of the money or goods. As with the special crimes of larceny by trick or false pretenses, the crime of...

  • What is a Disclaimer?
    1

    What is a Disclaimer?

    6 years ago

    A disclaimer, in law, is a disavowal or renunciation, especially the refusal or rejection of an estate or a right that has been offered to a person. The term may also refer to the declaration or instrument (legal...

  • What is a Defense?
    0

    What is a Defense?

    6 years ago

    Defense, in law, the grounds asserted by the defendant for his not being liable when sued in a civil action or when prosecuted in a criminal case. The term is sometimes used to describe the strategy or tactics employed...

  • What is a Defendant?
    0

    What is a Defendant?

    6 years ago

    A defendant, in law, the person or group against whom a charge has been made in a criminal matter, or against whom a claim has been asserted in a civil matter. There are significant differences in the United States...

  • What are Costs?
    0

    What are Costs?

    6 years ago

    Costs, in legal actions are the costs of bringing or defending an action and include lawyer's fees, the cost of documentation, and the fees of expert witnesses. In criminal cases, under English law both the...

  • What is a Deposition?
    0

    What is a Deposition?

    6 years ago

    Deposition, in English law, is the written testimony of a witness in a judicial proceeding. Depositions before a magistrate are the sworn statements of the witnesses in a criminal prosecution given at the proceedings at...

  • What are Damages?
    0

    What are Damages?

    6 years ago

    Damages, the most common remedy for a civil wrong. In English law, for breach of a duty owed by the defendant to the plaintiff, whether imposed by the law (see tort) or arising under a contract between the parties, the...

  • What is Defamation?
    0

    What is Defamation?

    5 years ago

    Defamation, in English law, is the publication of a statement which tends to lower a person in the estimation of right-thinking members of society generally; or which tends to make them shun or avoid that person....

  • What is Cruelty?
    0

    What is Cruelty?

    6 years ago

    Cruelty, in law, has no narrowly defined or technical meaning but is a generic term applicable to all categories of willful mistreatment, particularly the infliction of unjustifiable physical pain or suffering. Cruelty...

  • What is Criminal Justice?
    1

    What is Criminal Justice?

    6 years ago

    Criminal Justice is the system by which police, courts, and correctional institutions enforce the basic rules of any society, as expressed in its criminal law. These agencies discharge perhaps the most vital...

  • What is Counsel?
    0

    What is Counsel?

    6 years ago

    Counsel, in its general sense, means advice given regarding a proposed course of action. In legal practice, it also means an attorney who assists his client with legal aspects of judicial controversies: their...

  • What is Habeas Corpus?
    0

    What is Habeas Corpus?

    6 years ago

    Habeas Corpus, in law, a court order or writ, designed to determine whether a person is being legally detained. The term is Latin and means "(that) you have the body." A writ of habeas corpus orders those who...

  • What is the Black Market?
    0

    What is the Black Market?

    6 years ago

    The Black Market is the illegal and clandestine business transactions conducted in violation of government restrictions on buying and selling. The restrictions may consist of rationing, price control, or a total ban on...

  • What is a Fine?
    0

    What is a Fine?

    6 years ago

    A fine, in criminal law, a penalty exacted for commission of an offense, requiring the offender to make a payment of money to the state. Often the judge can sentence the offender to pay a fine or go to jail, and usually...

  • What is a Felony?
    0

    What is a Felony?

    6 years ago

    A felony, in American law, is a serious crime, punishable either by the death penalty or by imprisonment in a state prison. At common law, die term "felony" formerly included any crime for which the penalty...

  • What is Fraud?
    0

    What is Fraud?

    6 years ago

    Fraud, in law, is an intentional misrepresentation or omission of fact for the purpose of depriving some­one else of money or property.  Fraud itself is not a crime, but some crimes, such as obtaining money...

  • What is an Alibi?
    0

    What is an Alibi?

    6 years ago

    An alibi, in law, is the defense that, at the time of the commission of a crime, the accused was at another place. The word alibi is Latin for "elsewhere". If such a fact is established sufficiently to...

  • What is Capital Punishment?
    0

    What is Capital Punishment?

    6 years ago

    Capital Punishment is the infliction of the death penalty on persons convicted of a crime. As ideas about what crimes should be punishable by death have differed, so have the methods of inflicting this penalty. The...

  • What is a Client?
    0

    What is a Client?

    6 years ago

    A Client, in a legal sense, is one who employs an attorney for advice on a question of law or who commits his cause to an attorney for his management in prosecuting a claim or defending against a suit in a court. In...

  • What is Due Process of Law?
    4

    What is Due Process of Law?

    6 years ago

    Due Process Of Law is a central concept of Anglo-American constitutional history. It is generally traced to the Latin phrase per legem terrae (by the law of the land) in the Magna Carta of 1215. In chapter 39 of that...

  • What is Abandonment?
    0

    What is Abandonment?

    6 years ago

    Abandonment, as a legal term, has a wide variety of meanings depending on the subject matter to which it refers. Besides tangible property, some of the things that can be abandoned are persons and personal relations,...

  • What is Collusion?
    0

    What is Collusion?

    6 years ago

    Collusion, in law, is an agreement between or a concert of action by two or more persons. The term usually connotes fraud and secrecy. It is often defined as an agreement to defraud another person of his rights by the...

  • What is Espionage?
    0

    What is Espionage?

    6 years ago

    Espionage is the secret gathering of information by undercover agents. The agents spy on a country, organization, or person and transmit their observations to their employer. Governments usually hire spies to secure...

  • What is Forgery?
    0

    What is Forgery?

    4 years ago

    Forgery, in law, is the making or altering of a written instrument with intent to defraud another person. Under early English common law, the only kinds of forgery that were punishable were forgery of the king's seal or...

  • What is Abatement?
    0

    What is Abatement?

    6 years ago

    Abatement, in law, means discontinuation, cessation, destruction, or elimination. The term is used in several different contexts. Abatement of an action is the cessation of a particular judicial proceeding because of...

  • What is a Breach?
    0

    What is a Breach?

    6 years ago

    A breach, in law, is the violation of a duty or obligation, either by commission or omission. The principal types include: breach of contract; breach of warranty; breach of trust; and breach of the peace. Any wrongful...

  • What is Blackmail?
    1

    What is Blackmail?

    6 years ago

    Blackmail is a criminal offense consisting of the wrongful exaction of money by threats or duress. Although in common parlance its meaning is virtually the same as extortion, blackmail is distinguishable under the terms...

  • What is an Accomplice?
    0

    What is an Accomplice?

    6 years ago

    An accomplice is one who aids or participates in the commission of a crime. The term has no universally recognized definition in law, being used in various contexts as synonymous with "accessory", "aider...

  • What is Arson?
    0

    What is Arson?

    6 years ago

    Arson is most often defined as the willful and malicious burning of the real or personal property of oneself or another. It usually is committed covertly during the hours of darkness and out of sight of witnesses. There...

  • What is an Acquittal?
    0

    What is an Acquittal?

    6 years ago

    An acquittal, in criminal law, is the judicial discharge of a person accused of a crime. The accused may be acquitted by a jury's verdict of "not guilty," by a judge's ruling, or by simple operation of law, as...

  • What is an Arraignment?
    0

    What is an Arraignment?

    6 years ago

    Arraignment, in criminal law, usually describes the proceeding in open court when an accused person is first presented with the written charge that has been filed against him. He is then called upon to enter a plea to...

  • What is an Arrest of Judgment?
    0

    What is an Arrest of Judgment?

    6 years ago

    Arrest of Judgement, in law, is the act of staying a judgment or refusing to enter it because of some defect in the record of the case. The procedure is employed in both civil and criminal cases. It amounts to a setting...

  • What is Circumstantial Evidence?
    0

    What is Circumstantial Evidence?

    6 years ago

    Circumstantial Evidence is indirect evidence that seeks to prove certain facts by proving other circumstances and events. Direct evidence, such as the testimony of any eyewitness to a particular happening, goes to the...

  • What is an Assault?
    0

    What is an Assault?

    6 years ago

    Assault is an intentional act threatening bodily harm to another person, coupled with ability or apparent ability to do such harm, but falling short of physical contact. If one raises his fist or a cane to strike, or...

  • What is an Arrest?
    0

    What is an Arrest?

    6 years ago

    An arrest, in criminal law, occurs when a policeman or other law enforcement officer takes a person suspected of crime into custody, depriving him of his freedom of action. Usually it is the first in a series of steps...

  • What is Justification?
    0

    What is Justification?

    6 years ago

    Justification, in law, a reasonable excuse or lawfully sufficient reason for acting or failing to act, or any fact that prevents an act from being wrongful. In connection with homicide, the terms...

  • What is Bribery?
    0

    What is Bribery?

    6 years ago

    Bribery, in law, an attempt to influence a person in the performance of his public duty through the payment of money or anything else of value. A person who asks for or receives a bribe is considered equally guilty with...

  • What is Larceny?
    0

    What is Larceny?

    6 years ago

    Larceny is the crime of unlawfully and fraudulently depriving a person of his property. It is generally used synonymously with "theft," though the latter term is not as carefully defined and may be more...

  • What is Wiretapping?
    1

    What is Wiretapping?

    6 years ago

    Wiretapping is the listening-in on telephone, telegraph or teletype or communications. It is usually accomplished by attaching taps and listening or recording equipment to the communications wires. The term...

  • What is Contempt of Court?
    0

    What is Contempt of Court?

    6 years ago

    Contempt of court is an act of disrespect for or disobedience of a court. Contempt of court may be either a criminal or civil offense. Criminal contempt may be either direct or indirect. A person is guilty of direct...

  • What is Evidence?
    1

    What is Evidence?

    6 years ago

    Evidence, in law, is any information or object that a court accepts to help decide a case. Evidence may be in the form of oral testimony by a witness, or it may be any kind of object or document. Circumstantial evidence...

working