Different Types of Fishes Found in India: Photographs with Habitat Description

India's Freshwater Fish

The economic importance of Indian aquatic ecosystems can be seen from their contribution to fishery production. Fishing in India constitutes 0.87% of India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 4.15% of its agricultural GDP, and 5.63% of the world's fish production. Present production of fish and shellfish from wild fisheries and aquaculture combined is estimated to be around 8.76 million tonnes: 3.37 million tonnes from marine environments and 5.30 million tonnes from inland water resources.

Aquatic ecosystems--interdependent communities of living things in water--can be divided into marine and freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater ecosystems are home to 41% of the world's fish species. Freshwater ecosystems may be further subdivided into three types. Slow-moving water environments such as ponds, lakes, and pools are known as "lentic" ecosystems. Streams and rivers where water moves rapidly are called "lotic" ecosystems, and freshwater ecosystems with anaerobic or partly anaerobic conditions are called "wetlands."

Photos below of Indian freshwater species are accompanied by a brief description of their habitat (type of water body) and the depth of water they prefer.

This information is from Vandana Srivastava, 2006, Systematic Survey of Different Kinds of Fishes, a Ph.D. thesis submitted to VBU. The author has consented to the publication of this material in this Hub. All these photographs are copyrighted material and may not be used on any website without prior permission.

Groups of Freshwater Species

Indian freshwater fish species are grouped below into:

A. Indigenous major carps
B. Exotic carps
C. Common-type carps
D. Hill stream fishes
E. Air-breathing fishes
F. Ornamental fishes

See the photo gallery after each section.

A. Indigenous Major Carps

"Major" carps are larger and faster-growing than the "minor" carps.

1. Catla catla. Found on the surface of lakes, ponds, tanks, reservoirs, and other bodies of water.

2. Lebeo rohita. Found in the column (that is, at various depths) in lakes, ponds, tanks, reservoirs, and other bodies of water.

3. Cirrhinus mrigala (not shown). Found at the bottom of lakes, ponds, tanks, and reservoirs.

4. Lebeo bata (not shown). Found at the bottom of bodies of water.

5. Labeo calbasu. Found at the bottom of bodies of water.

Indigenous Major Carps

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Catla catlaLebeo rohitaLabeo calbasu
Catla catla
Catla catla
Lebeo rohita
Lebeo rohita
Labeo calbasu
Labeo calbasu

B. Exotic Carps

1. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Found on the surface.

2. Cyprinus carpio var. specularis (not shown). Found at the bottom of bodies of water.

3. Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Found at the bottom of bodies of water.

4. Ctenopharyngodon idella (not shown). Found in the column.

5. Tilapia mossambicus (not shown). Found at the bottom of bodies of water.

Exotic Carps

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

C. Common Minor Carps

1. Oxygaster bacaila. Found at the surface.

2. Amblypharyngodon mola. Found at the bottom.

3. Esomus danricus

4. Cirrhina reba. Found at the bottom.

5. Rhinomugil corsula

6. Eutropiichthys vacha

7. Puntius ticto. Found at the surface.

8. Puntius stigma. Found in the column.

9. Puntius conchonius. Found in the column.

10. Ambassis nama. Found at the surface of ponds, lakes, rivers, and reservoirs.

11. Ambassis ranga. Found at the surface.

12. Glossogobius giuris. Found at the surface.

13. Osteobramo cotio. Found at the surface.

14. Barilius bola. Found at the surface in ponds.

15. Mastacembelus aculeatus (not shown). Found in muddy places.

16. Mastacembelus pancalus. Found in muddy places

17. Mystus bleekeri. Found in muddy places.

18. Mystus cavasius. Found in muddy places.

19. Mystus vittatus. Found in muddy places.

Common Minor Carps

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Oxygaster bacaila Amblypharyngodon molaEsomus danricusCirrhina rebaRhinomugil corsulaEutropiichthys vachaPuntius tictoPuntius stigmataPuntius conchoniusAmbassis namaAmbassis rangaGlossogobius giurisOsteobramo cotioBarilius bolaMastacembelus pancalusMystus bleekeriMystus cavasiusMystus vittatus
Oxygaster bacaila
Oxygaster bacaila
Amblypharyngodon mola
Amblypharyngodon mola
Esomus danricus
Esomus danricus
Cirrhina reba
Cirrhina reba
Rhinomugil corsula
Rhinomugil corsula
Eutropiichthys vacha
Eutropiichthys vacha
Puntius ticto
Puntius ticto
Puntius stigmata
Puntius stigmata
Puntius conchonius
Puntius conchonius
Ambassis nama
Ambassis nama
Ambassis ranga
Ambassis ranga
Glossogobius giuris
Glossogobius giuris
Osteobramo cotio
Osteobramo cotio
Barilius bola
Barilius bola
Mastacembelus pancalus
Mastacembelus pancalus
Mystus bleekeri
Mystus bleekeri
Mystus cavasius
Mystus cavasius
Mystus vittatus
Mystus vittatus

D. Rare Minor Carps

1. Guludia chapra. Found at the surface in ponds.

2. Xenentodon cancila

3. Ailia coila

Rare Minor Carps

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Guludia chapraXenentodon cancilaAilia coila
Guludia chapra
Guludia chapra
Xenentodon cancila
Xenentodon cancila
Ailia coila
Ailia coila

E. Air-Breathing Fishes

1. Clarias batrachus. Found in muddy places and at the bottom of bodies of wateer

2. Heteropneustes fossilis. Found in muddy places and at the bottom of bodies of water.

3. Channa punctatus. Found in muddy places during the rainy season, and at the bottom of bodies of water.

4. Channa gachua. Found in muddy places during the rainy season, and at the bottom of bodies of water.

5. Channa striatus. Found in muddy places during the rainy season, and at the bottom of bodies of water,

6. Channa marulius. Found in muddy places (uncommon), and at the bottom of ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.

7. Wallago attu. Found in the column in ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.

8. Ompok bimaculatus Found in the column in bodies of water.

9. Notopterus notopterus

10. Notopterus chitala

11. Anabas testudineus. Found in the column.

12. Mystus seenghala. Found at the bottom.

Air-Breathing Fishes

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Clarias batrachusHeteropneustes fossilisChanna punctatus Channa gachua Channa striatusChanna maruliusWallago attuOmpok bimaculatusNotopterus notopterusNotopterus chitalaAnabas testudineus Mystus seenghala
Clarias batrachus
Clarias batrachus
Heteropneustes fossilis
Heteropneustes fossilis
Channa punctatus
Channa punctatus
Channa gachua
Channa gachua
Channa striatus
Channa striatus
Channa marulius
Channa marulius
Wallago attu
Wallago attu
Ompok bimaculatus
Ompok bimaculatus
Notopterus notopterus
Notopterus notopterus
Notopterus chitala
Notopterus chitala
Anabas testudineus
Anabas testudineus
Mystus seenghala
Mystus seenghala

F. Hill Stream Fishes

1. Garra gotyla. Found in the Chano River near Churchu block, and the Konar River.

2. Garra kempi. Hill streams, and ditches near the foothills.

3. Lepidocephalichthys guntea. Most commonly occurring hill stream fish.

4. Nemacheilus botia. Found in ditches near the foothills.

Hill Stream Fishes

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Garra gotyla Garra kempi Lepidocephalichthys gunteaNemacheilus botia
Garra gotyla
Garra gotyla
Garra kempi
Garra kempi
Lepidocephalichthys guntea
Lepidocephalichthys guntea
Nemacheilus botia
Nemacheilus botia

G. Ornamental Species

1. Trichogaster lalius (not shown). Found at the surface in all fresh water bodies.

2. Danio rerio. Usually found during the rainy season in paddy fields and ditches.

3. Trichogaster fasciatus. Found at the surface in all fresh water bodies.

4. Mastacembelus armatus. Found in muddy places.

Ornamental Species

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Danio rerioTrichogastr fasciatusMastacembelus armatus
Danio rerio
Danio rerio
Trichogastr fasciatus
Trichogastr fasciatus
Mastacembelus armatus
Mastacembelus armatus

Robot Fish That Swims Like a Carp

© 2008 crusador

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Comments 16 comments

crusador profile image

crusador 2 years ago Author

thanks for encouraging & beautiful comments.


aysha 2 years ago

very informative...


chirag kalani 2 years ago

this page is so fishy


hasini 3 years ago

this pics are very edutainment to me!


s.k 3 years ago

good picture,add related tamil,and their nutrient content,importance of fish in health,this is more comfertable for me, but other not understood


shubha 3 years ago

it helps me on my project . thanks but we need more info about this


SRRAO 4 years ago

Would u please tell me

a) Halibat fish -its equivalent in India,

b) Salamon fish--its equivalent in India

sramarao50@rediffmail.com

Thanks


sm hussaini ijeri 4 years ago

still there is n# of fish in india rivers ,lake and DAMS.

to research required many facility to find it


nitish badyal 4 years ago

nice....work....:)


crusador profile image

crusador 4 years ago Author

thanks all for sparing time and making lovely comments.


Aj 4 years ago

It gve me hlp on mah project.


Jk 5 years ago

Thank you for taking the time


Archna daniel 5 years ago

Nice collection want to pcitures also


Justin 6 years ago

Can you feed gold fish rice???


Aditi  6 years ago

Good collection!Would be better if some general information could be given by some zoology friend


Mig 6 years ago

Good Listing, perhaps the pics could be made to appear alongside.

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