THE EFFECT OF CRACKED-SOACKED AND COOKED VELVET BEANS ( MUCANA SPP) ON BROILER FINISHER
Bridging the gap between teeming population and food production is one of the important task of developing countries. Expensive staple foods and policy constraints on food import are the major factors worsening the food situation in developing countries. Proteins energy deficiency has been reorganized as the most common form of malnutrition in regions were people depend on starch based diets (F.AO, 1994; Pelletier,1994; Michaelsen and Henrick, 1998). Livestock production, animal husbandry and maintenance of soil fertility plays important role in rural development and in turn the economy of the countries. Livestock nutrition is also one of the critical constraints to increase animal productivity in developing countries (ILRI, 1995) and perpetual gas persists between the demand and supply of digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients to livestock in Asian continent (singh et al, 1997). Supplementation of animal protein for monogastric animals is expensive and not easily affordable. Poppi and Mclennan (1995) have advocated increasing the quality of legume based pasture diet to uplift the livestock production. Legume pastures have been projected as an economically variable alternative for protein and calories in developing countries (famurewa and Raji, 2005; Rao, 1994). Feed supplementation with native legume is variable and provides additional protein, minerals, energy in dry season and improves the overall nutritional status in developing countries (Guillion and champ, 1996). Some underutilized wild legumes adapted to adverse conditions have been explored for their nutritional advantages (Amubode and fetuga, 1983; siddhuraju et al, 1995, 2000; Bhagya et al, 2006; Sridhar and seena, 2006). To fulfill the growing demands of plant-based proteins for humans and livestock, research is underway on the possibilities of employing underutilized legumes as inexpensive and elegant source of protein than conventional source viz, soybean (glycine max), groundnut (Arachis hypogae) and animal based protein (chel-Guerrero et al, 2002; Krause et al, 1996; siddhuraju et al 1995). Legumes have long shelf life and provide more proteins, abundant carbohydrates, high fibre, low fat (except oilseeds) and possess high concentration of Poly-unsaturated fatty acid. Legumes are also known for certain bioactive compounds whose beneficial effects needs to be explored for efficient exploitation.
Thus, under-explored legumes assume importance terms of nutrition, food security, agricultural development, enhancement of economy and rotation of crops to improve soil fertility. In the view of rural development, the current review emphasizes the importance of unconventional legume, Mucuna as a source of food, feed and pharmaceutical valued compounds.
AIMS OF THE RESEARCH
The major aim of this research is to establish the effect of cracked-soaked and cooked velvet beans (mucuna spp.) on the performance and organ characteristics of broiler finishers.
1. To determine the effect of the velvet beans (mucana spp.) on the growth rate of the broiler finisher.
2. To determine the effect of velvet beans (mucuna spp.) on different organs in broiler finishers.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The high cost of production of poultry and poultry products in Nigeria occasioned by escalated price of feed stuffs, especially legumes has constituted a major economic concern to the poultry farmers over the years. This problem is further compounded by high level of adulteration of feed by the feed manufacturers in an attempt to make money. This research is aimed at finding the effect of cracked-soaked and cooked velvet bean (Mucuna spp.) on the performance and organ characteristic of broiler finishers.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The importance of Mucuna bean cannot be overemphasized. Mucuna bean contains protein, carbohydrate, high fibre, low fat. Mucuna bean are also known for certain bioactive compounds whose beneficial effect needs to be explored for efficient exploitation.
Mucuna bean as a source of food, feed and pharmaceutical value compound has contributed a lot to Nigerian economy and rotation of crops to improve soil fertility. Therefore, the on-going research is to evaluate the effect of velvet bean when cracked-soaked and cooked on the performance and organ characteristics of broiler finisher so that farmers will be encouraged on whether or not to use them in production.
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON THE LOCATION
OF THE EXPERINMENTAL SITE
This research work will be carried out at the Animal Production Technology Research farm at Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area, Ebonyi state of Nigeria.
The project site is situated within latitude 5056 North and Longitude 7031 East, having a mean annual rainfall of 1655mm and temperature of 28.50c with a relative humidity of 88% (average) as reported by the metrological center, federal college of Agriculture, Ishiagu.
3.2 SOURCE OF EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS
The Mucuna seeds and the broiler birds for this experiment will be purchased from Alpha poultry farm Emene, EnuguState. Other ingredients like Maize, wheat affal, groundnut cake, fishmeal, blood meal, bone meal, soybean meal, premix, lysine, methionine and common salt will be added to fortify the feed.
3.3 DURATION OF THE PROJECT
This project will last for four (4) weeks.
3.4 EXPERIMENTAL DIET, BIRDS AND DESIGN
Sixty (60) Anak broiler finishers (6 weeks old) will be used for the research. The birds will be randomly divided into four treatment groups in a Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D) with fifteen (15) birds in each group. Each treatment will be replicated three (3) times with five (5) birds per replicate.
The experiment diet will be formulated containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% level of Mucuna meal representing T1, T2, T3, T4 respectively.
3.5 MANAGEMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL BIRDS
Before the arrival of the birds, the house will be disinfected and the pens constructed. Some days prior to the arrival of the birds, wood shaving will be spread on the floor to form beddings and protection against cold.
Drinking troughs will be provided for the birds for easy drinking of water, feeding trough will also be provided for feed. Other Management and routine operations will be carried out throughout the experiment period.
At the end of the feeding trial, a bird in each replicate will be randomly selected, deprived of feed but not water for a night and then weighed before and after slaughtering.
The weight of the dressed and eviscerated carcass and various organs will be determined and recorded.
The initial body weight of the experiment birds will be taken prior to the commencement of the experiment, after which the birds will be weighed weekly to determine their live weight gain and the final weight will be determined at the end of the experiment.
Feed in take per replicate will be recorded by subtracting the quantity of feed given and the left over in the following day.
Feed conversion ratio will be determined by dividing the average daily feed intake by average body weight gain.
Body weight change will be determined by subtracting initial body weight from final body weight.
The average weight gain will be determined by dividing the body weight change by the number of days the experiment lasted.
The whole seeds will be collected from farms, washed and then sun-dried. After which the whole seeds will be placed in a cloth bag and leave them immersed in a flowing river for three days in order to reduce the amount of L-DOPA present in the seeds.
DETERMINATION OF ANTINURITIONAL FACTORS
Antinutritional factors present in Mucuna will be determined to access their level of Toxicity on consumption of Mucuna. Their consumption would probably lead to dizziness, diarrhea, pathological changes in organs growth, depression and death.
The toxicity will also be studied on blood profile and carcass characteristics. The antinutritional factors includes: L-DOPA, Protease inhibitors, saponins, Phytic acid, Polyphenols, Hemagglutinins, Flatulence factors, melanin etc.
The data collected on performance and carcass evaluation will be subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The differences among the treatments mean will be tested using least significant differences (L.S.D) as outlined by steel and Torrie (1980).
PERCENTAGE (%) COMPOSITION OF BROILER FINISHER DIETS FOR EACH TREAMENT.
Treatments T1 T2 T3 T4
Inclusion level 0 5 10 15
Maize 55 50 45 40
Mucuna 0 5 10 15
Wheat offal 19 19 19 19
Soya bean meal 12 12 12 12
Groundnut cake 5 5 5 5
Bone meal 3 3 3 3
Blood meal 2 2 2 2
Fish meal 3 3 3 3
Methionine 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Lysine 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Premix 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Total 100 100 100 100
T1 T2 T3 T4
Crude protein(CP)% 19.952 20.672 20.871 20.985
ME (Kcal/kg) 2845.8 2950.3 3055.8 3160.8
T1 T2 T3 T4 Number of Treatments = 4
R1 5 5 5 5 Number of Replications = 3
R2 5 5 5 5 Number of birds per Replicates = 5
R3 5 5 5 5 Total number of birds = 60
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