The Dilemma of Mandatory Spay and Neuter Laws
This hub came about after a discussion about whether or not laws could help reduce pet overpopulation. The discussion ranged over such things as mandatory spay and neuter, anti puppy mill legislation, and bans on selling puppies and kittens in pet stores. It's a controversial subject, but one worth considering for any pet owner or animal rescue advocate.
Despite many backyard breeders working to deny it’s an issue, pet overpopulation in the United States is still a massive problem. According to the Humane Society of the United States, it’s impossible to know just how many animals are euthanized every year due to the lack of reporting, but shelter workers agree that most were perfectly healthy. Their only deficiency is that they didn’t have a home. Today, estimates range anywhere from 3 million to 11 million perfectly healthy and non-aggressive cats and dogs are euthanized every year within the country. Some animal shelters face dozens of euthanizations every day just to make room for newcomers. This is due to a number of different factors. Let’s first address the controversy.
How can there be pet overpopulation when companion animals are imported every year?
It’s true that hundreds of thousands of dogs and cats are brought into the United States every year. Does this prove that there’s no pet overpopulation problem? Not at all. Importation statistics do not take any other factors into account except that the animal crossed the border into the country. Most are already owned, and come into the country with their owners who are in the country permanently or for extended stays. Some may be re-entries, counting the same animal numerous times in the statistics. Of the ones that are purchased, most are bought from outside of the country by high-end breeders who want specific bloodlines. A few are purchased by individuals who want an “exotic” breed for a pet, or who otherwise buy into the benefits of this specific dog.
Want to explore this issue more in depth? Check out this book from an author who has done extensive work on the "front lines" of the homeless pet issue
What is the primary contributor to pet overpopulation?
Though it’s difficult to boil such a huge problem down to one specific thing, it’s obvious that more pets are born than there are homes for them to live out an average lifespan. Why there are more pets than owners is a slightly more complicated question. A combination of vigorous spay/neuter programs and owner education may be the only thing that can truly reduce these numbers.
Commercial producers of companion animals, often referred to as “puppy mills” or “kitten mills,” are one of the primary contributors to overpopulation. These operations are known for low standards of cleanliness and animal health, as well as a lack of health testing for their breeding stock. Operators often induce estrous with artificial hormones so that an animal can conceive more litters, faster. Laws are cracking down on these types of businesses, but many still exist and supply pet stores across the country.
Unfortunately, backyard breeders do far more damage in terms of overall numbers for unwanted animals. These include the average pet owner who has “accident litters,” the people who want to breed for profit alone without concern for good genetics or health, and those who breed without having pre-arranged homes for their animals. Most do not screen buyers, do no home checks, and do not otherwise safeguard the well-being of their litters. In contrast, a reputable breeder will be able to provide health certificates and information on both parents, and will have an application process. They often have a spay/neuter contract unless you specifically buy an animal with unlimited registration that is a superb specimen of its breed.
A humorous look at the importance of spaying and neutering...unfortunately, the numbers mentioned are entirely realistic
Are mandatory spay and neuter laws a solution to the pet overpopulation problem?
As part of relieving the tax burden of unwanted animals, many municipal lawmakers recommend laws mandating spay or neuter operations for companion animals that are not licensed for breeding. Would this work? While it has sparked controversy on a number of counts, the areas where it has been enacted report dwindling numbers of homeless companion animals. So why is it a problem?
Companion animals are, like it or not, considered property under United States law. Many pet owners see mandatory spay and neuter laws as an infringement on their rights. While this is true, once could also argue that producing unwanted animals that are likely to become a taxpayer burden in county animal shelters is a matter of public concern. Shelters are expensive. Where there are no shelters, the unwanted animals quickly become a health hazard. Either way, the problem begs some form of regulation where owners in general have proven irresponsible in dealing with the situation.
Enforcing spay and neuter laws can be difficult, and many argue that it can’t be done effectively. However, the vast majority of animals that end up in shelters are not spayed or neutered when they arrive. Currently, most areas have no fines or other regulatory measures for unplanned litters, and the surrender fees charged by most shelters often just raise the numbers of animals abandoned near the shelter.
Despite the inability to completely enforce the law, it could still be a useful measure in reducing the numbers of unwanted animals. Specifically, many accident litters occur because the owners just didn’t see a good reason to get their pet(s) fixed. They either fail to see the importance of preventing unwanted young, or fail to see the possibilities of their pet getting loose and meeting other unaltered animals. Still others think it’s good to let the animal experience parenthood just once, or don’t understand the potential implications of adding more companion animals to the population. If it’s law, these owners may be more motivated to have their pets altered.
An overview of the pet overpopulation in one area. Unfortunately, the United States has thousands of shelters that can tell the same one
Can spay and neuter laws eliminate pet overpopulation?
Simply put, it’s highly unlikely that mandatory spay and neuter laws will put an end to pet overpopulation. Why do they, then? Because it can reduce the numbers, and has proven to be effective in reduction in areas that have such laws. Every small reduction in overpopulation helps, and eventually adds up to numerous lives saved. In recent years, the numbers of reported euthanasia has gone down. While that’s a good thing, it could easily go up again at an astounding rate if vigilance lapses because of the short time frame between birth to productive age for cats and dogs.
What are some other potential problems with mandatory spay and neuter?
The cost of a spay and neuter operation may be difficult for some to meet. Though many municipalities charge more to license unaltered animals, it still takes a lot of years for that alone to make up the cost of alteration. Pet owners and spay/neuter advocates can argue that it should be an assumed cost when you get a new pet, but not everyone will agree. In order for a mandatory spay and neuter law to work, the municipality would also have to have good access to low-cost or no-cost clinics, veterinarians who will accept payment plans, and other such options to make the surgery more affordable for all pet owners. Grants, shelter spay/neuter vouchers and other alternative financing options can also help close the gap.
Where legislation exists for mandatory spaying and neutering, it is also necessary to provide guidelines for breeding animals. Some people wish to keep animals specifically for breeding, and require a licensing process that will help eliminate undesirable mating. Why couldn’t backyard breeders just get a license too? In some cases, they could. The cost of a license, ideally, would be a limiting factor in who chooses to license their dogs and who doesn’t. Cities may require kennel inspections to help eliminate puppy mills or other such facilities where animals are kept in sub-standard living conditions. This could, at least, eliminate or significantly reduce the numbers of people who breed “just to see what the babies would look like” or just to earn some fast cash.
What can be done right now, regardless of municipal or higher level legislation?
Shelters and rescues don’t have to wait for spay and neuter legislation to encourage altering companion animals. The vast majority of shelters won’t allow their animals to be adopted until they’re altered, while others may offer vouchers for cheap or free surgeries after adoption. Still others may refund a portion of the adoption fee after the new owner provides proof of a spay or neuter. When accidents do happen, a shelter may be able to help find homes for the litter while they’re still in the care of the mother’s owner, contingent on proof that she has been spayed or a contract states that she will be. This may help reduce the burden on shelters by placing the young before they have a chance to end up in a shelter.
Finally, education for pet owners of all types is crucial to keeping pets out of shelters. It’s true that puppies are often adopted quickly. It is equally true that many end up back in the shelters when they reach their “adolescent stage” around 1-2 years of age. By teaching owners how to train their pets, and how to deal with normal behavior changes around this age, it may be possible to reduce owner surrenders once the puppies or kittens “aren’t cute anymore.”
Mandatory spay and neuter laws are far from enforceable, but they’re a step in the right direction. I encourage anyone who thinks that spaying and neutering won’t reduce the unwanted pet population, or who believes that there is no pet overpopulation, to volunteer at your local shelter. The flood of companion animals through every shelter and rescue in the country is astounding. Even one litter prevented translates to potentially dozens of lives being saved.
Further discussion on acquiring and owning pets, and pet overpopulation
- Solutions to Unwanted Dogs in Shelters
Millions of dogs are euthanized in shelters every year. With a little better education and understanding, that number could easily drop.
- Solutions to Unwanted Cats: Consideration for Owners...
Cats are the most commonly euthanized animal in shelters. Here are some solutions to pet overpopulation, and how you can keep your cat from being one of the unwanted number that's put down.
- Why It's Important to Spay Your Dog: A Personal Test...
Spaying and neutering is not only essential to keeping the overall pet population in check, it could save your pet's life. This dog nearly died from Pyometra, an infection prevented by spaying.
- Acquiring Dogs: Adopt or Purchase?
Should you adopt or purchase your next dog? Here are some things to consider when trying to decide between rescuing a dog from a shelter or purchasing a dog from a breeder. In addition, there are some things you can do to make sure that your purchase
- The Cost of Ownership: What You Owe to Your Pet
Having worked with animals most of my life I'm constantly surprised at how easily many people enter into a big commitment...specifically, adopting a new pet. Thinking back I can remember many summer days...
- Bringing a Rescue Dog Home: Tips for Living with You...
Dogs from shelters and rescues make outstanding pets. Bear in mind that it will take some adjustment time, and every dog needs ongoing training in its life, regardless of age.
More by this Author
- 7How to Help Pet Rabbits Adjust to a New Environment: How Long Does it Take to Settle a Bunny or Bunnies in a New Home?
New pet rabbits need some time to adjust to their home environment. Here are some tips for helping introduce the new rabbit to your home and pets.
- 4Different Types of Hog Pens: Pig Pen Options for the Entire Life Cycle of a Pig -- Farrowing, Weaning, and Finishing
Learning how to build a pig pen that's right for you starts with learning the type of hog pen you need. Here are the basic types of pig pens, as well as considerations for humane livestock handling.
The basic considerations for building a pig pen start with knowing what it's going to be used for, the size of the breed you plan to raise, and the number and age of animals it's intended for. Here are tips for how to...