Why do Puppies Twitch in Their Sleep?

Why do puppies twitch in their sleep?
Why do puppies twitch in their sleep?

Anybody who has raised a litter of healthy puppies has observed puppies twitching in their sleep, but why does that happen? If you never raised a litter of puppies before watching them twitch like little bundles of Jello can leave you concerned and wondering what is going on. Adult dogs seem to twitch too when they sleep, but young puppies seem to twitch much more and there's no doubt that it looks far more dramatic. So what causes such twitching? When I worked for a veterinary hospital, I remember getting these calls of concerned puppy owners wondering if it was normal and if they needed to schedule a vet appointment. I often had to reassure them that their puppies were just fine, and that their twitching was a sign of a healthy development. In the next paragraphs, we will look more into puppies twitching during sleep and possible theories as to why it may happening.

Why do Puppies Twitch in Their Sleep?

The twitching observed in puppies is mostly more dramatic during the puppy's first months of life; afterward, it tends to decrease. You'll still see fair amounts of twitching in adult dogs, but by then most dog owners have come to accept them as a normal occurrence. The following are explanations about possible causes of twitching in puppies. Notice how different theories are formulated. It seems like this is something that deserves further research.

Sweet Dreams

Research has proven that dogs not only tend to dream, but their sleep patterns are quite similar to those of humans. Just like you, your dog will experience periods of silent, restful sleep alternated with periods of rapid eye movement sleep.The only main difference is that dogs will cycle though the sleep stages much faster than humans do. While humans go though 4 to 5 cycles, dogs, on the other hand, will go through up to 20 or more. Dogs will therefore frequently act out their dreams during REM sleep by twitching, vocalizing and exhibiting rapid eye movements.

For unknown reasons, it appears that puppies are stuck in the REM stage of sleep (which is when we tend to dream) more compared to middle-aged dogs. When puppies are only 2 weeks old they are in the neonatal phase and they will tend to sleep 90 percent of the time. The sleep phase during which they twitch, kick and appear to be dreaming is called "activated sleep." But are puppies truly dreaming when they're twitching?

In studies on human babies, this explanation is source of debate. The reason being that babies twitch even before they are able to see well. The question posted by Howard Roffwarg, director of the Sleep Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, is therefore a valuable one, he states: "Since newborns can barely see, the idea that these spasms are useless byproducts of their dreams is unlikely." This brings us to the question: but can newborns really barely see? Some experts seem to say they can see quite a bit, but in puppies consider that their eyes open when they are about 2 weeks, and the twitching started much earlier than that!

Better Muscle Tone

Twitching in puppies seems to have a very important function. That's why we used to reassure clients telling them that twitching is a sign of healthy development. It is believed that the twitching actually helps the puppy develop strong muscles. During the puppy's first week of life, most of the strength is concentrated on the front legs. Indeed, at around 5 to 7 days old, the puppy can lift himself up on his front legs. The back legs though during this time are still quite weak. All the muscle twitching ultimately exercises those muscles and helps increase muscle tone so the puppy's legs gain sufficient strength and he can be able to stand explain veterinarians Liz Palika and Debra Eldredge in the book "Your Yorkshire terrier puppy month-by-month." This is the point that Howard Roffwarg is trying to make. He also questions: "What if, twitches play a key role in the development of the nervous system?" This brings us to a third theory that leads to neural development which can play a role as well in muscle development and much more.

Healthy Neural Development

Two papers published in Nature, played a role in identifying the important role of twitches. In the first paper, Swedish scientists had discovered that in rats, muscle twitches during sleep helped program cells in the spinal cord that were responsible for carrying out the withdrawal reflex (a reflex meant to protect our bodies from damaging stimuli such as withdrawing your hand when touching something hot). In the second paper, French researchers found that in newborn rats, the twitches triggered bursts of neuronal firing which plays an important role in motor coordination. Mark Blumberg, a psychology professor at the University of Iowa, has found similar happenings when he conducted experiments on newborn rats. He found that the twitching of the whiskers was triggering bursts of activity in different brain regions.


So why do puppies twitch? Looks like we're still looking for a definitive answer. It could be a combination of factors, but this area still needs some more research. Yet, if we think about it the fact the twitching is more intense during early puppy hood and it reduces as the puppy grows, there must be some connection with development. Psychologist David Foulkes, one of the world's most prominent experts on pediatric dreaming,explains in "Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness" that there are chances babies are actually dreamless for their first years of life. This is mostly because of the babies' limited pool of experiences and their brains' immaturity.

On top of that, consider that neonates spend half their sleep time in REM; whereas, adults spend only one quarter of their sleeping time in REM with the remaining time spent in a dreamless non-REM state. If neonates actually did dream, it would mean they would dream for a full-eight hours! That would be a lot of dreaming based on their limited experiences which in babies may include just a few images of their bedroom, some toys and their parents' faces, suggests Foulkes.

Yet, there are dog owners who swear their puppies must be dreaming and parents who attest their smiling baby must be having a pleasant dream. The question is: can a puppy dream before being capable of seeing? Can a dream include tactile elements rather than visual ones? It looks like we still need more definite answers and this area is in need of further exploration. What are your thoughts?

Alexadry© all rights reserved, do not copy

Why do you think puppies twitch?

  • They are dreaming
  • Their muscles are developing
  • Neural activity is at work
  • Perhaps a combination of the above
  • Not sure
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Puppy twitching in sleep

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Comments 7 comments

Bk42author profile image

Bk42author 2 years ago from New York

In interesting hub! I always assumed it had to with dreaming. Makes sense that it could be a combination if things.


alexadry profile image

alexadry 2 years ago from USA Author

That's what I also tend to think, and there is much debate on this so I guess for now only assumptions can be made.Would be nice to have more research done as this is quite an interesting topic.


Edward J. Palumbo profile image

Edward J. Palumbo 2 years ago from Tualatin, OR

Both of our dogs (ages 11 and 3) appear to dream, to react to things in their sleep, and their logs will move as if walking/running, or they will vocalize, but they wake up well. I have little doubt they dream. Thank you for this Hub!


GiblinGirl profile image

GiblinGirl 2 years ago from New Jersey

Interesting! My dog definitely did this when we first got her and still does it occasionally.


alexadry profile image

alexadry 2 years ago from USA Author

It sure is an interesting topic, wish there were more studies out there, thanks for stopping by!


DDE profile image

DDE 2 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

They are so adorable and and now I know more about the twitching so interesting and informative.


alexadry profile image

alexadry 2 years ago from USA Author

I agree on the cuteness factor. Puppy twitching is an interesting topic.

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