It depends - how heavily pressured is the area for instance?
In areas that are lightly pressured, deer may take 12 to 24 hours before returning to the same area. It also depends on how close they were, did you leave your scent etc. We cleared a half acre for adding some apple trees and set up a game camera - within 8 hours of running chainsaws for 4 hours we had several doe and yearlings in and around the are we just cleared.
If the area is heavily pressured, by people or other hunters, it can seriously disrupt deer patterns. It maybe that they avoid an area for a little while longer. Other times it pushes deer to going nocturnal, when regardless of pressure, most areas can be safer. So the short answer is it depends on a lot of factors.