"electric prods, flank straps, sharpened sticks, spurs and other tack were used to provoke animals into reacting in such a way as to make certain events thrilling for spectators. The officer further noted that guidelines instituted to prevent animal abuse at sanctioned rodeos were paid little heed and calves suffered damage not readily visible such as bruised tracheal cartilage in roping events. All bucking events were found by the Medical Officer to rely on the application of irritants to make the animals "fly" from the chutes. The Medical Officer stated in his summary that in terms of a dictionary definition of cruelty most rodeo events have the potential to cause injury, grief, or pain, and therefore can be considered cruel. Though the Medical Officer did not say that the legal definition of cruelty had been met, he implied that it had been "reached, if not crossed."