Artist Unknown

The Cupola of Genesis (circa 1210) is a mosaic in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy. The work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.
The Cupola of Genesis (circa 1210) is a mosaic in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy. The work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. | Source

Talent Should Not Go Unrecognized

I have written several articles about artists and art museums. While doing the research for one of my Hubs, I noticed that there were quite a few paintings labeled Unknown Artist or Artist Unknown.

This seemed so wrong to me! Some of the paintings had survived many hundreds of years, but the name of the person who had executed the painting had not survived. I wrote an article about paintings by unknown artists, and it was well-received. A few of my readers have asked me to write a sequel. I am very happy to do so.

This article is a bit different than my last one, however. I have learned that not only are there paintings by unknown artists, there are mosaics and beautifully woven and embroidered pieces of cloth by artists whose names have been lost for all time. I hope you enjoy viewing the works I've included in this article as much as I enjoyed discovering them.

What is a mosaic?

A mosaic is an image created from small pieces—tesserae—of ceramic tile, glass, stone, or other materials. The tesserae, which are basically cube-like in shape, are adhered to walls, floors, or ceilings, forming a picture or an intricate design.

The mosaic pictures are not created on flat surfaces—on tables or on the ground—and then lifted up and “glued” into place. They’re created where you see them.

The Cupola of Genesis at the top of this article, for example, was created by an unknown artist lying on his back on scaffolding just below the roof of the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy. Every day for many months—perhaps years—a creative genius cut and adhered tiny pebbles or pieces of stone to the interior of the cupola (domed portion of roof) in the basilica while lying on his back.

I am in awe of the man who, in the year 1210, created this masterpiece. What a shame it is that his name is not known!

Mosaics by Unknown Artists

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Adam and Eve, a mosaic in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy, was created between 1200 and 1250. The work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.This is a detail (portion) of a mosaic called The Visitation. It was created in the 12th century and is located in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy. Madonna and Child, a mosaic outside the walls of the Basilica of St. Paul in Rome, Italy—in the Chapel of the Crucifix—was created in the 13th century.This is a detail (portion) of a mosaic called Last Judgment. It was created in the 13th century and is located in Santa Maria Assunta in Torcello, Italy.This hard stone inlay mosaic of a Sunflower by an unknown artist is currently in the Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, in Florence, Italy.This hard stone inlay mosaic of a Vase of Flowers by an unknown artist is currently in the Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, in Florence, Italy.
Adam and Eve, a mosaic in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy, was created between 1200 and 1250. The work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.
Adam and Eve, a mosaic in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy, was created between 1200 and 1250. The work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. | Source
This is a detail (portion) of a mosaic called The Visitation. It was created in the 12th century and is located in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy.
This is a detail (portion) of a mosaic called The Visitation. It was created in the 12th century and is located in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice, Italy. | Source
Madonna and Child, a mosaic outside the walls of the Basilica of St. Paul in Rome, Italy—in the Chapel of the Crucifix—was created in the 13th century.
Madonna and Child, a mosaic outside the walls of the Basilica of St. Paul in Rome, Italy—in the Chapel of the Crucifix—was created in the 13th century. | Source
This is a detail (portion) of a mosaic called Last Judgment. It was created in the 13th century and is located in Santa Maria Assunta in Torcello, Italy.
This is a detail (portion) of a mosaic called Last Judgment. It was created in the 13th century and is located in Santa Maria Assunta in Torcello, Italy. | Source
This hard stone inlay mosaic of a Sunflower by an unknown artist is currently in the Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, in Florence, Italy.
This hard stone inlay mosaic of a Sunflower by an unknown artist is currently in the Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, in Florence, Italy. | Source
This hard stone inlay mosaic of a Vase of Flowers by an unknown artist is currently in the Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, in Florence, Italy.
This hard stone inlay mosaic of a Vase of Flowers by an unknown artist is currently in the Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, in Florence, Italy. | Source

What is a marriage canopy?

A marriage canopy (chuppah) is a canopy under which a Jewish couple stands during their wedding ceremony. The canopy, which consists of a cloth supported by four poles, symbolizes the home which the newlyweds will build together.

The Jewish Museum in New York City has a beautiful example of a marriage canopy created in 1867 to 1868 by an unknown artist in its collection. The cloth has a silk-satin weave and is embroidered with metallic thread and spangles.

This Marriage Canopy, created in 1867 to 1868, is currently located in the Jewish Museum in New York City. It is in the public domain in the European Union and non-EU countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less.
This Marriage Canopy, created in 1867 to 1868, is currently located in the Jewish Museum in New York City. It is in the public domain in the European Union and non-EU countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. | Source

Paintings by Unknown Artists

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This painting of Karlštejn Castle in the Czech Republic was painted by an unknown artist between 1850 and 1899.This painting of Kalocsa, Hungary was painted by an unknown artist between 1850 and 1899.The portrait of the unknown woman by an unknown artist is thought  to have been painted between 1850 and 1899.This painting of Saint Jerome by an unknown artist is currently in the National Gallery in Prague, Czech Republic.This portrait of Anne Marie d'Orléans (1669-1728) was painted circa 1684 by an unknown artist.An unknown artist painted this portrait of Fortunée d'Este circa 1765.This portrait of Madame de Montespan (1640-1707), currently located in the Palace of Versailles in France, was painted circa 1675.
This painting of Karlštejn Castle in the Czech Republic was painted by an unknown artist between 1850 and 1899.
This painting of Karlštejn Castle in the Czech Republic was painted by an unknown artist between 1850 and 1899. | Source
This painting of Kalocsa, Hungary was painted by an unknown artist between 1850 and 1899.
This painting of Kalocsa, Hungary was painted by an unknown artist between 1850 and 1899. | Source
The portrait of the unknown woman by an unknown artist is thought  to have been painted between 1850 and 1899.
The portrait of the unknown woman by an unknown artist is thought to have been painted between 1850 and 1899. | Source
This painting of Saint Jerome by an unknown artist is currently in the National Gallery in Prague, Czech Republic.
This painting of Saint Jerome by an unknown artist is currently in the National Gallery in Prague, Czech Republic. | Source
This portrait of Anne Marie d'Orléans (1669-1728) was painted circa 1684 by an unknown artist.
This portrait of Anne Marie d'Orléans (1669-1728) was painted circa 1684 by an unknown artist. | Source
An unknown artist painted this portrait of Fortunée d'Este circa 1765.
An unknown artist painted this portrait of Fortunée d'Este circa 1765. | Source
This portrait of Madame de Montespan (1640-1707), currently located in the Palace of Versailles in France, was painted circa 1675.
This portrait of Madame de Montespan (1640-1707), currently located in the Palace of Versailles in France, was painted circa 1675. | Source

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Comments 60 comments

teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 4 years ago

I love the marriage canopy, such a pretty blue pattern design. I also want a mosaic in my home -- probably up by the front door. They are so beautiful. Great post and share on the unkown artist concept.


Jools99 profile image

Jools99 4 years ago from North-East UK

Daisy, fabulous hub and a worthy sequel to the Unknown Artists hub. Those mosaics on the ceiling of the San Marco are so wonderful. it is hard to imagine that nobody has recorded the name of the artist somewhere isn't it? The chuppah is so beautiful. I wonder if families were involved in their design as part of tradition. The one you have featured is a beautiful colour but the embroidery is so detailed and fine.

Great hub, voted up etc and shared.


Janine Huldie profile image

Janine Huldie 4 years ago from New York, New York

Wow, I too loved the marriage canopy and agree with you that it is such a shame that these works and many others never got there full due for the actual artist. Thanks for sharing and I of course voted up a ton and shared all over!!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Dianna (teaches12345),

Thanks for reading my article and being the first person to comment. I appreciate your support of my work.

When I began the research for this article, I expected to showcase paintings by unknown artists. It surprised me to discover the mosaics and marriage canopy


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Julie (jools99),

Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. One would think that somewhere in the records of the Basilica of San Marco there would be mention of the artist who created the Cupola of Genesis.

Perhaps the mosaic was thought to be something created as part of the architecture of the church and not considered a work of art in the year 1210. Perhaps the name of the artist wasn't considered important in the early 13th century.

If the marriage canopy was commissioned by the family, one would think the family would have chosen the colors or requested specific design elements.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Janine,

Thanks for reading my article, commenting in it, and sharing it. I wish I could learn why the names of so many artists have been lost for all time. There hasn't been very much theorizing on the subject.


KrisL profile image

KrisL 4 years ago from S. Florida

Beautiful . . from what I have heard, in the Middle Ages people had a far less individualistic notion of art and "being an artist," especially in religious architecture.

Still, I too would like know the name(s) of those responsible.

As for the chuppah, we may have a case here of the saying, "anonymous was a woman," or maybe a man working for the business that created the beautiful fabric, as this was the 19th century already.

By the way, the final paintings do not all show up quite right in either FireFox or IE 8, so you may want to check them.

Voted "awesome" and shared.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

KrisL,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article, commenting in it, and sharing it.

I'm sorry you had problems viewing the paintings. It's curious you didn't have problems viewing the mosaics. This is the first time anyone has mentioned such a problem.


KrisL profile image

KrisL 4 years ago from S. Florida

You are welcome, Daisy.

It could be that people are so blown away by the mosaics that not so many try to click through the final slide show. :-)


vox vocis profile image

vox vocis 4 years ago

I've never thought about this before. It's surprising how many awesome works are attributed to unknown artists. Loved the paintings, especially the portrait of the unknown woman thought to have been painted between 1850 and 1899 (third painting in the last photo capsule)! Great idea for a hub, voted up!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

KrisL,

Thanks for stopping by again. I appreciate it.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Jasmine (vox vocis),

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my Hub and commenting.

I hadn't realized there were so many paintings without attribution until I began researching material for my art history articles.


K9keystrokes profile image

K9keystrokes 4 years ago from Northern, California

As much as I admire the chuppah you share with us, I am in awe of the mosaic artwork completed in the Basilica. What a dedicated soul it must take to do such masterful work. It is however, kind of sad that this craftsman will go unknown for all time. Very interesting hub! Thank you for bringing us a second installment to your "Artist unknown" series. Sharing, up, and +1!

HubHugs~


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

India (K9keystrokes),

Thanks for reading my article, commenting in it, and giving it a Google +1.

I was surprised at the variety of great art for which the artist is unknown. I was well aware of paintings for which the artist's name had been lost, but the mosaics and the chuppah were a surprise to me.


tillsontitan profile image

tillsontitan 4 years ago from New York

The art portrayed in this hub is beautiful. The painting of the lady in black almost looks like a photograph. Unknown artists are not forgotten as long as we continue to appreciate their art....and hubs like yours!

Voted up, useful, and interesting.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mary (tillsontitan),

Thanks for reading my article, viewing the artwork, and commenting. I very much like what you wrote about the unknown artists...they are not forgotten as long as we continue to appreciate their art.


travmaj profile image

travmaj 4 years ago from australia

Really interesting hub and sad in a way - the artists deserve some accreditation - probably no-one will ever know who they are or the story behind them.


rcrumple profile image

rcrumple 4 years ago from Kentucky

Daisy - A very interesting hub. I've got to go back and see part one of this series, for sure. I'm a big fan of mosaics, especially since being able to see the one inside the Vatican dome through the view ports from the stairway on its outside. The detail from a close up view was unbelievable. It is a great loss that the artists of the works you've shown don't get credit for their efforts, especially as beautiful as they are. Great hub, once again!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

travmaj,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and commenting. With the paintings and mosaics being created so long ago, we'll unfortunately never know who created them.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Rich (rcrumple),

Thanks for reading my article and adding your very interesting comment. As always, I appreciate your support of my work.

How exciting you were able to get such a close-up view of the mosaic inside the Vatican dome! The amount of work which goes into creating a mosaic amazes me. The cupola mosaics are an incredible logistic effort in addition to being an artistic effort.


Life Iz Beautiful profile image

Life Iz Beautiful 4 years ago from India

It is a nice hub Daisy. It is true that some of the perfect works in any field will have an 'unknown' written as their origin.

Many times I wonder whether the souls of these 'unknown' people, whose works we are in awe of, really realize that we are grateful for the brilliant works they have left for us to appreciate?

Very informative hub.

Voted useful

Have a warm day ahead. :)


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Salini (Life Iz Beautiful),

Thanks for reading my article, viewing the works of art, and commenting. You pose any interesting point in your comment. Perhaps, long after they created it, the souls know that their work is appreciated.


Vinaya Ghimire profile image

Vinaya Ghimire 4 years ago from Nepal

Daisy,

Artists pass away but their works remain for posterity. Thanks for this wonderful visual treat.

Cheers


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Vinaya,

Thanks for reading my article, viewing the artwork, and commenting. I appreciate your continued support of my work.


AudreyHowitt profile image

AudreyHowitt 4 years ago from California

I love embroidery. So thank you for including a piece of it in this compilation. Beautiful pieces, all of them!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Audrey,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article, viewing the artwork, and commenting.

The marriage canopy (chuppah) is a beautiful piece of embroidery. I'm so glad it has survived from the 1860s in such great condition.


alocsin profile image

alocsin 4 years ago from Orange County, CA

For the longest time, and even in some cultures today, artists were considered crafters of utilitarian goods, so you would no more credit the making of art with an artist than the making of a horseshoe with a blacksmith. Fortunately, that has changed. Voting this Up and Interesting.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Aurelio (alocsin),

Thanks for reading my article and viewing the artwork. Thanks, too, for your very insightful comment about some artists being, at one time, considered craftspeople of utilitarian goods.


Sherry Hewins profile image

Sherry Hewins 4 years ago from Sierra Foothills, CA

Beautiful, it's sad that the artists of these fine works are unknown, but at least they live on through their work even if their names are unspoken.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Sherry,

Thanks for reading my article, viewing the images, and writing such a beautifully-expressed comment.


Silva Hayes profile image

Silva Hayes 3 years ago from Spicewood, Texas

Perhaps many of those unknown artists would only care that their work lived on. One of the things I love about mosaics; especially the indoor ones; they last forever. That marriage canopy is gorgeous and I never knew they existed. Your hub is excellent and inspiring. I voted Up. Thank you.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Silva,

It's nice to meet you. Thanks for reading my article and adding your insightful comment.

Thanks, too, for your kind words about my Hub. I appreciate it.


joanveronica profile image

joanveronica 3 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

Hi there, what a beautiful collection you have chosen! It's wonderful to think that although we can't identify the creators, their works of art are being preserved with care! Voted up, awesome, beautiful and interesting. Also shared.


Mike Robbers profile image

Mike Robbers 3 years ago from London

Extremely interesting subject. It actually makes me a bit... nervous that probably we will never know their names. What a pity eh?


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Joan (joanveronica),

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. Thanks, too, for sharing my Hub.

When I was looking for photographs to use in one of my other articles, I began noticing how many works of art there were for which the name of the artist had been lost.

This is the second article I've written on the subject. After I published "Unknown Artists," some of my readers asked me to write a sequel.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mike,

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. Thanks, too, for tweeting my Hub.

It is a pity that there are so many works of art for whom we will never know the name of the artist. Many of the paintings and mosaics were created for royalty or a church. I guess the people who requested that the pieces be created didn't place importance on the names of the creators.


DDE profile image

DDE 3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

A very interesting write up about unknown artist and lovely photos, art is widely appreciated and will always be for the unique features, or idea.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Devika (DDE),

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. It's a shame that we don't know the names of the artists I have showcased in my Hub, but we can still admire their creations.


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 3 years ago from England

The marriage canopy was lovely but it was such a shame that those amazing paintings were anonymous. just think, they may have been as famous as Van Gogh if only they had names on them, they are beautiful, voted and shared! nell


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Nell,

Thanks for reading my article, commenting in it, and sharing it.

The artists who painted royalty were probably considered "craftsmen," rather than artists, by the members of the royal family. I would imagine there was a similar sentiment regarding the artists who created the wonderful church mosaics.


mary615 profile image

mary615 3 years ago from Florida

Yes, it is shame these artists remain "unknown". On the few pieces I have painted and gifted, I have always signed them. Who knows?? Someday I may be a famous painter??

Voted UP and shared.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mary (mary615),

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. Thanks, too, for sharing my Hub.

The artistic geniuses who created these pieces probably didn't have the freedom of signing the pieces. They didn't create the pieces and then sell them to the church or the members of a royal family. They "worked for" the church or the royal family. They never owned the beautiful pieces they created.


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 3 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia

This is a strikingly beautiful and creative essay. Just wonderful work and such a pleasure to ponder. How tragic that the artists names were lost or never recorded, but I am not surprised.

I teach European history and every year I tell my students that the practice of painting or inscribing one's name on one's work was very little practiced until the Renaissance, because all work was to glorify God (maybe Kings) but not the artist. They were simply the craftsman.

One of the things many of us forget is that the Renaissance brought all kinds of changes -- in ideas, how people saw themselves, whether they claimed their own creativity, etc. Your last comment above speaks to the traditions that were common at the time.

Absolutely wonderful Hub. Sharing. :)


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Theresa (phdast7),

It's nice to meet you. Thanks for reading my article and adding your insightful comment. If you have time, you might like to read my other article dealing with this subject, Unknown Artists.


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 3 years ago from England

I just had to come back and read this again. Its such a shame that these paintings are unknown, or should I say the artist is unknown, with this much talent it's a shame they will never be recognised. Hub shared and tweeted, nell


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Nell,

Thanks for visiting again. Thanks, too, for sharing and tweeting my Hub.

I would imagine that the reason most of the artists are unknown is because they painted for the court (royalty) or the church.


sparkster profile image

sparkster 3 years ago from United Kingdom

Excellent hub. I agree with Nell, it's a shame the artists won't get the credit they deserve. I'm wondering if they ever did?


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

sparkster,

It's nice to meet you. Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment.

I doubt that many of the creators of these pieces ever received public praise for their work or were even named. The artists were employed by royalty or the church. They were considered craftsmen rather than artists.


alkanarula profile image

alkanarula 2 years ago from INDIA

I loved the mosaic of Basilica and the water colors...but as rigtly expressed . its a shame that we don't know who the creators are of such wonderful artwork ...nice article Daisy


manatita44 profile image

manatita44 2 years ago from london

They are incredible! Voted 'beautiful' and 'awesome.' Some artist of the past were spiritually advanced. They did not care for name and fame. Others simply did not present their work or were not fortunate to get into the limelight.

My teacher once told me of a story of a scholar who did a very great work. One day he was talking to his friend - a spiritual man - who had done the same work. He looked at it and began to cry.

"What is the matter?" Said his friend.

"I am crying, he said, because your work is so much better than mine." Whereupon the saint threw the piece into the sea, never to be seen again. This immortal piece was lost forever all because of his sacrifice to keep his friend happy. Still, it great to see all these great treasures and with a name where possible, I agree.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Alka,

Thank you for reading my article and posting your comment. It takes a lot of patience to create mosaics. Even if I had the skill, I'm not certain I would want to spend that much time on one artistic piece.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Manatita,

It's nice to meet you. Thank you for reading my article and adding your comment.


Vellur profile image

Vellur 2 years ago from Dubai

Beautiful works of art and it is very sad that know one knows the name of these artists. Great hub.


mary615 profile image

mary615 2 years ago from Florida

I just had to come back and reread your Hub, and to look again at these beautiful creations.

Voted Up, etc. and share.


whonunuwho profile image

whonunuwho 2 years ago from United States

Very beautiful and well done my friend. whonu


tillsontitan profile image

tillsontitan 2 years ago from New York

Stopped by again to revisit the beauty.

Voted up, useful, awesome, and interesting.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mary (mary615),

Thanks for reading my article another time and posting your comment. Thanks, too, for sharing my Hub.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

whonu,

Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. I've published another Hub dealing with this subject. I hope you have any opportunity to read that one, too.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mary (tillsontitan),

Thanks for returning to read my article another time. I appreciate it.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Nithya (Vellur),

Thanks for reading my article. I appreciate your continued support of my writing.

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