Baroque

Baroque Art

Baroque is a term generally accepted to describe the paintings of the 17th Century, as well as the architecture, sculpture and music. Baroque Art was originally a pejorative term meaning 'irregular.' Today, we look back on the 17th Century as a Golden Age of Art for The Netherlands, France and Spain. In this Hub, we will look at paintings from the Baroque Period, and the artists who painted them.

Caravaggio "Rest on the Flight into Egypt" 1597; Doria Pampilj Gallery, Rome
Caravaggio "Rest on the Flight into Egypt" 1597; Doria Pampilj Gallery, Rome
"Chalk portrait of Caravaggio" 1621 By Ottavio Leoni; Kimbell Art Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas
"Chalk portrait of Caravaggio" 1621 By Ottavio Leoni; Kimbell Art Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio (1571-1610) is a painter of genius from Milan, Italy.  Breaking from the idealization of the past, he painted ordinary people in sacred scenes.  Caravaggio was a controversial fellow who had trouble with the police most of his life, was imprisoned many times, and once killed a man in a duel.  His mastery of light and dark would influence artists for decades.  Caravaggio died of malaria. 

Caravaggio "Supper at Emmaus" 1601; The National Gallery, London
Caravaggio "Supper at Emmaus" 1601; The National Gallery, London
"Rubens"  Etching by Wenzel Hollar 1619; University of Toronto
"Rubens" Etching by Wenzel Hollar 1619; University of Toronto

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) is the great Flemish painter of Baroque Art.  Known as a virtuous Christian man of the highest character and intelligence, he seemingly had no limits as to what he could paint due to enormous ability.  Rubens was influenced immensely by the Italian painting traditions.  His paintings seem alive and glow with sensuous color.

Peter Paul Rubens "Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Lerma" 1603; Prado, Madrid
Peter Paul Rubens "Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Lerma" 1603; Prado, Madrid
Peter Paul Rubens "Massacre of the Innocents" 1612; Art Gallery of Ontario
Peter Paul Rubens "Massacre of the Innocents" 1612; Art Gallery of Ontario
Peter Paul Rubens "Mars and Rhea Silvia" 1617; Liechtenstein Museum
Peter Paul Rubens "Mars and Rhea Silvia" 1617; Liechtenstein Museum

Hendrick Terbrugghen

Hendrick Terbrugghen (1588-1629) is a Dutch follower of Caravaggio from Utrecht. One can see the strong emotional and social realism in his work. Hendrick Terbrugghen would influence many of the Dutch masters. While his name does not carry the prestige of the others on this page, I am fond of this specific painting, therefore his inclusion here.

Hendrick Terbrugghen "The Calling of St. Matthew" 1621; Centraal Museum, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Hendrick Terbrugghen "The Calling of St. Matthew" 1621; Centraal Museum, Utrecht, The Netherlands
CLAUDE LORRAIN
CLAUDE LORRAIN

Claude Lorrain

Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) was born into poverty in Champagne, France, but spent most of his life in Rome. He is famous in Baroque Art for virtually reinventing landscape painting, utilizing his amazing powers of observation. Claude Lorrain widely influenced subsequent landscape painting in Europe and America. His aim was not topographical accuracy but to convey the essence of a landscape.

Claude Lorrain "Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba" 1648; The National Gallery, London
Claude Lorrain "Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba" 1648; The National Gallery, London

VELAZQUEZ

Velazquez (1599-1660) is of Portuguese descent but was born in Seville, Spain.  He lived the majority of his days in Madrid, painting the royal family for King Philip IV.   Velazquez was hailed as a genius by his 20th birthday.  He was fascinated with the fleeting effects of light.  Velazquez is recognized today as the master illusionist of Baroque Art, who approached painting as a noble profession. 

Velazquez "The Maids of Honour" 1656; Prado, Madrid (The artist himself is on your left)
Velazquez "The Maids of Honour" 1656; Prado, Madrid (The artist himself is on your left)

VERMEER

Vermeer (1632-1675) is a painter of Baroque Art whose work is hard to describe and even harder to forget. He was forgotten by the art world for 200 years before being "discovered" late in the 19th Century. Vermeer created perfect paintings that are truly unique. He is the master of light—used to symbolically express his beliefs.

Vermeer "View on Delft" 1661; Royal Picture Gallery, The Hague, The Netherlands
Vermeer "View on Delft" 1661; Royal Picture Gallery, The Hague, The Netherlands

Aelbert Cuyp

Aelbert Cuyp (1620-1691) is a master landscape painter of Baroque Art from Holland.   His family were all artists and wealthy.  Cuyp portrayed radiant light to create poetic atmospheres in his landscapes.  He was also an excellent draftsman and that is apparent in his compositional structures.  The majority of Cuyp's paintings are in England, where he was most popular. 

Aelbert Cuyp "The Volkhof at Nijmegen" 1665; Indianapolis Museum of Art
Aelbert Cuyp "The Volkhof at Nijmegen" 1665; Indianapolis Museum of Art
Jan Steen "Self Portrait" 1670; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Jan Steen "Self Portrait" 1670; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Jan Steen

Jan Steen (1626-1679) is a Dutch genre painter of Baroque Art.  He also owned a tavern and a brewery, which helps explain his keen insights into ordinary daily life of his day. Steen is a master storyteller with a grand sense of humor. But if you look closely, there is a moral to the story. Steen is known to have used his own family as models, and he left behind over 800 paintings.

Jan Steen "The Dancing Couple" 1663; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Jan Steen "The Dancing Couple" 1663; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Jan Steen "The Merry Family" 1668; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Jan Steen "The Merry Family" 1668; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Murillo "Self Portrait" 1671; The National Gallery, London
Murillo "Self Portrait" 1671; The National Gallery, London

MURILLO

Murillo (1617-1682) is an eminent figure in Baroque Art.  He was from Seville and also lived in Madrid for five years.  Murillo was the most famous Spanish artist in the world until the popularity of Velazquez eclipsed his in the 19th Century.  He was an extraordinary painter of people, particularly women and children, showing an unusual depth of warmth and expressiveness in faces. 

Murillo "Virgin and Child" 1677; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Murillo "Virgin and Child" 1677; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

More Art Hubs

It is notable that I did not include Rembrandt, the greatest of all Baroque painters. I have previously published a Hub only about his art: Rembrandt

I have also published many other Hubs about Art, including:

Impressionism Art

Photographic Art

Beauty is the purpose of Art

More by this Author

  • Beauty is the purpose of Art
    71

    Assumption of the Virgin 1518 I want share some of the paintings in my home and here are a few examples. They are all copies, of course. Above is a photo of one of my favorite paintings, which is a replica of an...

  • Renaissance Paintings
    48

    Renaissance Paintings, Fine Arts, come and enjoy magnificent paintings, brief bios of Giotto, van Eyck, Botticelli, Durer, Bosch, Raphael, El Greco, Caravaggio, Velazquez, Rubens, Vermeer, Delacroix.

  • The Founding Fathers
    287

    George Washington relinquished near-absolute political power when equally ambitious but less principled men would have reached for more. He was the epitome of gravity, propriety, patriotism, and patient virtue....


Comments 76 comments

Hello, hello, profile image

Hello, hello, 6 years ago from London, UK

Hello, James, thank you so very much for bringing these master and masterpieces to our attention. They really are master pieces.


Pamela99 profile image

Pamela99 6 years ago from United States

James, the art is beautiful. I wasn't familiar with some of those artist so it was nice to read the information about the artist while viewing his masterpieces. Thanks.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Hello, hello,— Thank you for being my first visitor!! You are surely welcome. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Pamela99— Thank you so much for viewing my hand-picked gallery. And you are surely welcome


Lisa Luv profile image

Lisa Luv 6 years ago from Conneticut, USA

Wow James--talk about catching us up in art history and the visuals really aided me--(you know how I am) smile, I love articles like this. Thank you so much..Lisa


cr8ve1 profile image

cr8ve1 6 years ago

James...this was fantastic! I only recognized two though...guess I need to read up on more of these artists! lol Thanks for sharing this and showing me what I still have to learn about art and artists!! Great article!


Tom Whitworth profile image

Tom Whitworth 6 years ago from Moundsville, WV

James,

I think this art is beautiful. Why was the term Baroque considerered a pejorative? What is the irregularity of this art?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Lisa Luv— I am well pleased that you have visited and let me know how much you enjoyed this Hub. You are most welcome, Lisa.

James


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

cr8ve1— Thank you! I love this period of the history of painting. Rubens, Murillo, Steen, Caravaggio. What awesome talent these men displayed. Thanks for coming and leaving your kind comments. And you are welcome.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Tom Whitworth— I do too, Tom. It is hard to figure what people were thinking. Apparently, this art was more decorative and flamboyant that what the critics were used to. Also, the use of regular street people was shocking to the sensibilities of the day, versus a more idealized picture of beauty in the Renaissance.


ethel smith profile image

ethel smith 6 years ago from Kingston-Upon-Hull

Such lovely works of art especially caravaggio


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ethel smith— Yes, he was a genius. Thank you for visiting and your comments. :)


JimLow 6 years ago

Exquisitely beautiful art!

It amazes me to see such amazing works by the hands of men. It truly is a God-given talent.


Kaie Arwen profile image

Kaie Arwen 6 years ago

I saw the "Massacre of the Innocents" at the gallery in Toronto while on a hockey trip with my children some years back, and yes, most every one of those trips included culture/ history of some kind. Love those rinks, but admittedly the boys didn't always love my field trips!

I remember this painting in particular because it was so graphic, and I remember the docent telling me that at one time the work was attributed to someone else. Rubens did two versions of this painting correct? I've never seen the other, and hadn't thought about it in ages, but may have to do some looking.

Thanks for another stroll through the Watkins Institute........... always a pleasure.


ArchDynamics profile image

ArchDynamics 6 years ago from Orlando, FL

King James:

Another delightful Hub - all the more so with the visual feast of exceptional art.

You can view full-color photos of all of Brugghen's paintings here http://www.hendrickbrugghen.org/

The use of light and contrast during this period is just exceptional. You can see this style reflected in artists as varied as Maxwell Parish and Frank Frazetta.

I love your Hubs about art - it's like being back in school but fun. Not to mention the girls in this class are pretty hot.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

JimLow— Hey Jim! Thanks for coming. You know I agree with your comments. And I appreciate them.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kaie Arwen— I would love to see that painting. I was not aware that Rubens painted two of them, but I was aware that it was recently discovered to be one of his. The Watkins Institute! I like that. I'm doing what I can to spread beauty throughout the world. :-)

Thank you for coming by and leaving your lovely comments.


ArchDynamics profile image

ArchDynamics 6 years ago from Orlando, FL

oops ... 'Maxfield Parrish', Ay yi yi.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ArchDynamics— Thanks for coming, brother. It's always a bit quiet on Saturday night. But I've been working all day on a blockbuster you'll like.

That's a cool web site. Thanks for that link. The girls in art class are hot! I love it.


jiberish profile image

jiberish 6 years ago from florida

It's funny you should write about art, we must think alike. Thursday I took my daughter to the Cummer Museum. She was two weeks past due from having my grandson so we decided to walk around. She was so fascinated, this time she stopped to read each narration under the art..She has grown into a woman and I became a grandmother on Friday. The first time we visited was 9 years ago, and she was far less interested. It was pleasant to see her interests have changed. Fascinating Hub as always.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

jiberish— Must be that walking that did the trick! Congratulations on the grandson. I haven't been to the Cummer. That's in Jax, right? I'll have to get up there and check it out. It is great to watch your children grow isn't it? That is a joy.

Thanks for coming and the interesting comments are always eagerly awaited.


Kaie Arwen profile image

Kaie Arwen 6 years ago

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rubens_kindermor...

This was the only link I could find for the other painting, and I have to tell you I'm not a big fan of wikipedia. We tell the kids they CANNOT use it as a resource for school. The painting you've shown here is powerful, very graphic, and we were very lucky to see it shortly after its arrival to the museum. Well, at least I thought I was lucky.......... my son may appreciate it someday.

I will look forward to the next tour


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kaie Arwen— Is that a Welsh name?

I see what you mean about the two paintings. I like the one in Toronto better. Thanks for coming back with the additional info.


Paraglider profile image

Paraglider 6 years ago from Kyle, Scotland

I still think that Caravaggio and Vermeer are supreme, though different, in sheer technique. Caravaggio's chiaroscuro approach throws the attention exactly where he wants it, while with Vermeer, every detail of his paintings stands scrutiny.

Interesting that baroque means irregular; I'd always assumed it meant ornate, as with all the very stylised ornamentations and graces used in baroque music.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Paraglider— Thank you very much for coming. I know you have a sharp eye for art and artists. I agree with your choices. Those two are extraordinary. Chiaroscuro. I had forgotten that word. Good one! The Emmaus painting is the best example of artistic genius on this page, in my opinion.


Kaie Arwen profile image

Kaie Arwen 6 years ago

The name is Celtic, but the ancestor was from Strathclyde in Scotland; ironically it was a Welsh speaking area, and I believe it is the Welsh spelling of the name.

When we study the Scots/ Irish migration in school, I tell the kids to picture me in the Appalachian Mountains making whiskey with my great-great-great grandfather; one of them once told me they'd have an easier time seeing me on a front porch in a rocking chair, surrounded by my dogs, and holding a shotgun. It's amazing how they see me sometimes!


dusanotes profile image

dusanotes 6 years ago from Windermere, FL

James, all I can say is "magnificent."

Don White


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kaie Arwen— I am largely of Welsh descent. That's what made me wonder. I thought it looked like a Welsh name. So, they see you in a rocking chair with a shotgun surrounded by dogs? Well, that's a picture isn't it? :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

dusanotes— Don, thank you for that. And I'll say "indeed."

James A Watkins


Kaie Arwen profile image

Kaie Arwen 6 years ago

yeah, they think I'm really tough (ha, ha) ........... and most are scared to death of my dogs. My grandmother was Welsh........ I guess I'm just kind of a mutt.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kaie Arwen— They say mutts have the best temperament. :-)

I was just perusing your profile. I'm gonna mosey over and check out your "limbo" story tonight or tomorrow.


GPAGE profile image

GPAGE 6 years ago from California

JAMES! Thank you again for a great art lesson! The "Seaport" painting by Claude Lorrain is "stunning!" I got a kick out of "The Merry Family" by Jan Steen and I'm in love with the Vermeer painting. I sometimes wish I could just walk into a painting and be there! Exactly how it looks, even for a second so I can take in the whole place. Beautiful work here and "thank you" for writing about a fave subject of mine! G


Nemingha profile image

Nemingha 6 years ago

I'm a big fan of Murillo but unfortunately the prints I had of some of his works were destroyed during an earthquake many years ago. Great work putting this piece together.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

GPAGE! You are surely welcome, dear. I loved that "Seaport" as well. It's kind of dark and mysterious. The pieces by Steen are favorites of mine. They are so amusing and so capturing of the social milieu of his day. Vermeer, well, what can we say. The guy could paint. Thank you for your always interesting comments. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Nemingha— Earthquake? Where do you live? I thought it was Australia?

I love that Murillo. Of all these, I think it the most beautiful. I'm sorry you lost your prints. That must hurt. Thank you for coming by and leaving your compliments.


GRivers 6 years ago

Thanks for sharing! Beautiful art! Lovely.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

GRivers— Thank you for saying so. You are most welcome. I appreciate this visit.


Kebennett1 profile image

Kebennett1 6 years ago from San Bernardino County, California

James, I am always exhilarated by your magnificent Art choices. The Artists you choose to share with us are perfect choices of Masters in their style and period. Your research is awesome. Thanks for the eye-candy and knowledge! You never disappoint me :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kebennett1— I'm sure glad you're back from vacation. I've missed your support. I appreciate your laudatory remarks. I am so pleased you enjoyed this gallery. You are welcome.


Jane Grey profile image

Jane Grey 6 years ago from Oregon

I must add my laud to this hub of yours as well! The collection you showcased is exquisite, and your summaries of the artists' lives informative. I appreciated your comments on light and dark as reflecting spiritual themes; it is something the postmodern artists of our culture haven't quite captured as well, since there isn't as much of a dichotomy between good and evil in their minds. Thank you for bringing back these sacred treasures!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Jane Grey— I confess I am not a fan of postmodern art. But I love the Baroque. And I'm glad you do too. I'm very pleased that you are back with us on HubPages. Your writing is deep and fine. Thank you for your excellent comments and you are surely welcome.


prettydarkhorse profile image

prettydarkhorse 6 years ago from US

Hi, The Renaissance period in the history of mankind produced maginificent art indeed, I am only familiar with Caravaggio. As usual you did a good job in introducing us to the other artists during that time...I dont know if their arts are displayed at The Louvre? Thanks, Maita


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

prettydarkhouse— Oddly enough, none of these selections are in the Louvre. I have been to the Louvre. And I have had previous Hubs that featured art that is in that premier museum. The caption of each painting featured here includes the museum where it can be seen today. 3 are in London; 2 each in Amsterdam and Madrid; and the others scattered about.

Thank you for your comments and you are welcome. It is always a pleasure to see your face and read your thoughts. :)


Truth From Truth profile image

Truth From Truth 6 years ago from Michigan

Thanks , I learned much from this hub. The art was Spectacular.


Frecklepants profile image

Frecklepants 6 years ago from Never-Never Land

Beautiful! I truly believe each individual interprets something different from each piece, but when you really examine them its almost as if you can feel the emotions of each artist as the masterpiece was created. Breathtaking!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Truth From Truth— You're welcome. This is one of my favorite centuries for painting. The art is truly spectacular. Thanks for letting me know you enjoyed it.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Frecklepants— Welcome to HubPages! Yes, I agree. Individual interpretation is a big part of the art experience. A great artist will do just that: convey what they are feeling through their creativity. Well put! Thanks for coming and your fine comments.


Kebennett1 profile image

Kebennett1 6 years ago from San Bernardino County, California

James, Thank you, it is nice to be missed!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kebennett1— You are welcome. I always enjoy your writings.


ftgfmom 6 years ago

Thank you for sharing. I liked the Maids of Honour the best. They were all beautiful.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ftgfmom— Where have you been, mom? I am so pleased to see you here. You are welcome and thank you for brightening up my evening.


ftgfmom 6 years ago

Lightning hit my computer. I'm at Myrtle Beach for Thanksgiving, I'm on my sister-in-laws computer. Thought I would try to catch up on a little reading. Hope you had a wonderful Thanksgiving.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ftgfmom— Well, I sure thank you for checking in with me. Happy Thanksgiving to you!


brianjohnson951 profile image

brianjohnson951 6 years ago

Have you try to listen to the musis from that period, which include Bach.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

brianjohnson951— Welcome to the Hub Pages Community. Oh yes, I have listened to much Bach. I am a musician, too. Thank you for your question.


RKHenry profile image

RKHenry 6 years ago from Your neighborhood museum

Bravo!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

RKHenry— Coming from an art connoisseur such as you your comment is most gratifying. Thanks for coming. I'm huge Hendrix fan by the way.


Teresa 6 years ago

Hi, I was looking for paintings in the Baroque time period to do a project for school and stumbled across this.. I like your taste, the works are beautiful. Terbbrugen is a favorite of mine and I hadn't seen the piece you put up until now. Thankyou!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Teresa--- I am glad I might be of service. Thank you for the compliments and you are welcome. I am further pleased that I could provide an introduction to Terbbrugen.


Nicks 6 years ago

Nice one, James. The Vermeer is gorgeous and Velazquez always terrific. A great time, indeed, that also produced some fabulous music and some extraordinarily flamboyant buildings. It always seems (if you had money, no doubt) as if it was an age of fun and flamboyance. Rather attractive...


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Nicks--- Thank you for coming by and leaving your comments. The two "Vs" are tremendous artists, no doubt. I find the art of this period to be quite beautiful. The music and architecture was stunning, too.


Mystique1957 profile image

Mystique1957 6 years ago from Caracas-Venezuela

James...

I have delighted myself fully by watching this hub. I have always loved Baroque, very especially the music! Not belittling its Architecture and Paintings. Velazquez and Rubens are among my favorites and Baroque music played in any type of keyboards and Lute fascinate me!

Wonderful piece of History!

Thumbs up!

warmest regards and blessings,

Al


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Mystique1957--- I am so glad that you enjoyed it. I love the paintings of this period. And some of the music. I am a big fan of Rubens, in particular. I sincerely appreciate the compliments, the regards, and the blessings, Al.

James


europewalker profile image

europewalker 6 years ago

Love your art hubs. I was in an arty mood and came across your hubs. Takes me back to my visits to Europe and visiting art museums. Really nice hubs.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

europewalker--- Thank you so much. The art museums in Europe are priceless and a great joy to visit. Thanks for coming by and leaving your nice compliments.


stars439 profile image

stars439 6 years ago from Louisiana, The Magnolia and Pelican State.

Very lovely art. Photographs are beyond words. The hub is marvelous. God Bless You. Wonderful art style.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

stars439— Thank you! Thank you very much, my friend. I am glad you appreciate this gallery. The paintings are quite beautiful indeed.


thinkbefore profile image

thinkbefore 6 years ago

You gave a galley of beautiful paintings. Thanks!

I am writing because maybe you've heard the news: They might have discovered a new painting by Caravaggio. Since you wrote a buh on the Baroque, I am interested in what you think, especially with respect to authenticity. Some think the newly discovered painting is not his. For more infos, I've just written a hub on the topic

http://hubpages.com/art/New-Caravaggio


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

thinkbefore— I will come over and check out your above referenced Hub. I had not heard of a possible new Caravaggio. Thanks for the info. I appreciate this visit and you are welcome, too.


rembrandz profile image

rembrandz 5 years ago from Dubai Media City

Hi there

I enjoyed reading your hub. Always am interested in reading about the great artists as I was am a self-taught artist. Great hub!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

rembrandz— Hello! I am glad you enjoyed my Hub. Thank you for visiting and for your kind compliments. I will come over soon to check out your Hubs. :-)


shahneela ch 4 years ago

soooooooooooooooooooooo much interestinggggggggggggggg


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

shahneela ch— Thank you! Thank you very much. :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

JatAstera— Thank you very much for your comments. I appreciate the visit to my Hub. I hope you enjoyed the beautiful artworks.


Nhung Nguyen profile image

Nhung Nguyen 14 months ago from Vietnam

Interesting article !


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 14 months ago from Chicago Author

Nhung Nguyen~ Thank you very much!

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working