The Mask Makers of Himachal Pradesh

The Silver Mask of the Goddess at Mandi
The Silver Mask of the Goddess at Mandi | Source

Introduction

The folk arts are symbols of civilization. They represent the skill of the people to create beauty and excellence from the available natural resources. The art of mask making is an expression of rhythms of day to day existence. The masks represent the emotion and imagination of the artists. Passed on from generation to generation, the folk arts are the true form of legacy of our ancient culture.

The deep rooted sense of devotion to local gods like Grama devta or village deity and Kula devta or family deity has compelled the artists to continue the tradition on mask making with the missionary zeal.

The masks are commonly made for religious purpose to be put inside the temples. The other customers were the rich people.

The mask of the gods and goddess adorn the entrance of the village houses to keep away the ill luck and ghosts.

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The mask of the goddess adorn the entrance of a houseGoddesses Durga and Kali mask
The mask of the goddess adorn the entrance of a house
The mask of the goddess adorn the entrance of a house | Source
Goddesses Durga and Kali mask
Goddesses Durga and Kali mask | Source

Types of Masks

In Himachal Pradesh the traditional masks of seetu or lion, braktoo or leopard, deities, demons, Dharamraj or god of death, Bajrapani. Padamsambhava etc. are predominantly used in numerous performing arts. These arts include the Chham or devil dance of Buddhists and the folk theatres like Swang, Karyala, Dhuria swang etc. The masks are also used in fairs and festivals like Shyala, Naranattar, Deothan, Nirsu, Hinger, Bhuda Chhango and Padeyie.

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Wooden Mask of early 20th Century,  Size-7.5 inch by 11 inchHimalayan Mask  Wood with pigments and wear 8 1/4" high x 6 1/2" wide Early 20th century
Wooden Mask of early 20th Century,  Size-7.5 inch by 11 inch
Wooden Mask of early 20th Century, Size-7.5 inch by 11 inch | Source
Himalayan Mask  Wood with pigments and wear 8 1/4" high x 6 1/2" wide Early 20th century
Himalayan Mask Wood with pigments and wear 8 1/4" high x 6 1/2" wide Early 20th century | Source
Wooden mask, Himachal Pradesh
Wooden mask, Himachal Pradesh | Source

Masks of Kullu

In Kullu valley, it is obligatory on the part of the artist engaged in making masks to impart training to at least one member of their family. Inheritance of traditional art has been considered as fulfillment of the will of god. But this nourishing of legacy has helped in continual of the traditional art.

During the festival and religious ceremonies the masks of deities representing the idol of god and goddesses are installed at different places of worship. It is due to the reason that it is difficult to carry the original idols during religious processions. Some of the masks of deities date back to 12th century or before.

The masks are used in traditional Fagli dance of Kullu. The masks are termed as Mandialye, Dhalyare and Reeshe.

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Wooden MaskCarved Wooden mask of 19th Century
Wooden Mask
Wooden Mask | Source
Carved Wooden mask of 19th Century
Carved Wooden mask of 19th Century | Source

Masks of Rampur

In Rampur Bashar, the wooden masks in folk styles in the temple of Dattatreya at Dattanagar are used by the villagers in the plays, which are performed three days after the Baisakhi festival.

The play depicts the victory of gods over demons signifying the victory of good over evil.

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Ritual Mask In HimachalCeremonial dance mask made of cedar  wood in Kulu valle of Himachal Pradesh.
Ritual Mask In Himachal
Ritual Mask In Himachal | Source
Ceremonial dance mask made of cedar  wood in Kulu valle of Himachal Pradesh.
Ceremonial dance mask made of cedar wood in Kulu valle of Himachal Pradesh. | Source
Tribal mask in Himachal Pradesh
Tribal mask in Himachal Pradesh | Source

Masks of Sirmour

In Sirmour the masks are very popular.

These are used in folk dances on occasions like Diwali or community dance at temples on religious occasions etc.

The masks in Sirmour are generally made of khal or skin and aluminum.

The skin of goat, Himalayan ghoral or wild goat and other animals is used in mask making.

These masks are termed as Moohre in Sirmour in local dialect.

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The Wooden Mask A Tibetan Buddhist monk from the Sherbling Monastery in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh,Ritual mask of 19th century in Himachal Pradesh
The Wooden Mask
The Wooden Mask | Source
A Tibetan Buddhist monk from the Sherbling Monastery in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh,
A Tibetan Buddhist monk from the Sherbling Monastery in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, | Source
Ritual mask of 19th century in Himachal Pradesh
Ritual mask of 19th century in Himachal Pradesh | Source
Indian monkey mask  made of wood. Dimensions 11 inches, 28 cm.
Indian monkey mask made of wood. Dimensions 11 inches, 28 cm. | Source

Masks of Kinnaur

The white metal masks are popular in Kullu valley.

The wooden and terracotta masks are commonly used in Kinnaur.

These masks are termed as Bugg in Kinnaur.

The preparation of raw material for terracotta in some parts of Kinnaur is peculiar.

It is a manifestation of the religious leanings of lamas or Buddhist monks.

The herbs like chandan or sandalwood, resin, akhrot or walnut, heera- moti or diamonds – pearls and several costly ingredients are grinded and mixed with clay.

Conclusion

The art of mask making is gradually vanishing in Himachal Pradesh. A workshop of traditional mask making was organized at Shimla in collaboration with the Department of Language Art and Culture Himachal Pradesh and the West Zone Cultural Centre Udaipur to popularize or revive the art. This workshop was the first of its kind in India. It was a concerted effort to revive the centuries old folk craft and thereby to ensure its protection and propagation. The mask making artists have fallen in bad days, without adequate patronage by the people and the state.

The first museum of masks in the country has come up at Udaipur in Rajasthan under the aegis of West Zone Cultural Centre. The center has set up a shilpa grama or art village near Udaipur. The concept of art village is a unique experiment and envisages conversing and promoting the rural folk arts of India. Besides mask museums the horse puppet and terracotta museums have also been established in Udaipur.

The Metal Mask
The Metal Mask | Source

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4 comments

SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile image

SANJAY LAKHANPAL 2 years ago from Mandi (HP) India Author

Thanks thomdrilling for the visit and the comment.


thomdrilling profile image

thomdrilling 2 years ago

Interesting article, thanks for sharing Sanjay


SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile image

SANJAY LAKHANPAL 2 years ago from Mandi (HP) India Author

Thanks srsddn for the visit and the comment. Indeed, Himachal Pradesh is a beautiful land with its own culture and traditions. The centuries of isolation has given the people a chance to develop their innate qualities and a taste for aesthetic pursuits.


srsddn profile image

srsddn 2 years ago from Dehra Dun, India

Sanjay, it is interesting to know about mask makers of Himachal Pradesh. It seems each area has maintained its traditions and originality. I have seen some devtas procession during Kullu festivals. The involvement of the people participating in the Rath Yatra with devtas was amazing. During such times one comes to know about the richness of a culture and the traditions which people have been following since centuries. Thanks for sharing this beautiful Hub. Voted up, useful and interesting.

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