Bamboo Paintings of East Asia

"Stalks of Bamboo by a Rock" (1347) by Wu Zhen (1280-1354).
"Stalks of Bamboo by a Rock" (1347) by Wu Zhen (1280-1354). | Source

Welcome!

For anyone who is familiar with east Asian art, one of the most familiar motifs is bamboo. Bamboo scroll paintings, door panels, and more have been painted by Asian painters for many centuries. It is one of the most common and simplest subjects of Chinese brush painting and Japanese sumi-e (ink painting). Bamboo stalks have been painted and written by all kinds of people ranging from schoolchildren to world-famous artists for many centuries.

It is one of the most common plants in all of Asia that has many uses. It also has a simplistic beauty that makes it appealing in artwork. Images of bamboo blossoms, bamboo blowing in the wind, and more are always beautiful and relaxing to look at.

Bamboo paintings have a long history in Asia and much deeper meanings than most people realize. What are the meanings behind some of these paintings? Who are some of the famous artists from ancient times who painted bamboo? That and much more will be explored in this hub. So please, read on and enjoy!

Bamboo in Asia

Bamboo is one of the most common plants to be found in Asia. It can be found growing across the eastern and southern regions of the continent, including four of the countries that are most famous for bamboo art: China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

Bamboo is a grass that is very sturdy yet flexible. It grows all year round, blossoms rarely, and can withstand some of the worst weather Mother Nature can throw at it. If cut down, it grows back very rapidly. In China, bamboo is, along with pine trees and plum blossoms, known as one of the "Three Friends of Winter" (岁寒三友). These three plants can withstand the harshest of winters and blossom or stay evergreen throughout the winter season.

Bamboo has a wide variety of uses in the countries where it goes, which include housing materials, food and eating utensils, paper, weaponry, and more.

Painting by an unknown artist of a Chinese sage contemplating bamboo.
Painting by an unknown artist of a Chinese sage contemplating bamboo. | Source

The Meaning of the Bamboo Painting

In ancient China, bamboo represented the Confucian value of moral virtue. To the Chinese, a person who is mentally and spiritually strong is just like a stalk of bamboo. That is, flexible enough to bend with whatever Life throws at them but reliable and tough enough to stand strong and keep growing. Also, the inside of a bamboo stalk symbolizes a sound mind clear of negative thoughts and feelings. Bamboo has a long life span, which makes it a symbol of longevity in China. Its reliability and steadfastness represent virtuousness in people.

These are the basic meanings of bamboo in both Chinese art and elsewhere in east Asia.

Traditional bamboo paintings are both a type of painting and a type of calligraphy. They are made using the same type of ink and the same strokes as used in Chinese calligraphy for writing Chinese characters. Also, many traditional Chinese-style bamboo paintings (including the ones made in neighboring countries) feature a poem that compliments the painting, helps explain its meaning, and sets the tone of the painting.

In Chinese art, bamboo is known as one of the "Four Gentlemen" along with the chrysanthemum, orchid, and plum blossom. Each of these plants represent the four seasons: The orchid represents spring, the chrysanthemum represents fall, the plum blossom represents winter, and bamboo represents summer. They often represent each season in Chinese art and are featured in landscapes depicting the seasons. Often bamboo is painted with plum blossoms or pine trees, which are the other "Friends of Winter" mentioned above. Also, animals who have bamboo in their natural habitat such as monkeys, pandas, and sparrows are often depicted in groves of bamboo in Chinese (and Chinese-style) bamboo paintings.

Over time, bamboo paintings became enormously popular in ancient China. So much so that painting a bamboo stalk became a subject of the Imperial examinations along with calligraphy!

In some east Asian countries including China and Japan, bamboo wall murals and bamboo scroll paintings hanging on the walls of Buddhist temples are not an uncommon find. These are to help a layperson or monk who views them find harmony with and a passion for nature.

Ink bamboo painting by Wen Tong.
Ink bamboo painting by Wen Tong. | Source

Chinese Bamboo Artists

In ancient China, a number of artists arose who were masters of bamboo painting.

The most well-known of these is Wen Tong (1018-1079 CE). Wen came from Sichuan province and had a huge passion for bamboo. He was so skilled at painting bamboo that supposedly he could paint two different bamboo stalks with two brushes in one hand! He mastered the art of painting bamboo leaves with calligraphy strokes. According to a poem written by his student and contemporary Su Shi (1037-1101), Wen not only painted the bamboo on paper, but became part of the bamboo itself. As the popular legend goes, "there were whole bamboos in his heart" and it was thanks to Wen Tong and his love for bamboo where this popular Chinese idiom (meaning someone has thought a plan out thoroughly and is about to put it into action) originates.

Wang Fu (1362-1416) is another artist who was famous for his bamboo paintings. Wang was an early Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, landscapist, and poet who painted his bamboo stalks with calligraphic lines and both intricate and minimal landscapes. His bamboo paintings look amazingly real!

Xia Chang (1388-1470) was inspired by Wang Fu's works and became famous in his own right. As a matter of fact, his popularity spread throughout east Asia and his works were very popular in Japan and Korea! Xia Chang was a skilled calligrapher and used his skills to full effect, using an ancient Imperial seal script-style calligraphy technique for bamboo leaves and a type of cursive script for regular grass surrounding bamboo twigs.

Guan Daosheng (1262-1319) was a female poet, artist, and calligrapher who was married to the Yuan dynasty-era prince and scholar Zhao Mengfu (who was himself a famous artist and calligrapher during that time). Guan excelled at painting bamboo and used light, graceful strokes to make striking depictions of bamboo. Her poems - which were written in a style unusual for women of the time - made the paintings that much more graceful.

Another noteworthy bamboo artist was the Obaku Zen monk Dapeng Zhenkun (1691-1774), or Taiho Seikon (also known as Taoho Shokon and Obaku Taiho). Taiho was a monk of the Obaku Zen Buddhist order who painted some very amazing bamboo paintings. Taiho's paintings feature massive bamboo stalks which jut upwards and dominate the whole painting. After emigrating to Japan in 1722 following the fall of the Ming dynasty and the establishment of an Obaku temple in Japan, Taiho was one of a number of Obaku Zen monks who brought Ming culture to Tokugawa-era Japan.

Learn how to paint bamboo from this video!

"Sparrow and Bamboo" by Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858). This print also features the sparrow, which represents happiness and is another common motif in Japanese art.
"Sparrow and Bamboo" by Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858). This print also features the sparrow, which represents happiness and is another common motif in Japanese art. | Source

Japanese Bamboo Paintings

In Japan, as in most other places in east Asia, bamboo has also been painted and written on paper. It carries all the same meanings as it does in China. As a matter of fact, much of Japanese art has been heavily influenced by traditional Chinese art over the centuries and as a result, many Japanese bamboo scroll paintings are very similar to those in China!

Bamboo was a popular subject in Japanese art genres such as zen art and ukiyo-e, and in the various styles of Japanese painting prior to the Edo period (1603-1868). Some of Japan's most famous artists such as Hasegawa Tohaku, Katsushika Hokusai, and Ando Hiroshige (right) painted some very dramatic and colorful bamboo paintings.

Prior to the coming of the ukiyo-e era in the Edo period when art became easily available to the common person, Chinese-style paintings were made almost exclusively for Japan's imperial and military elite. Bamboo paintings were one of the most common to be painted for the elite. The Kano school painted some very striking bamboo paintings against a golden backdrop and the Hasegawa school painted misty bamboo stalks on door panels.


Hasegawa Bamboo Painting

A door panel by Japanese artist Hasegawa Tohaku (1539-1610) featuring a crane in a grove of bamboo. Tohaku was famous for his Chinese-style door panel paintings, which often featured animals (especially monkeys) in a thicket of bamboo.
A door panel by Japanese artist Hasegawa Tohaku (1539-1610) featuring a crane in a grove of bamboo. Tohaku was famous for his Chinese-style door panel paintings, which often featured animals (especially monkeys) in a thicket of bamboo. | Source

Korean Bamboo Paintings

Bamboo art has been a mainstay of Korean art since the Joseon (Choson) dynasty, which lasted from 1392 to 1897. However, it was in existence as far back as the Goryeo (Koryŏ) dynasty (918-1392 CE). According to ancient Goryeo writings, bamboo art soared in popularity during this time.

During the Joseon period, bamboo painting became highly important. So important that it was the first area in which aspiring court painters were tested!

Due in large part to the strong influence of Chinese painting styles on Korean artwork, bamboo motifs became very popular both in monochrome ink paintings and in porcelain pieces. Porcelain pieces often featured bamboo with animals such as sparrows and cranes, and plants such as pine trees, grapes, and chrysanthemums. Bamboo paintings painted during this time were typically done in two styles: Conservative style, which used outlines of bamboo and wash, and calligraphic, in which each pen or brush stroke was done elegantly.

One of the most famous bamboo painters in Korea was Yi Chong (1541-1622), who was a descendant of King Sejong. He was an poet, artist, and calligrapher who painted some very striking monochrome bamboo paintings. His works influenced other bamboo painters who came after him.

Two other bamboo painters who, along with Yi Chong, are regarded as the three great bamboo painters of the Joseon dynasty, are Yu Tok-chang (1694-1774) and Sin Wi (1769-1847).

"Take" ('bamboo' in Japanese) by 18th century Japanese artist Kikuya Kihei.
"Take" ('bamboo' in Japanese) by 18th century Japanese artist Kikuya Kihei. | Source

Bamboo Silhouettes

Silhouettes of bamboo have long been an image in Chinese and Japanese artwork and poetry. A silhouette of bamboo blowing in the wind against the rising sun or a full moon, or silhouettes of bamboo stalks outside the window of a traditional Japanese or Chinese house have inspired many a haiku poem over the years!

Bamboo silhouettes are also popular images on Sukoshi shoji folding screens. These screens can be found in many homes, Japanese and non-Japanese alike!

In Conclusion

Bamboo paintings and bamboo art have been around for many centuries and the same techniques used for painting and writing bamboo a thousand years ago are still in use today. Also, as people around the world learn how to paint and write bamboo, its popularity will no doubt keep growing.

Thank you for your visit and please visit again as I plan to update this hub in the future. Also, if you decide to try your hand at bamboo art after visiting this hub, all the best of luck to you!

More by this Author

  • EDITOR'S CHOICE
    Moon Paintings of China and Japan
    10

    Moon paintings have been a part of Chinese and Japanese art for many centuries. Images of the moon are strongly associated with these two countries. This hub explores the history of these paintings and prints and the...

  • EDITOR'S CHOICE
    The Art of the Japanese Butterfly
    18

    The butterfly has many meanings in Japan. Beautiful yet mysterious, the Japanese butterfly has made appearances on clothing, in media, in family crests, and especially in art. "The Art of the Japanese...

  • The Moon Rabbit in Legend and Culture
    8

    Have you ever noticed the rabbit in the moon? Are you familiar with the Moon Rabbit, or Jade Rabbit as it's sometimes called? "The Moon Rabbit In Legend and Culture" is dedicated to that big bunny pounding...


Comments 10 comments

starstream profile image

starstream 4 years ago from Northern California

Great hub about painting bamboo and the history of it. I rate it up and will share it too. Painting is one of my favorite hobbies. In fact, I just completed an underwater sea turtle painting last evening. Bravo!


truefaith7 profile image

truefaith7 4 years ago from USA Author

Thank you for the feedback and the share starstream! Painting is definitely a good way to relax and let your creativity flow. And congrats on finishing the sea turtle painting! I'm sure it looks amazing!:-D Thanks again for the visit and take care!


KrisL profile image

KrisL 4 years ago from S. Florida

Beautiful! Rated just that and shared.


truefaith7 profile image

truefaith7 4 years ago from USA Author

Thank you KrlsL! Glad you enjoyed the hub!


Vanderleelie profile image

Vanderleelie 3 years ago from New Brunswick, Canada

A very good account of the symbolism and history of bamboo painting. I like the "flexible but sturdy" attributes associated with this plant. Voted up and interesting.


truefaith7 profile image

truefaith7 3 years ago from USA Author

Thank you for the feedback Vanderleelie! It's very amazing how tough bamboo is, and it still manages to stay aesthetically pleasing and versatile. It's one of Nature's many wonders!


Maralexa profile image

Maralexa 3 years ago from Vancouver, Canada and San Jose del Cabo, Mexico

What an absolutely gorgeous hub!!! I am very very very new to Chinese brush painting and love the Bamboo. The plum blossom is my next attempt of the "Four Gentlemen". Thank you for the link to my hub. You may be sure I will be back many times. Voted up, awesome, beautiful and sharing.


truefaith7 profile image

truefaith7 3 years ago from USA Author

Thanks for your visit Maralexa and for the share! You are most welcome for the backlink.:) Good luck with your plum blossom painting and hope it turns out every bit like the ones painted by the masters of old! I'm so glad this hub will be of use to you as you learn to paint the Four Gentlemen. I'm also glad to be able to be able to help people both learning about and trying to learn more about Chinese brush painting with this and my other hubs!


ytsenoh profile image

ytsenoh 3 years ago from Louisiana, Idaho, Kauai, Nebraska, South Dakota, Missouri

I love, love, love this hub! Thumbs up. I really like the way you incorporated a Table of Contents that made each heading so accessible. Excellent. I thought this was so well written and interesting and really enjoyed the video tutorial too. I love to draw and paint, but it goes to the back burner because I love to write too! Thank you.


truefaith7 profile image

truefaith7 3 years ago from USA Author

You are most welcome ytsenoh, and thank you so much for the feedback! I'm very glad you enjoyed this hub and found it to be a fascinating one! You know, I always try to include a Table of Contents in all of my hubs to make them more organized and accessible. I've worried for some time now that they might clutter the hubs a little, but now I'm relieved that they make them easy to navigate as intended. Thanks again and have a great day!

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working