The Jewish Calendar

The ancient Jewish Calendar had a year consisting of 12 or 13 months as decided by the authorities, each month beginning when the crescent Moon had actually been observed. It was replaced by the present fixed calendar in the 4th century AD. This is based on the Metonic cycle of 19 solar years which very nearly equal 235 lunations. In each cycle numbers 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 are 'embolismic' years having 13 months, while the other 12 are 'common' years having 12 months. The 12 months of the regular common year contain alternately 30 and 29 days; the extra month, First Adar, which in embolismic years is inserted between the fifth month (Shevat) and sixth month (Adar, or Second Adar as it is called in leap years) of the common year, has 30 days. Because of restrictions as to the days of the week on which certain religious fasts or festivals can fall, the year cannot begin on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday. To avoid this happening the length of the year is altered by a day, so that a year can be deficient, regular, or abundant according to whether it has 353, 354, 355, 383, 384, or 385 days in it. The extra day is either added to the second or subtracted from the third month according to whether the year is abundant or deficient. The years are reckoned from the era of the Creation, which is taken to be 7 October 3761 BC. The Jewish year AM 5738 began on 13 September 1977. The Jewish day begins nominally at sunset but actually at 6 p.m.; its length is 24 hours but each hour is divided into 1080 halaquim. The New Year, Rosh Hashanah or 1 Tishri, falls between 5 September and 5 October, and is followed on 10 Tishri by Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement.

More by this Author

  • Printing Inks
    0

    Ink is a liquid or a paste that contains a dye or a pigment and is used for writing, drawing, or printing. Many inks contain special ingredients to suit them for particular applications.

  • All About Candles
    0

    A candle is a cylindrical piece of tallow or wax that contains a wick of cotton or linen and is burned to give light. The origin of the candle can be traced back to about the year 2000 B.C. The earliest candles may not...

  • The White House
    0

    The White House as it appears from the north. Photograph by David Lat. The White House is the official residence of the President of the United States, located in Washington, D.C. It is on Pennsylvania Avenue facing...


Comments

No comments yet.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working