Advantages and Disadvantages of Supercharger
Advantages and Disadvantages of Supercharger:The supercharger is used for supercharging of internal combustion piston engines. The drive is through a mechanical connection to the engine (or other device such as an electric motor) which harnesses the power of the compressor to compress air which is then sent to the cylinders.
Fairly widespread in the past, the supercharger is back in vogue lately due to widespread use by the versions of the Mercedes "Kompressor" and thanks to projects such as the Lotus Elise 240R. In this car the engine of the Toyota Celica 2ZZ-GE (1.8 liters for 189 hp) is in fact coupled to a supercharger. This results in a torque increase of 23% and power of 22%. This system comes as a great alternative to the turbocharger.
Today, the supercharger is only used in gasoline fueled engines for the most part to avoid the problems associated with high temperature exhaust gas and to be more easily combined with LPG or methane, because of their chemical characteristics, increase even as the temperature of exhaust gases, approaching 1000 ° C, temperature hardly affordable by the metallic materials currently used in engines. In diesel engines, however, the use of variable turbine geometry eliminates all the disadvantages of the supercharger by combining the low-end torque to high horsepower.
The peculiarities of this type of charge are mainly two:
-volumetric machine, its linear, where the flow of treated air is proportional to the speed of the drive shaft;
-mechanical connection, the compressor is driven directly by belt or gear wheels, shaft or an electric motor.
The efficiency of this system is worsened by the internal combustion engine with direct drive to the rise in the number of laps in a qualitatively opposite to what happens in charge by the turbocharger, while in the drive with independent electric motor not only do not have this issue but you can not change his action, further improving the conduct and further reducing the absorption of energy.
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This system allows:
Thrust from low revs, as it requires no exhaust gas
No delay in response to the throttle, because the system is characterized by a turbocharged turbo-lag, or delay the response of the mechanical device at low speeds
More reliable, is subject to less thermal stress and mechanical
This system has as against:
Not able to guarantee maximum performance of the turbocharger due to physical limitations of the system
Increased consumption, because it can not take advantage of the exhaust gas, but absorbs energy from the engine, with a yield less than a naturally aspirated or turbocharged
You can purchase various types of compressors:
Consists of two or three lobes that compress intake air. The compressor is driven by the crankshaft via a belt, which is directly connected via a geared down ratio.
The supercharger is a volumex dall'Abarth patented and used on both production cars than in racing. The engine of the Lancia Delta S4, coupled with a KKK turbocharger was able to give a 1750 cc engine just a power of 500 horses. The Volumex had already been used on the Lancia Rally 037
The VW-Audi Group has submitted a petrol engine (1.4 TSI with 140hp and 170hp) with both systems boost: turbocharger and supercharger. The compressor is connected to the crankshaft only in low revs, even at 1000rpm in order to ensure a couple worthy of a good 2000 cm3, then, passing a certain number of turns the turbine engine operates with a high A / R, provide power high.
This solution is not new, was successfully applied the first time since the Lancia Delta S4 and is now recently reprinted by the VW-Audi Group.
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