The Rear Engine, Air Cooled 1965-69 Chevrolet Corvair

The Corvair Experience

Odds are if you are under 40 yrs, you have never even heard of a Chevy Corvair as they stopped making them in 1969. Some 20-30 somethings think they are a Japanese car. If you were a kid in the mid to late 60's, you probably know about them. You probably still love the body style, sporty and sleek, they are just cool looking. If you have never seen on, you will probably also agree with that observation. Even today's tweenies (10-14 yrs) love them, especially the convertible! Corvairs are known as the "poor man's" collectible car. They usually range from $1000 to $6000, over 2 million were made. Most are either on craigslist or Ebay. Parts for restoration are not an issue at all. Several places on the East and West Coast sell only corvair parts. There are plenty of books about them. There are probably still over 40,000 of them in the US.

Owning a Corvair is an experience. It usually is a love\hate relationship. You love the car when its running great and looking good, then, hating it when you buy a costly part and unable to install it because of rust.

The car is a time machine (well, any old car is) in that it makes one realize how far car technology has come in 40+ years. Until you sit and drive one, it is hard to differentiate the obvious and subtle differences. As a kid, I had always thought that the 60s cars were sophisticated machines. They were for their time, but driving a car made today (or since the 90s) and driving a Corvair is like night and day. The most noticeable item is the near all metal dash, more strength is needed to steer the car, thicker body metal, more chome. With older cars, you hear the engine, so they are more noisier. The Corvair was the economy car for Chevy, yet, it is as big as many of today’s cars! The Corvair is low to the ground, comes with either 2 or 4 carbs that need to be synchronized in air flow and idle\fuel mix. The engines are simple yet temperamental. Settings must be close to specifications or it will not run correctly, even for these more primitive engines. Another thing, as a Corvair owner, always carry some tools and a spare fan belt, as one minute it runs perfectly and the next minute it doesn’t.

Rust is any old car’s number one enemy. It can make a simple job turn into a costly, long, nightmarish episode. Any Corvair you buy will have at best, just surface rust, which can cause problems. At worst, heavy rust to make the car’s chassis unsafe and the externally nice looking car, worthless. Rust means it multiplies everything: your time, cost to remove, cost to fix etc.

Most Corvairs one can buy fall in between this range depending on where the car spent most of its life. If it spent its life on the East Coast, due to snow and salt in the winter, the car will have serious rust. How bad depends on whether the car was in a protected area. If the car was in the Midwest, the same applies, but may be not as bad. Corvairs that spent their life in the South, Southwest, West, generally have the least rust.

Why should you care?

In a nutshell, you want the least amount of rust. Rust destroys. It can create holes in the body, stop restoration (even the most minor things like getting a nut off), forces you to spend more money, causes frustration. You will have enough frustrations without additional rust ones!

Those who own a Corvair have a unique American car, the only rear engine air cooled ever made. Most buy them because they were exposed to them in the 60s when they were kids. Others buy them thinking they are a real “money maker” like a Corvette or Mustang. Not so. The Corvair is the “poor man’s” collectable car. Why? The Corvair will seldom bring in as much as Vette or Mustang in the same primo condition. The car suffered from a bad public image for a variety of reasons ranging from being temperamental and oil leaker, unsafe (thanks to Ralph Nader) and with early models (pre-1965), ugliness.

Owning such a car is usually reserved for the mechanically inclined or a rich guy who can hire someone. In either case, you will need to find and purchase the year model chassis manuals for your car. These will help you repair and diagnose the inevitable problems, without them, you are lost. Even with them you may be! If you don’t already have them, you will be investing in more tools. If you are not a mechanic by nature, you will become one just to save money and time. If you are a mechanic, you will need the shop manuals as the Corvair is not a typical GM car!

The problem with nearly all previously published material is that it presumes the target audience is either a mechanic, was a hobby mechanic, or knows a lot about the 60s era cars. Even mechanics who know your standard type engine, knows little about the Corvair engine, unless they worked on VW’s, its closest cousin!

I have the manuals and books from the “pro” owners, but many times the procedure was lacking in detail for a newbie, so commonly found in many manuals in other fields. The detail was lacking because the target audience was presumed to know general items related to the field. This led the writer to gloss over details instead of creating a detailed procedure.

For any new Corvair owner, the most helpful resource is the Corvaircenter.com. This is a forum for only Corvair owners with none or years of experience. Their advice and tolerance helped me a zillion times. You can post a question and within hours someone will provide the answer. Use this book to supplement the other books on Corvairs, mainly those by Bob Helt and Richard Finch as well as the GM manuals. They all have their role. As a novice, all of those books did help me but all were lacking in some way and all were written for those who were much more experienced with cars in general.

A BRIEF HISTORY

The Corvair names originated as a fastback show car in 1954, and like many Chevy concept cars of the period were based on the Corvette (including the Chevrolet Nomad and Chevrolet Impala). The design was, as an answer to the growing popularity of small, lightweight imported cars (namely VW).

The car was originally an experimental two-passenger fastback and was a “new aerodynamic design” for the sports car class. The streamlined roofline swept back into the jet exhaust-type rear opening. GM failed to convince the public and due to sluggish sales of the 1954 production model Corvette deterred GM from moving forward with the fastback coupe. Hence, the Corvair was not developed. Of course, the nameplate would be recycled later for the infamous 1960 rear-engined compact car. This version was a rear-engine vehicle in the style of the Volkswagen Beetle and the Porsche 356 Speedster and shared very little with the 1954 concept but for its name.

The rear engine version design began in 1956. The early model (EM) style is a more boxy, dated body style, while the later model (LM) from 1965-69, is a timeless design that continues to appeal due to its sporty corvette type look and a European sports car.

A dramatic redesign of the Corvair body and suspension and several powerful new engines came in 1965. A new fully independent suspension similar to that used on the Corvette replaced the original swing axle rear suspension. In 1966, one change of note was a more robust four speed synchromesh transmission using the standard Saginaw gear set used by other GM vehicles. In 1967, the 140 hp and 180 hp engine options were deleted as well, although the 140 HP option would remain available until Corvair production ended in 1969. Dual brake system was also introduced allowing for independent braking.

Corvair production finally ceased in 1969 with sales of only 6,000 cars, a victim of Nader's book, Ford's Mustang, and Chevrolet's own Camaro and Nova and the other mid-60’s muscle cars, all having way more horsepower. Oddly enough, despite its sporting look, it was never intended to be a muscle car with high HP. It was always an economy car even to the end. Chevrolet did provide “muscle” car type packages, such as, a 180 Hp Turbo, a four carburetor 140 hp. Even these additions were weak in power when compared to a stock Mustang with a 289 hp.

A new Corvair in 1965-69 ranged from $2000-3000. The top of the line was the Corsa. Corsa’s were only made in 1965 and 1966. Why? Corsa failed because the difference between it and less expensive Monza, was small: a Corsa had more gauges on the dash giving it a racing look, the trim and emblems were slightly different, the engine was a 140 hp or more. Other than those features, one could not tell the two apart. So if you have bought a Corsa, make sure by its VIN that it is really a Corsa, not a Monza made to look like a Corsa! To complicate things, you could buy a Monza or the most base model, the 500, with a 140 hp motor, and except for the trim, little else was different.

The Corvair was radical for an American car and litigation and controversy followed during its life. One main issue that continues today are the pushrod rubber O-rings. During its production, the material to seal the tubes into the block and head was unable to withstand the high engine temperatures and after about a year, the car would begin to leak oil. The leak would only get worse over time. Once the oil leaked onto the hot exhaust, the burnt oil smell permeated into the interior at times or could be seen while at a stop light or when the car stopped coming from the vents. Also, carbon monoxide could also enter the passenger compartment if the engine hoses connected to the heater had become disconnected or fallen apart ( I recall this vividly as my friend in high school had a Corvair and picked me up in the morning. In the dead of winter, we drove with the heater on and windows open to avoid being asphyxiated!). It was not until the 70’s that a new O-ring was created for other uses. This Viton O-ring once installed correctly would create a leak free Corvair as the rubber O-rings could withstand high engine temperatures without falling apart.

ENTER RAPLH NADER

This young lawyer nearly destroyed the car with his book, Unsafe at Any Speed. In his book, only one chapter specifically mentions Corvair issues and only with those made from 1960-64. The rest of the book deals with car manufacturers in general and why safety was really a political issue.

One of his gripes was that the steering column, upon impact, would be shoved into the driver causing serious injury. Not many cars at that time had collapsible steering columns. His more serious accusation was its steering. A driver could easily oversteer and flip the car over because it only weighed 2000 lbs. This was true if the tire pressure in the front was 25-35 psi, however, Chevy knew this and stated clearly the front tires should not exceed 15 psi. Your typical buyer did not heed the warning.

The car was designed to avoid terminal oversteer by using very low air pressure in the front tires, typically 12 to 15 psi , so that they would begin to understeer (slip) before the swing axle oversteer would come into play. Although this pressure was quite adequate for the very lightweight Corvair front end, owners and mechanics, either through ignorance of the necessity for this pressure differential between front and rear or thinking that the pressure was too low for the front, would inflate the front tires to more "normal" pressures (25-35psi), thus ensuring that the rear of the car would lose traction before the front, causing it to oversteer. It should be mentioned that the Corvair is by no means unique in requiring different front and rear tire pressures for normal controllability. The Ford Explorer (many years later) had widely-publicized stability problems when equal pressures were used. See Firestone vs, Ford Motor Company controversy. Corvairs built from 1965-69 do not have this issue. Chevy had made the necessary changes to the chassis as a result of his book.

Nader overstated the severity of the handling problems, as was later found by US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration investigators, and Chevrolet made changes to the suspension: in 1964, adding a transverse leaf spring extending between the rear wheels to limit rear wheel camber change. In 1965 the Corvair got a fully independent rear suspension closely resembling that of the Corvette, even sharing some components.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) ran a series of comparative tests in 1971, studying the handling of the 1963 Corvair against four contemporary cars: a Ford Falcon, Plymouth Valiant, Volkswagen Beetle, Renault Dauphine and a 1967 Corvair (with a revised suspension design) was included for comparison. The final result concluded, "The 1960-63 Corvair compares favorably with contemporary vehicles used in the tests...the handling and stability performance of the 1960-63 Corvair does not result in an abnormal potential for loss of control or rollover, and it is at least as good as the performance of some contemporary vehicles both foreign and domestic."

Nader is wrongly vilified for the demise of the car. While his book did not help, fact is, from 65 on, the muscle car fad was just in full swing. While the LM Corvair’s looked great and among the best style that has withstood the test of time, they were never a muscle car. So, their racy look was misleading to all as they only had either 140 HP or 110 HP. When compared to other cars, it was underpowered, to wit: the 289 HP Ford Mustang in 1964, the Hemi engines of Dodge and Chrysler, the GTO and Le Mans from Pontiac, even Chevy had the Malibu SS, Corvette, Camaro. To combat this, the Corvair could be bought with a 180 HP, which was still way under the others. Thus, both Nader and the muscle car fad from 1964-71, killed the Corvair. The car was king for gas economy, averaging 20 mph or so, unfortunately, it was ill-timed. With gas only 25-50 cents a gallon until 1971, nobody cared, which favored the gas guzzling muscle cars. Had the Corvair lasted until 1973-4, when the oil embargo occurred and fuel economy was important, the car might have survived.

General Motors produced nearly 1.8 million Corvairs over 10 model years. The Corvair pioneered such technological advances as turbo-charging, true four-wheel independent suspension and unit-body (or unibody) construction, and its independent suspension was adapted for later model Corvettes.
Today, 41 years after its introduction and 30 years after production ceased, the Corvair still enjoys a loyal following. The Corvair Society of America (CORSA) has a membership of over 5,500 people with 130 local chapters found everywhere from Idaho to Amsterdam. There are probably over 20,000 of them on the road. Some owners have several. Parts are easy to find from Clarks, Corvair Underground, and Larry’s.


CORVAIR DESIGN NUANCES

Engineers at Chevrolet began designing the rear engine Corvair in 1955 or 56 by investigating the foreign cars being imported in to the US at that time, namely VW, Opel, Fiat etc. After considering all the pros and cons of each, it was decided to create an entirely American rear air-cooled engine car, as none of the foreign cars were satisfactory. Chevrolet also considered a front engine car but quickly came to the conclusion this was not the way to go. Early on, it was decided the car would have an aluminum engine to reduce weight and more importantly, a 40 front\60 rear percentage weight ratio for its stability platform. This weight ratio would allow for responsive steering, fairly uniform braking wear, and better traction. Early on, performance was also clearly defined with a target of 0-60 mph in 20 seconds and a constant fuel economy at 50 mph of 25 mpg. This is still a good economy in 2008! To achieve these goals, engineers focused on making the car light.

Using an IBM 704 computer (yes, computer!) engineers entered over 300 different types of cars over a four year period, both American and foreign. Weight ran from 5000 lbs (American luxury cars) to 2000 lb. foreign four passenger cars. In the end, the computer model designated a 3000 lb test weight (curb weight of 2400 lbs, with 600 lb payload). To compare, the Corvair weighed 2382 lbs in 1960, versus a Chevy Biscayne at 3714 lbs., a difference of 1,332 lbs!

The IBM 704 used the highly advanced fixed point or a floating point type of arithmetic for the first large-scale produced computer, both of these modes of operation are completely automatic. It was available from 1954 to 1960. The computer multiplied or divided in 240 microseconds, or approximately 4,000 operations per second. The doubling of speed in arithmetic, plus the use of index commands, made the 704 a very versatile and capable data processing machine for its time. Its principal language was FORTRAN. The 704 was considered a “super-computer”.

An individual magnetic core was about the size of a pinhead and was shaped like a doughnut -- with a hole in the center. In a 704, thousands of cores were strung on a complex of wires in such a fashion that several wires passed through the center of each core. Combinations of electrical pulses on these wires altered the magnetic state of the tiny cores, and a line of cores, some altered, some unaltered, stood for a certain word or number. A word or number stored in the magnetic core memory in this fashion was available for calculation in 12 millionths of a second.

In addition to this high-speed memory, the 704 had a magnetic drum storage unit. The drum could be used for storage of parts of the program, intermediate results, rate tables, or other information. Finally, the tapes themselves acted as bulk storage, each holding up to 5 million characters.

The usual method of input to the system was magnetic tape, but entry could also be gained from punched cards through the card reader or from the operator's console, if special instructions were required. All information, whether part of the data to be processed or part of the program of instructions, started out on punched cards. Then, it either could be converted directly to magnetic tape before being read into the system, or it could be read directly.

Once established, the IBM 704 computer was used again to determine the correct engine to build for such a car. Again, over 300 were entered and data was retrieved. The computer indicated the correct match would be a 140 cubic inch motor and 13” wheels.

Chevy wanted the Corvair to have a smooth ride similar to its larger cars, to do so, they used independent coil suspension and efficient swing axle with coil springs. The swing axle proved to have far less wheel hop and shake compared to rear axle cars. Coil springs on all four wheels also smoothed out the ride. The swing axle also proved to have excellent roll stability. The combination of understeer built into the front and rear suspension, small wheels, proper tire inflation, and low to the ground made the Corvair one of Chevy’s best handling car. It was found that when the car’s tires were properly inflated, 15 psi in front, 26 psi in rear, the car handled better than other’s with larger tires around corners and was a very stable platform. Sadly, while the car was stable if the tires were correctly inflated, it was not (front wheels would lose traction) if the tires were inflated to what would seem the “normal” range, that is, 26 psi all around. This nuance remains critical to owners of 1960-64, and one that Ralph Nader homed in on. Chevy’s only fault was that they did not emphasize how important it was to the new car owner and old habits are difficult to break for the general public. From 1965-69, the problem was no longer there as Chevy had made changes to those models, yet, they still recommended to properly inflate.

Engineers early on demanded that the car would have front and rear independent suspension in a unitized format for handling and rideability. The rear suspension geometry of the car made for anti-lift during braking and in the front, anti-dive in the front. That is, when the car brakes, it basically stays flat unlike all other cars. Its swing rear axle reduced wheel hop. The placement of the fuel tank in the front between the front cross member and passenger compartment nearly made it impossible for it to be impacted upon collision from the rear, front or side. Having it at the other end of the car made it totally removed from the exhaust in the rear. No chance for ignition.

Because of the car’s balanced design, brake wear remains very little. In Chevy tests, the average wear on the brakes after a 1000 mile test was only .004”.

Corvair’s luggage capacity was also significant for a small car, with the rear seat folded down, the rear area had 17.6 cubic feet, and the front trunk, 11.3 cubic feet.

Chevy had decided early on to go with an aluminum engine to reduce the car weight, however, one early engine design had the engine heads and cylinders casted into one piece, each consisted of three cylinders, a head, and intake manifold. This idea was discarded since special coatings would be required which was beyond that era’s technology. Thus, while most of the Corvair engine is aluminum, the cylinders are casted in iron, adding another 12 lbs. to the engine.

The air flow of the engine is such as the air is not sucked in through the air filter, but is pushed out from the carburators and through the filter, totally reverse from most other cars.

One item of concern for the engineers was the engine design and its ability to deflect heat. It was decided to use the air fins so commonly found in aircraft engines to channel and deflect heat and air. Engineers found out that within the engine compartment, 18 cubic feet of air per minute per horsepower. During engine destructive testing, tests showed that the Corvair engine could withstand temperatures of up to 600F without serious damage. The air passing over the engine came to 60% over the cylinder heads and 40% over the barrels. These requirements demanded that the Corvair blower consist of 24 vanes, producing 1850 cubic feet of air per minute at 4000 rpm.

The fan belt is one notable feature of the Corvair engine as it turns and twists a total of 540 degrees. As designed, the belt is to last 250 hrs at 4000 rpm. It was also found out (despite folklore) that the car can be driven at slow speed for a limited time without the belt.

The oil cooler also plays a vital role as air moves through the fins keeping the oil temp to 280 F when at full throttle, at an ambient temperature of 100F. In cold weather or when the engine is started the cooler is bypassed and oil is sent directly to the oil galleries. The bellows thermostat below the left cylinder bank has a temperature range of 185-195F, at which time discharge occurs and the door vents open. During winter months, the thermostat keeps the engine ambient temperature at 80F.

Engine temperatures range from 300F at 20 mph to 445F at maximum speed (100 mph). It operates at its lightest load when in idle and in heavy traffic since the blower is regulated by the engine speed, not the load. When climbing long hills or mountains, the engine temperatures rises only 20-30F higher than its maximum speed on a flat road. The aluminum in the engine weighs only 92 lbs, or 28% of the total car weight. The total weight of the engine is 256 lbs, which was half of the normal Chevy car at the time.

BUYING A CORVAIR

There some universal items one should check into or look at if (if possible) when buying a Corvair. Many of the issues can be asked of any car-it is not rocket science. If you cannot personally inspect the car or have a proxy do it, be sure to asked the correct questions.

As a buyer, you must investigate and interrogate the seller. Failure to do this may yield a ca you should not have bought. If you do not get satisfactory answers, ask again, if no answer comes back or only half an answer, that is a red flag. Do some research or talk to other owners and prepare a series of questions that will reveal the condition. Focus on the chassis and engine first, then the interior.

As a newbie to Corvairs, make life easier—buy only a car that runs and has brakes. Buying a car you cannot drive poses all sorts of question marks and unknowns—some think this is fun—I don’t. I consider it a red flag about the true internal condition despite the excellent body and external appearance. There is a reason the car does not run or has no brakes- and it probably is bad and costly!

Having bought both of my Corvairs online- you must have trust and faith in the seller. If there is any doubt of being ripped off, not getting the truth, don’t deal with the seller. Period.

I was going to buy a LM corvair on Ebay. During the auction I asked specific questions that would reveal the car’s condition. Some were answered, most were not. I was suspicious. In the end, I won. I asked the same questions after and this time answers revealed a very rusty chassis, ripped seats under the covers, brakes not working. I refused to pay and Ebay eventually allowed me to withdraw my bid and chastised the seller for non-disclosure of material facts. Facts, had I known about, would have made me not bid for the car. One tip-off regarding the rust was that when I demanded the car at least have some braking capability, the owner acquiesced and tried for three hrs to remove a bleeder nut on the front wheel. When he reported back to me, I knew the chassis was probably quite rusty.

Some Corvairs look like new cars externally, yet their chassis is so rusted (snow, salt or rain) its safety and structure is compromised making it dangerous.

A couple of key questions can reveal the state of the engine, depending on the answer. You can always ask for a video file to listen to the engine. You want to hear a steady engine with minimum clicking or tapping, steady hum and one that is near vibration free (the coil should not be moving very much). If there is excessive vibration, this may indicate bad engine mounts or engine balance.

Here are few key questions:

1. Does the car stall at stop signs or lights? If yes, it indicates that the carbs are not synchronized and the idle and fuel\mix screws on both carbs are not at the correct setting (both must be near identical settings), timing may also be off, a vacuum leak, clogged carb jets or filters are key suspects. Not a big deal when you learn how to do it.

2. Does it idle steady? If no, same as #1.

3. Does it hesitate on acceleration from a stop? See #1.

4. Does the car leak oil after the engine has been running for 15-20 minutes and turned off? If yes, it indicated that the O-rings, valve cover gasket, oil cooler seal may be defective. Most likely are the O-rings that fit onto each end of the Push Rod Tube. Even if the leak is bad, once these are changed, the leak will be gone, unless other gaskets etc. leak. Again, once you do this yourself, it is not foreboding. The car does have to be hot (15 min running) and turned off to determine. Running it less than 15 min, does not get the engine hot enough.

5. When the car brakes, are there any scraping or squealing noises? If yes, probably needs new brake shoes or relined drums.

6. When braking, is the brake pedal spongy or near the floor when the car stops? If yes, indicates air in the brake line or leak at the Master Cylinder or at the brake lines. A car that needs no brakes will be silent and the pedal will NOT go near the floor, very little foot pressure is required to stop. If there are no brakes in the car, both 5 and 6 are the reason. Also, ask if the Master Cylinder or wheel Cylinders leak brake fluid.

7. Does the Automatic Tranny Stick read (when car is running and hot) empty or very little? This indicates that the tranny needs ATF fluid added OR a defective Modulator on the tranny. The Corvair TTF level is checked when the engine is hot and running, if the reading is nil, something is wrong. It should read something on the stick. Changing the Modulator is easy with the correct tools.

8. Does the car shift easily? If an automatic, the shifting is usually between 10-30Mph, if a stick, if it does not go into gear, may be a clutch or something else.

9. Do the instrument gauges work on the dash? If the fuel gauge does not, it is the fuel sending unit in the gas tank. Either it needs to be replaced or the ground wire that attaches to the car frame is gone\disconnected. Again, not a hard thing to fix. If the car blinkers do not work, it is probably the turning switch inside the steering column. If the blinker arm works properly, yet no blinkers, may be the bulbs or a new Flasher unit needs to be installed or other troublesome electrical issue.

10. Do the lights and wipers work? If the lights do not work, either the bulbs\connectors are bad or wiring is bad. If wipers, the wiper motor needs to be replaced.

11. Does the radio work? If no, replace the radio, check the speaker, which may be bad, check for antenna connection.

12. Does the car have problems starting? Maybe be the Starter that is going bad, car may need a tune-up, fuel pump may not be good.

13. Is the chassis and frame free from destructive rust? This rust crumbles the metal, creates holes, cannot withstand pressure. Surface rust does not, it has not done any damage yet, just discoloration.

14. Are there rust holes on the floor of the car or car body? If yes, this is a nuisance issue if the car runs fine, but the floor will have to be replaced with new sheet metal, it can get very expensive.

15. Does car ride bouncy? If yes, indicates that shock absorbers and\or wheel coils need replacing. Not a big deal.

16. Does the car have white or bluish smoke when running? If yes, the white smoke may indicate that ATF is getting into the transaxle because of a bad modulator, while bluish may indicate that the engine needs new rings around the piston.

17. Is there an oil leak from the Bellhousing area? if yes, rethink about buying it as the engine must be removed to replace the seal.

18. Any leaks from the tranny area? if yes, you may have to remove the tranny to repair.

I call these my core questions to assess the car if I am buying from a remote location. Besides these, I ask the basic common ones regarding previous owner, mileage, how it drives, paint condition, issues that are critical for operation and non-critical ones, how long the car has been not running, why?, when it ran last, when the car was bought, what has the owner done to the car, last time oil was changed or tune-up.

If I can get contact info about the previous owners, I try to contact them to their history of the car when they owned it, good info may be provided.

Naturally, car inspection is always best because opinions differ. If you are unable to, buying the car on the internet whether from Ebay or Craigslist is totally doable and simply requires an act of faith and more questions than if you could not look a the car yourself. Requiring the seller to send detailed photos or video is common and if they cannot, be a little more cautious.

As a rule, if the seller does not provide details about the car and provide photos in his online ad, I am skeptical. These types of sellers are more likely just wanting to sell and could care less about the answers they provide. The whole purpose of the ad is to sell. If the seller responds to questions with non-direct answers or just short curt ones, look elsewhere or confront the seller with the issue.

RUST

Rust is oxidation, which occurs when oxygen comes in long-term contact with certain metals. Over time, the oxygen combines with the metal forming a new compound called an oxide and weakening the bonds of the metal itself. If the metal is iron or steel, the rust is properly called iron oxide. Rusted aluminum would be called aluminum oxide, copper forms copper oxide and so on.

The rusting process is water. Iron or steel structures may appear solid, but water molecules can easily penetrate the microscopic pits and cracks in any exposed metal. The hydrogen and water can combine with other elements to form acids, which will eventually cause more metal to be exposed. If salt is present, corrosion will likely occur more quickly. Meanwhile, oxygen combines with metal to form the destructive oxide compound. As this happens over time, they weaken the metal, making the structure brittle and crumbly.

Some pieces of iron or steel are thick enough to maintain their integrity even if rust forms on the surface. Others are protected by water-resistant paints or other chemical barriers such as oil, dirt caked on with oil over time. The thinner the metal, the better chance rusting will occur. Water alone does not cause steel to rust, but the acidic reaction allows oxygen to attack vulnerable exposed metal. For example, placing a steel wool pad in water and exposing it to air will cause almost-immediate rusting. Rust formation is a cancer that cannot be stopped easily, but metals can be treated to resist the most damaging effects.

YOUR RUSTING CAR

Rust translates your Corvair into an expensive mess. It is on every Corvair-somewhere. Cars that lived in the Midwest or East will be in far worse shape than a car from the South, Southwest, or West. If you have long periods of snow and salted roads, it will eat any car over time. Areas with only rain will fare much better.

Rust will halt your restoration process and make it more expensive at every turn. It will halt the process with a simple rusted bolt holding a brake line. Soaking it in Liquid Wrench and tapping and banging can usually help get it off. Sometimes, it may take 45 minutes of soaking and banging until it is freed. The worst-case scenario is that you have to cut if off. Rust is your enemy so try to minimize the war by buying a car with the least amount! If you see the rust is heavy on the chassis and floor, think about the problems it will cause even if the body and interior are mint. Think about how you can remove it. I would rather buy one that looks so-so and have it near rust free.

If rust is showing up on the body of your vehicle, you may want to engage in some simple rust removal and color blending in order to maintain the appearance of your car. There are ways that you can do the job yourself, although it will take several steps and a couple of days to accomplish. If you have a free weekend coming up, here are the basic steps involved in removing rust from a car.

Rusting normally occurs because the finish has been damaged in some manner. The rust spot increases as oxidation on the bare metal that is exposed by a hairline scratch or a small dent causes the rust to spread. A sanding wheel along with a few sheets of sandpaper will also come in handy. Finally, have a small amount of rust acid compound on hand.

Begin by covering and taping off the area surrounding the scratch or dent. The idea is to protect the immediate surface that is still in great shape. Roll up the windows on the vehicle. When you begin to sand the rusted area, tiny particles will fly in every direction. Make sure none of the fine rush particles have a chance to settle and begin to imbed themselves in other areas of the car body.

Your first task is to address the thicker outer layer of oxidized rust. Use the sanding wheel for this part of the job. Do not rush with this step, as moving too quickly makes it easier to cause damage to the metal. Once the tougher outer layer of rust is removed, switch to the sandpaper sheets to get into the fine nooks and crannies. This will help ensure you get all the rust from a car during this procedure, including any small amount or residue that may have resettled during the sanding action.

When the sanded surface feels smooth, gently wipe it clean and apply a thin coat of the acid to the area. This step will handle even the tiniest of particles and leave the exposed metal perfectly clean. Make sure to not leave the compound on the exposed metal longer than recommended in the instructions. Failure to remove the acid could lead to pitting and even more work. After removing the acid, gently wipe the area with mineral spirits and a clean cloth, and allow the section to dry.

Keep in mind that removing rust from a car should only be done when you can re-prime and repaint the sanded area within the next twenty four-hour period. If you choose to leave the bare metal exposed for even a short time, the process of oxidation will take place and the damage will be worse than the initial problem. When you prime the car, remember that primer is not paint and water is not repelled. Protect the car if it is sitting outside in the elements. If you prime the car and it starts to develop surface rust, you will have to sand it again down to metal and prime again!

COMMON HOME REMEDIES

Cream of tartar, hydrogen peroxide, and a product such as Borax or baking soda can be combined to create a homemade rust remover paste. The Borax or baking soda can be replaced with other similar products because their main purpose is to add grit to the solution without causing damage to the surface when used. To make this rust remover, a teaspoon of cream of tarter and a quarter cup of Borax or baking soda should be mixed with enough hydrogen peroxide to make a thick paste.

The paste should be rubbed onto the rust spot and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. Then, the rust stain should be wiped away with a damp sponge. If the stain remains, the entire process should be repeated.

White vinegar is another rust remover commonly found in homes. When using white vinegar as a rust remover, it should be sprayed directly onto the rust stain and scrubbed in. Then, the area should be sprayed again with white vinegar and allowed to sit for twenty to thirty minutes. After being allowed to sit, the rust stain should come off easily when the vinegar is wiped away.

OIL- use only CI-4\SL

It is strongly advised by most Corvair owners to use only CI-4\SL type oil in your car. The reason is about the wear on flat tappet valve trains and other parts of these engines by the reduction of ZDDP in the newer oils (API SM and CJ-4). In the 60s, oil was different and more “primitive”. Today these base oils would be called “API group I”. This is the group you do not want in your car. The CI-4\SL type contains the correct amount of ZDDP, which is a combo of zine and phosphorus to protect and reduce wear on the engine parts!

ZDDP tries to adhere to the metallic surfaces of the engine to keep it clean or keep it from wearing during periods of contact. Very important! Using oil not labeled with this classification will work, but over time, your engine will deteriorate faster depending on driving habits and frequency. A good CI-4\SL (not SM) oil in the market today has 1200 to 1400 ppm of zinc and 1000 to1200 ppm of phosphorus.

Viscosity is thickness. The higher the viscosity, the higher the fuel consumption, engine temperature, and load on the engine. The Corvair Service Manuals recommend SAE 10W-30 or SAE 30 for most operating conditions anticipated. Chevroletdesigned this engine to run on oil that is between 5W-30, 10-30, 30, 0-30, 10-40W.

Many people consider lifter noise normal. While a few seconds could be considered normal, any more than that is damaging the engine, especially on a Corvair engine that uses pushrods between the rockers and the lifters. The noise that you hear is the banging of metal, whether internal to the lifter or directly against the ends of the pushrods. Every “bang” adds up, causing more fatigue, wear and distortion of the ends of each piece. Even a sliding tappet has increased wear when it receives a hit in the middle of its slide.

Assuming the valves are properly adjusted, there should be no “play” in the system and the lifters or rocker arms should be silent. The causes of lifter noise are:

1. Actual mechanical damage in the camshaft lobe or the lifter itself.

2. Broken parts within the lifter.

Low quality oil or excessively high metallic anti-wear additives (ZDDP) in the oil increase the deposits. Wax, sludge, or varnish deposits cause internal parts to stick. This is typical of an engine that sits for long periods (months to years) without use. The oil oxidizes where it is, forming varnish deposits. Running an engine too cold or many short trips without a longer/hotter trip weekly or so will also lead to sludge.

On a cold start the oil is much more thick than at other times, creating resistance to flow through the pickup screen and passageways. The thicker the oil, the slower it travels. So, 0W-30 or 40 travels through the engine fast, while 10W-30 is much slower, 15W-40 is the slowest. This is why one does NOT to race your engine at start up! Let it idle for at least one minute.

In general, a Group II oil will have better performance with 10% less additives than a Group I oil. So when you look at the container try to find at least a Group II. Group I oil is old technology, so to speak.

A 1966 ad for the car clearly using sexual persuasion on the middle age man!
A 1966 ad for the car clearly using sexual persuasion on the middle age man!
A 140 Hp, 4 carb engine
A 140 Hp, 4 carb engine
A 1967 Corvair Coupe bought for only $900, runs great.
A 1967 Corvair Coupe bought for only $900, runs great.
A 1965 convertible in almost new condition with 47K, bought for $3700
A 1965 convertible in almost new condition with 47K, bought for $3700
Inside the Corvair
Inside the Corvair
The 65 and 67
The 65 and 67
The original 1954 Corvair prototype based on the Corvette
The original 1954 Corvair prototype based on the Corvette
66 Corsa
66 Corsa
1966 Corsa Interior
1966 Corsa Interior

Comments 55 comments

Maglamaniac 7 years ago from San Antonio, Home of The Alamo

Well, Well, another antique car lover, as am I. I have a 65 FORD Mustang, I know, your a Chevy man, man can you tell? I think you LOVE your Corvair. I LOVE my Mustang. Have been asked numerous time to sell, and I have had this car as long as I have been married to it's owner. Since 1976. SO I have had the same car and the same husband, for WOW-that's a long time.

I have some pictures, as she needs restoring, but that is what has kept her in the driveway all this time, cause no one wants to steal an ugly car! I like your rust formula, and will try it on the old horse.

I worked with a gal who drove her Corvair to work everyday, and said her daddy cussed that car everytime it needed fixing! But, she loved that car. I could always tell I was late, if her car was in the parking lot before me!


perrya profile image

perrya 7 years ago Author

Well. my paraents had a corvair. My dad was always complaining about the oil leaks. I did not like the early models, but did love the 65-69. They are fickle engines, but once you set them and replace the O-rings which stop the leaks, they are still good, I get about 20 Mpg!


Richard Widman 7 years ago

Excellent article with one exception. EM's aren't ugly. They are classic. I'll agree that the LM's are "modern" in style, but nothing compares to the classic looks of an 60-64.


perrya profile image

perrya 7 years ago Author

well, beauty is a totally subjective thing. I did have an EM, but the LM is a timeless style, while the EM maybe classic, it is "dated". I have received way more positive comments owning a LM than an EM. Just my observation.


"UNSAFE" 7 years ago

Good job Perry !


Woody13 profile image

Woody13 7 years ago

awesome...


HarperSmith profile image

HarperSmith 6 years ago

Great article with loads of information. Corvair do look neat and they might be neat to toy around in, but I wouldn't want one for a daily driver. Thanks again for the cool hub.


perrya profile image

perrya 6 years ago Author

well, depends on how far is daily driving. But they are great cars when in a restored condition.


Crackerssouth profile image

Crackerssouth 6 years ago

Wow... My eyes are tired from reading. Great articles,tons of useful imformation, especially the "O" ring issue. Obviously that was the problem with my '65 Vair that I bought in 1970, I was 22 at the time, not really Corvair savy and didn't have a lot of money, so it eventually died. Well at 61, got the bug again and now own a restored 1962 Monza 4 speed. It's not 100% yet, but it's drivable while I try to fine parts. My wife noticed a few oil drops on the garage floor, guess I'll have to put in "O" rings next spring. She just rolls her eyes and points to her Korean import, "my car doesn't leak oil". My answer "yeah, but your car looks like every other car on the road too, they all look the same". Have to agree with Richard, EM's aren't ugly.... it's a classic.

Really enjoyed the articles... thanks


perrya profile image

perrya 6 years ago Author

OK, Classic. Each to their own. Well, depending on the oil location it can be from the oil cooler o-rings, the oil pan nuts also tend to loosen up as you drive, at least my Corsa does, so I need to tighten those every so often.


JakeAuto profile image

JakeAuto 6 years ago from Calif.

I once had dreams of getting a 6 cylinder turbo Corvair.

Too bad that Nader stigma killed the rear engine car in America. I imagine today's engineering would come up with oversteer prevention method that could not be defeated by the kid at a gas station.


perrya profile image

perrya 6 years ago Author

Today's engineering? Chevy had fixed it totally from 1965 on. in fact, Corvairs remain one of the best handling cars. These cars were frequent visitors at racetracks.


JakeAuto profile image

JakeAuto 6 years ago from Calif.

Yea I was just referring to the pre-65 design errors that continued to haunt the name long after being erased.

I just ran acrodd the Jan 1967 Popular Science writeup on GM's experimental Electric Corvair the Electrovair II. Using Silver-Zinc batteries to drive an oil cooled electric motor giving 16 second 0-60 times and 60 mph cruising speed. The added 800 pounds certainly detracted from it's charm.


randy 6 years ago

we have had a 68 corvair monza convertible 110 powerglide for about 8 years now the engine was rebuilt fully before we got it and it runs perfect and smooth. the body we have repaired and it is almost ready for paint and new top and interior(all black). it drives smooth and nice. i am 31 and have known about the corvairs since before we got this one. the article writer cant say that all 20-30 somethings dont know about or have never owned a corvair. i also have the entire rear suspension and engine and manual trans from a 60-64 corvair sitting out back and it runs great also we have been starting and running it recently. it is for sale now. also a 110 engine. every once in a while you see a corvair around even out here in cornfield small town now where central IL where 90% of everything left is 90s and newer years. good luck! randy

fastr68 at yahoo.com


perrya profile image

perrya 6 years ago Author

Randy is an exception for his age. I was getting gas just today in my 67 Corvair. Some guy visiting from louisiana asked me what kinda of car it was. i told him. He was stunned. He was around 35. He took pictures of it, examined the engine. he just thought it was the coolest car. he had never seen one.


Jason Stubblefield 6 years ago

Author quote: "The air flow of the engine is such as the air is not sucked in through the air filter, but is pushed out from the carburators and through the filter, totally reverse from most other cars."

That's completely false. The air cleaner is "upstream" of the carbs just like it is in EVERY SINGLE OTHER CAR EVER MADE. You couldn't push fuel through an air filter without it saturating the filter enough that the car wouldn't run. Those big oval shaped things on top of your carburetors, with the wavy paper in them, those are the filters. I can clearly see it in your pictures. The stock filter is a pan with (on the 140 horse) a round filter element in it and 4 snorkels that bolts on to the top of the carbs via a spider type system.

The single most common rust area that will "kill" a 'Vair, is under the windows. They are glued in as with modern cars, but chevy didn't fill the gap between the glue and the body leaving a small channel for leaves and dust and whatnot to accumulate and saturate with water, eventually rusting the window surrounds out. The fix is to replace the metal then fill the gap left after re-gluing the window in with a high quality silicone.


burning bush profile image

burning bush 6 years ago

Our family owned a Corvair in 1962. I remember it as if I sat in it yesterday. I can still hear my Father praising its great looks. I still remember Ralph Nader making his claim to fame. So many memories for me. Thank you.


Powerful Pierre profile image

Powerful Pierre 6 years ago from Abbotsford BC

LOL My experience in a Monza lasted 3 days I got it on a Friday in July 67 and the next Monday, changed the oil myself but forgot to re tighten the oilpan screw leaving it just finger tightened, meaning to do it before starting my Vair. I drove it for appr. 3 hrs non stop all over, and the motor seized. My neighbor bought it off me for 27 dollars. Next car I had a 61 Beetle bug hatchback til 1970


perrya profile image

perrya 6 years ago Author

Bad luck! well, at least the blame goes on human error! Love my 67 corvair, still rocking with 56k on it.


Dale Nelson profile image

Dale Nelson 6 years ago from South Africa

Amazing info.Thanks PerryA.

I am a vw beetle fundi and would love to find a motor to put in a bug.Difficult to find nowadays though. Rated up and useful.


perrya profile image

perrya 5 years ago Author

I had a 71 VW convertible, it was a great car- brand new, cost $3K then. I don't think a corvair engine would fit in the VW compartment.


DavidLivingston 5 years ago

A very long yet interesting hub. I enjoyed lots. Keep posting!


perrya profile image

perrya 5 years ago Author

Thanks, Corvairs are my fav cars!


Ryan-Palmsy profile image

Ryan-Palmsy 5 years ago from In a Galaxy far, far away

Until now I'd only heard little bits and pieces about Corvairs, useful and voted up!


perrya profile image

perrya 5 years ago Author

Cool, spread the word. Lots of hubs on corvairs!


Mico 5 years ago

I like to read anything on a chevy, nice hub! http://www.micocrane.com/


Cheeky Yank 5 years ago

I prefer the look of the LM, sorry. The EMs look like bathtubs from certain angles.

Excellent article BTW, although it has cooled my ardor for a car that sounds temperamental to own.


perrya profile image

perrya 5 years ago Author

My 67 has been no problem for over 2 yrs.


pozycjonowanie 5 years ago from Wroclaw

very interesting and a huge portion of about this engine. i'm too young to remember this style...


Rat Rod Vair 5 years ago

You are all wet in reguards to your tail of how the air goes thru the carbs and filter, it would not run that way, sorry! Just ask a good wrench.


perrya profile image

perrya 5 years ago Author

Rat- enlighten me, what are you referring to?


James 5 years ago

I am a proud owner of a 1964 corvair with 49000 miles, love this car and keep it in a cozy garage, fun to drive and gets attention wherever we go great article!!!


Jose 5 years ago

I bought a '62 corvair monza convertible 5 days ago. The car runs good. I love it. And I will fix it. It does have some rust but I don't think is anything major. Now I'm not anmechanic or a car expert.

The problem with the car is. The fuel Gage don't work. The horn doesn't work either. And like someone mention prevoiously it's leaking oil. But it is most likely the gasket. I'm missing the window crank fir the back right window.

I do have a question. How much fuel does it hold and how many MPG. And should I put regular or premium gas. Any help will be appreciated it.

V/R. New corvair DAD


perrya profile image

perrya 5 years ago Author

Use regular gas. the gas gauge is not working probably because it needs a new gas tank sending unit that is inserted into the gas tank and connected. Clarks corvair has them about $65


Monica 5 years ago

I love it I got my 1st corvair in 2005 after I beged my mother early January well on my way to Philidelpia I ended up in the hospital almost died March 1 2005 by birthday my mom gave me my 62 I was 26 years old I love this car how ever my mom passed almost 4 years ago and all the contact I knew to help get it fixed are gone i live in palmdale ca and looking for help my moms picture stays in my rear mirror in hopes I can get it running again to go see my mom at her grave Feb I dont have much money but reading your letter i hope its the simple things yu talk about. My car stops at stop signs i now know I need a O ring for the leaks however now it wont even start but all the lights come on please help. Thanks a young lady a mother who loves her Corvair


Jim Phillips 4 years ago

This is one of the best Corvair fact and history articles, I've ever come across. One minor corection, they didn't make over 2 million. The exact "official" figure is 1,786,243 (source The Corvair Decade by Tony Fiore)


perrya profile image

perrya 4 years ago Author

jim- many thanks!


thomas 4 years ago

I am thinking about buying a 64 Corvair for 1100. no rust at all runs ok. but real hesitant after reading this article. I don't really want a car that is a constant problem. I am very mechanically inclined and worked on cars before. but never changed no O-rings. How difficult is that task? but I love the look. hmm what to do. And great article btw. some awesome info on here.


perrya profile image

perrya 4 years ago Author

It takes about 30-45 min per cylinder. Not hard. It just depends on what you encounter. $1100 for the 64 is fine if it is in decent mechanical and cosmetic shape.


tommy 4 years ago

im looking to fix up a 1960 corvair i dont know where to look on the enternet to find a diagram on working on it or how to fix or anything so if u can help id really like some help.


perrya profile image

perrya 4 years ago Author

Try ebay for manuals etc. between 1960-64, chevy made modifications to it.


Mike N. 4 years ago

Regarding the statement in the article...

"The air flow of the engine is such as the air is not sucked in through the air filter, but is pushed out from the carburators and through the filter, totally reverse from most other cars."

This is just plain wrong! The inlet of the cab pulls air in throug an air filter, outlet of carb goes straight to the intake manifold.... Just like other cars!


Joe Bidwell 4 years ago

GM did make a prototype front-engine Corvair. My father was an engineer at GM tech center and drove it home one night. All the engineers at the tech center drove all the cars (from all manufacturers, worldwide)and submitted reports.


VRod Dave 4 years ago

On all the rust problems, be aware to look closely at the center cross-frame box member on the front suspension. they are very prone to rust-out particularly on the 1967-69 models with an added sheetmetal "reinforcement" salt trap.

On the 1960 Corvair: F.Y.I. This is the most rare and most difficult to find parts of the standard 1960-1969. It also has less interchange-ability to other years than any other model. Fewer 1969 were made, but many parts interchange with 1965 to 1969. The 1965 had a different (weaker) manual transmission and other things were improved for 1966-1969 (e.g.- suspension bolts, taillight lens brightness, dasd pads, tracer lights, shoulder harnesses, headrests, etc.)


Michael 4 years ago

It isn't just the typical lack of a collapsable steering column that made the original Corvair design particularly unsafe in a frontal crash. The steering box is in front of the axle line, and there is of course no engine in the way either, and the front end is much shorter than other cars and no doubt generally flimsier, not holding the engine and transmission. I'm not totally sure but I think the second generation design moved the steering box back. It's not a good idea to get in a major crash in any older car!

I used to own a 1962 Lincoln. At least in a lower speed crash it would have been able to crush anything. 5000 pounds, built like a tank, and about six feet of front end and a 700 pound engine in front of you!


Chris 4 years ago

Great article! Thank you. I'm researching a fun classic car to purchase. It's hard for me to gauge the size of the back seat. Can small children sit back there comfortably? Adults?


perrya profile image

perrya 4 years ago Author

yes, either will be fine, but the kids will have more leg room


Brian 3 years ago

I just purchased a 1963 with 12500 miles. Factory ac, no rust, dents, perfect chrome and it may not be a real Corvair, it absolutely leaks no oil. Original title, books, every years registration stapled together. The car never spent a night out of the garage. I have wanted one for 35 years and think I found my holy grail.


perrya profile image

perrya 3 years ago Author

what do you mean, " it may not be a real corvair?"


Camper65 3 years ago

I've rebuilt (not restored) 3 Corvairs over the years, a '64 standard, a ' 65 standard, and a '65 Spyder, but can't, for the life of me, find the info on the drive train as applies to gear ratios for manual transmissions for 1965 Corsas.


perrya profile image

perrya 3 years ago Author

I think that info is in their service manuals.


Rob 2 years ago

Let me first say I wouldn't call the pre 1965 Corvairs ugly. They were very unique looking automobiles. Just think of how cutting edge the 1960 Corvair was being introduced in 1959!

I loved how daring and innovative the American auto industry was in the '50s and 60's. There was Pontiac's 1961-63 Tempest that sported a rear mounted transaxle (an idea now used on Corvettes since 1997) and the Tempest also had an independent rear suspension as well; Oldsmobile's 1966 Toronado was the most beautiful Oldsmobile EVER built and was another example of phenomenal engineering.

To this day about the only thing that General Motors has produced since the '60s that is somewhat of a revolutionary game changer is the Chevrolet Volt. And the Volt is merely a copy of Toyota's much older idea of a hybrid: the Prius.

Getting back to the Corvair I do prefer the 65-69 body style the most. I like all Corvairs. I was just a year old when the last Corvair was built in 1969, but I remember seeing Corvairs as a young child and liking them.

The automobiles that interest me most were made before I was even born, and the cars that were made when I was a very young child. I have virtually NO interest whatsoever in the majority of '80s cars and many from the early '90s as well.

It's too bad that old glassy eyed Nadar had to dupe the public into believing that the Corvair was "unsafe at any speed." Nadar is just another corrupt, car hating political figure, whose fringe socialistic agenda represents a mere iota of the American population.


perrya profile image

perrya 2 years ago Author

Nader's book was really targeting the auto industry then, in fact, only one chapter deals with the early model Corvairs, which had issues. But, Chevy had corrected them all when the 1965-69 models came out. My 67 Vair has been so reliable and does not look "dated" much.


Tom miller 23 months ago

Need someone's input

Friend has a 65 4 door corvair. Good body good interior 83k miles one owner

He is asking 3200$. Is that fair Please help me out


perrya profile image

perrya 23 months ago Author

Not knowing anything about it, yes, but ask yourself what the car needs and what you plan to restore and its cost. I am assuming it runs fine with no issues to fix, brakes and tires need no replacement, no serious rust. Has the odometer turned over?

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