Overheating is caused by a failed component in the cooling system or lack of regular maintenance.
Some have been mentioned above and some that have been mentioned are strange to me.
Piston ring damage is a vague term and you're car management system will alert you to this either through the "check engine" light or it will put the car in safe mode "limp home" to save your engine. If you are talking about an older classic car that is completely different.
Low engine oil will sieze your crankshaft and destroy your engine long before it could overheat.
Running your heater might work for a minute or two in alaska and switching off for a couple of minutes won't allow your engine to cool enough for you to continue. Engines take hours to cool down.
Now, low coolant will cause an overheat but modern systems are sealed meaning if the coolant is low there is either an internal or external leak. External leak is obvious by greeny or yellowy fluid on the ground. Internal mostly means head gasket but not always.
Other faults have been mentioned, thermostat, water pump and radiator or cooling fan of which there are 2 main types electric and viscous coupling.
There are so many causes of overheating we could be here all night.
Nochance did make the most sensible point for non mechanics and that is the temperature guage. If it rises to the red and stays there stop your car and DO NOT ATTEMPT to drive on. You will cause damage to your engine.
Some points not mentioned are blocked front grill, blocked radiator externally i.e. from dirt, dust, dead bugs etc. A kinked hose. A leaking cylinder head gasket.
I mentioned at the start lack of regular maintenance. If the coolant isn't regularly changed and the system flushed particles and corrosion build up on the inside of the engine narrowing the water galleries and blocking the radiator leading to continuous overheating to the point that the engine will be of uneconomic repair.
So, if you have a specific problem drop me a line always happy to help.
Other than that "never ignore the temperature gauge",