Electrolyte For HHO Fuel - What Not To Use in Your HHO Dry Cell or HHO Generator
Don't Ruin Your HHO Dry Cell
Your HHO Dry Cell or HHO Generator and Electrolyte
Baking Soda for Water Fuel a NO NO Part 2
Using Baking soda as an electrolyte to produce hho gas :
Empirical tests have shown that using baking soda as an electrolyte gives a false sense of security. Baking soda will not only remain baking soda in use, but also cause permanent damage to the electrode surfaces in your hho generator during its transition into sodium hydroxide.
Note Baking Soda is very dangerous to use.
Empirical tests have shown that after the gas was analyzed, there is hydrogen, some CO2, also enough CO to be lethal. There is NO oxygen produced until ALL of the carbon has been reacted from solution. It is not suitable to state that the gas produced is to be burned and not inhaled. Many "water fuel" experimenters who use baking soda are burning the gas when they are doing their experiments. Most are venting the gas into the air in the room they are in, and even those that DO burn the gas in an engine often-times have leaks in their Hydrogen on demand systems.
Baking soda will permanently damage the surface structure of stainless steel. That is why it has to be sanded or ground off, and then the cleansing and conditioning of your hho dry cell started all over again.
Baking soda does not lose potency; it decomposes as a part of the reaction during electrolysis. Some carbon binds with the electrodes and causes damage to the surface structure, the rest of the carbon binds with oxygen to produce other products of reaction during electrolysis. While it is still baking soda, it does not produce hho gas, it produces a blend of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). As this occurs, the baking soda is transformed into NaOH, sodium hydroxide. This is why it keeps on working, but only as the carbon is consumed does it change into hho gas.
A reliable and repeatable performance increase is not going to happen during the decomposition phase of baking soda. It will eventually stabilize, but not until all of the carbon is consumed.
If your looking to “escape” the usage of caustics by using of baking soda in your HHO Dry Cell keep reading.
Baking soda decomposes into NaOH during electrolysis; you end up with a caustic material anyway. The worst part of this is, the end users are lulled into a false sense of security, thinking that it remains safe baking soda. So they are more prone to not take proper safety precautions. And if you are using expensive stainless steel electrodes in your hho dry cell, they become damaged as the carbon will also poison the catalytic capabilities of stainless steel. Salt is also unsuitable as is battery acid. To recover the damage done to your hho generator would require a real good sanding to get rid of the surface damage and start over.
DO NOT USE BAKING SODA IN YOUR HHO GENERATOR PERIOD END OF STORY!
Further you would have to add 84 grams of baking soda (NaHCO3) to obtain the same amount of sodium as you would for 40 grams of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). This is relevant because it is the Sodium that is driving the electrolysis process.
On electrolysis of NaHCO3, the Na+ ion will rush to the cathode and you will get:-
2Na+ + 2e- + 2H2O -----> 2NaOH + H2 and HCO3- + H2O -------> H2CO3 + OH-
H2CO3 --------> H2O + CO2
CO2 + 2H+ + 2e- -----> CO + H2O
CO + 2H+ + 2e- ------> C + H2O
Conclusion: On adding NaHCO3 a whole range of chemical processes can take place but due to the nature of alkali metals, the one sure conclusion is that Hydroxides will be formed. DO NOT BE DECEIVED into thinking that if you make a completely safe electrolytic solution using NaHCO3 or other carbonates that you end up with a completely safe electrolytic solution after use. If one takes pH readings of the electrolytic solution over time, one can access the progress of the carbonate solution (pH will increase with increasing Alkalinity).
Using Vinegar in HHO Generators:
A common person may reason that Vinegar (a 5 to 10% solution of acetic acid) is a suitable electrolyte for DC Electrolysis to make HHO Gas. Why not? It’s cheap, sometimes cheaper then bottled water, everybody can buy it around the corner, and it is very safe you can drink it. WRONG.
It's not a good electrolyte, and you can NOT count on its stability. One of the reasons is that is not a solid with a high boiling point like the preferred KOH or NaOH, but pure Acetic Acid is a liquid, with a certain vapor pressure ( you can not smell cold KOH, wile sniffing on a bottle of cold Acetic acid may let your nose fall off, it stinks pretty strong); and it has a boiling point not much higher then water.
( Water = 100°C, Acetic Acid = 118°C ). And because many HHO Cells and hho Hydrogen Boosters are run on elevated temperatures, some above 90°C, you can imagine that besides your Hho gas, a lot of water vapor ( steam) AND also acetic acid vapors will escape such a hho generator. Thus you are losing your electrolyte if you use Vinegar, not so with NaOH and KOH.
Further See : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kolbe_electrolysis The Kolbe electrolysis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia reaction is an organic reaction named after Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe.
Acetic Acid gives Ethane gas + Carbon dioxide gas So you get an un-useful gas CO2 (it extinguish flames does not promotes explosions) and Ethane gas which is a flammable gas that will behave as a fuel. Your electrolyte, by the electrolysis process in your hho dry cell cooks and vanishes trough your engine, you'll be left with plain water, without electrolyte, resistance goes up, amps go down, hho gas production goes down, and your possible gain in MPG is pretty fast back to zero.
Using Sodium Sulfate in Your HHO Generator :
The electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium sulfate using inert electrodes does produces hydrogen at the cathode and oxygen at the anode, but a neutral solution of sodium sulfate remains unaltered by the electrolysis.
Cathode Reaction : 4 H2O + 4 e(-) ==> 2 H2 + 4 OH(-)
Anode Reaction : 2 H2O ==> O2 + 4 H(+) + 4 e(-)
The overall cell reaction is : 6 H2O ==> 2 H2 + O2 +4 H(+) +4 OH(-)
Sodium sulfate is much weaker than lye, so you would need much more electrolyte and it quickly turns your water into a brown/red substance. Though it does not damage the electrodes in your hho generator, it really does not look good. So the bottom line is that after all my experimentation I simply decided to stick to KOH for best production of hho gas from my HHO Dry Cell Generators. Yes it is a caustic material, but just like any object or substance that can be potentially dangerous in the wrong hands, you simply need to study up on the material you are using and be responsible and keep it out of the reach of your children. NaOH or KOH, when used as electrolyte to produce hho gas, from any type of HHO Generator is clean and will never damage your electrodes.
I hope that this helps those who are experimenting with HHO fuel devices. For extensive study on hho generators and hho Dry Cell Design go to HHO 2u.
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Potassium Carbonate In Your HHO Dry Cell
I thought it a good Idea to add to this article based on a question about potassium carbonate for use in Hydrogen generators.
Potassium Carbonate is actually a very good electrolyte to use when trying to produce hho gas from any type of hho generator wither it be a wet cell design or hho dry cell. It is more safe to handle but more difficult to procure. For this reason most experienced hho experimenters are using KOH - Potassium Hydroxide in their Hho Generators. If handled with care it is at this time been found to be the best catalyst for producing clean hho gas that is readily available.
Today potassium carbonate is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of potassium chloride. The resulting potassium hydroxide is then carbonated using carbon dioxide to form potassium carbonate, which is often used to produce other potassium compounds.
2KOH + CO2 ? K2CO3 + H2O
It is mixed with distilled water to make a safer electrolyte for oxyhydrogen production than potassium hydroxide, the more commonly used electrolyte.
1. Potassium Hydroxide - KOH
* Electrodes stay clean
* 95 - 100% pure HHO (hydrogen - oxygen) gas production with the right generator design
* Strong and pure electrolyte
* Not available everywhere
* Somewhat dangerous to work with
* Recommended as a very good electrolyte to work with (recommended by Honda in 2001).
2. Potassium Carbonate - K2CO3
o Maximum HHO gas production
o Very pure HHO gas production with the right generator design
o Works great with bottled natural mineral water
o Safe to work with
o It is possible (sometimes necessary) to mix it with a little NaOH to draw more amps
3. Winter Electrolyte
* Mix Water + Ethyl Glycol + KOH to provide the benefit of a low freezing point but high boiling point at the same time.
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