Home Business – Silkworms Rearing
Sericulture or Silkworms Rearing
One of the most profitable and desirable small home business opportunity is sericulture or silkworms rearing. This home business requires minimal investment and provides an unexpectedly good profit.
According to the definition from Wikipedia, sericulture or silk farming is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. Sericulture appeared as human activity in China and in time it has expanded to all areas of the world, because the demand for silk on the world market has always been on the rise.
Silkworm rearing includes several main steps, namely: incubating eggs, feeding larvae, measures to achieve and ensure optimal conditions for reproduction in order to obtain silkworm seeds. One thing to note is that in the main area in which you want to have such a loft you need mulberry plantations as the main food of silk worms are mulberry leaves. As the mulberry leaf is fresh only in spring and summer, the production of silk is limited only to these two intervals. Japan is a country that started the scientific research to design an artificial food for silkworms, the research being quite advanced.
The Silk Road is the generic name of important international trade routes on which silk was taken from China to other Asian and European regions. The first means of transportation from China to Central Asia and the Mediterranean area appeared in antiquity, with approximately 2500-3000 years before Christ.
The first way to export Chinese silk, which reached India and Burma, appeared before 206 AC. During Tang Dynasty, China had many links with many countries. Along this road of over 500 km, new cities and silk markets appeared. In fact, the silk road from China's capital got to Lyon, Venice and Rome. Besides the commercial importance of the Silk Road, this has played an important role in developing trade, political exchanges, cultural civilizations and peoples of the world.
Besides the silk road on land, China exported silk by sea too, especially to Japan and Korea. In the XVth-XVIth centuries, the maritime routes of exporting silk helped to putting in touch the Asian continent with Africa, Europe and the two Americas (North and South).
Conditions to be provided to start raising silk worms
- The amount of mulberry leaves consumed during the entire larval growth is 300-400 kilos
- An incubation chamber for silkworm eggs of 3 square meters equipped with heating
- A room for growth of young larvae of 5 square meters
- Warm locations could be old wooden warehouses, sheds, greenhouses, stables
- Natural light should be provided
- It is forbidden to store mulberry leaf, the leaves should be fresh when fed to the larvae
- Purchase special paper punch and paper litter
- Specially manufactured materials
- Thermometers, wicker baskets, disinfectant
Growth of silkworm larvae
Larvae aged I - III
Growth areas are first prepared by disinfection with formalin 4%, 5% copper sulfate, painting and fitted with disinfected and clean shelves. It is recommended that temperature should be constant and no greater variation of 1-3 degrees C in 24 hours. When there is high humidity and temperature, the leaves and excrement ferment together and become hotbeds of infection. When the temperature and humidity are low there is prolonged larval period, and increases the risk of disease and significantly decreases appetite. Larvae aged I and II need temperatures of 26-27 degrees C and 80-85% humidity. Larvae aged III need temperatures of 25-26 degrees C and 75-80% humidity. The leaves are kept at room temperature of 10-15 degrees C, 75% humidity. The leaves are collected by pinching, without being crushed and in the cool morning. They are collected in large baskets.
The Leaves collected on rain should be dried. The leaves are chopped with kitchen knives in thin stripes of 0.5 cm for larvae aged I, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm for larvae aged II and III. To ensure optimal larval density, they must be selected when changing sheets. The larvae are moved together with perforated paper. The bedding sheets should not be changed for age I, and for ages II and III only once. When changing the sheets, use perforated paper of 5 mm / 8 mm for age II / III. The change of the bedding is made in the morning. Lay perforated paper or plastic netting over the larvae. Spread the mulberry leaves. And after about an hour move them on clean surface. Then, the old sheets are removed and taken to the landfill or it is burned.
During the five stages of larvae, there are three sleeping stages of 20-24 hours. During these, the moulting occurs. The larvae do not eat during sleep and they should not be disturbed. During this period of sleep, the temperature rises one degree and the humidity is reduced by 5%. Air currents should be avoided in the feeding room.
From Cocoon to Silk
Larvae aged IV-V
During this period, the larvae are characterized by high consumption of leaves, approximately 80% of the leaves they eat throughout the larval period, and the degree of consumption is 65-75% of the fed leaf. The larvae have also reduced resistance to temperature over 28 degrees C, 75% humidity and poor ventilation. The recovery nutrition is lower, compared to young larvae.
Larval adult growth is done only in facilities adequately equipped and certified by the veterinarian by raising medical evidence from each area. The first stage of preparing the space for growth is to repair damaged parts (roof, interior linings, doors, windows, shelves), including wicker baskets, machinery and equipment. In the halls with ground floor the soil should be disinfected, then the digging with the spade will be executed. At the end of the paper is doing a removal of soil, walls and ceiling of the hall. Before populating, disinfection, insects and vermin control should be carried out. Growth of adult larvae is carried out with whole leaf or herbaceous shoots.
Leaves should be picked up on cool weather and transport should be done with hypo car trailers that have been disinfected and cleaned. It is forbidden to store leaves more than half an hour after picking them up. Larvae must be fed at least four times a day. The settlement of leaves over the larvae should be very carefully done and the leaves should cover them well. The largest consumption is at the age V, when the larvae eat greedily and silk accumulates in the body. At the age IV (about 5 days) the bedding is changed once and at age V it is changed whenever necessary. When the whole leaf is fed to the larvae, use for the change of sheets perforated, with 13 mm holes. Larvae are selected ensuring 3 cubic meters of space for larvae derived from a gram of silk worms. Ensure a space with 65-70% humidity. During rainy days, lime will be placed under the shelves. The spaces will be aired during the day and the night. On warm days, the shaded windows and doors should be permanently open. After the 36-48 hours of sleep, between the ages IV and V, the larvae appear regenerated. During sleep the feeding will be completely ceased and lime powder will be sprinkled to dry the bedding. Feeding is done after coming out of sleep, when 90% of larvae have molt.
After passing the age of V (about nine days), the larvae become transparent, with a translucent shade, and they retreat to the edge of shelves, and seek for the three support points and begin weaving, leaving a silk thread behind. In this period there is the last exchange of sheets.
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