Industrial Revolution is the name given to all the amazingly rapid changes that befell Britain from about 1760 onwards, giving her great factories, new towns, railways, canals, and good roads.
A number of circumstances combined to bring this about, and chief among these were: new inventions including cotton-spinning machinery and steam engines; the extended use of coal and iron which, in Britain, were found close together; the sudden growth of the population and the spread of the factory system with what were at that time terrible conditions of work and appallingly low wages.
Hand in hand with the Industrial Revolution went the Agricultural Revolution, for the movement of the people to the industrial towns and the increase in the population demanded new methods of farming if everyone was to be fed. The small yeoman farmers began to disappear as, more and more, large farms became the rule. New crops and methods were introduced by such men as "turnip Townshend" and Coke, while such men as Robert Bakewell improved English stockbreeding.