The Soil formation Process

The Soil formation Process

1.       Soil from Rocks

Soil is made from rocks which are disintegrated. As the rocks are continuously broken down into small pieces, soil is formed.

2.       Plants and Animals

Decayed leaves, stems and roots of plants add humus to the soil. Humus is a very important soil material. It increases the fertility and the water-holding capacity of soil. Dead animals decay because of heat, water and wind. These decayed animals become a part of the soil, too. Lichens feed on materials found in rocks. When the lichens get hold of the rocks, they gradually die. They decay and some humus are formed. Lichens produce a chemical substance that weakens the rock surface.

3.       Earthworm

Earthworm helps hasten the decaying of plants and animals thus contribute to the formation of humus of the soil. A soil with little or no humus is not very useful for crops vegetation.

4.       Action of Water

Water is one of the most important agents of soil formation. Running water helps to change rock into soil. It tumbles large rocks along and pulverize them into soil. Water also grind the boulders and pebbles that lie along the shore into smooth round stones.

5.       Climate

In cold regions, glacier are formed. Glacier are rivers of ice formed on mountain sides. It usually happens when large rocks become frozen  into the underside of glacier. As the glacier moves slowly along, these rocks are crushed and broken. These glacier helps in breaking down rock into soil materials.

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