1906 San Francisco Earthquake

The burning of San Francisco. Reproduced from the only photograph that shows the entire scope and extent of this awful conflagration the worst in the history of the world.
The burning of San Francisco. Reproduced from the only photograph that shows the entire scope and extent of this awful conflagration the worst in the history of the world. | Source

Aftermath of 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

Aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake street view
Aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake street view | Source
Source

This hub is about one of the most significant earthquakes in history, “The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake.”

Most of us know what earthquakes are and the disastrous effects they can have depending on their magnitude, location of epicentre, population in that area, buildings and other industries, etc.

Before getting into details of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, let us briefly look at what earthquakes are and how they occur.

What is an earthquake? How do they occur?

An earthquake is violent shaking of the ground or vibrations caused by rocks or blocks of earth or tectonic plates when they collide or slip past each other at a fault. The plane along which the movement takes place is called the fault plane. It can happen at any time during the day and at any day of the year.

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake happened as a result of a rupture on San Andreas Fault.

Seismogram, Seismographs & Richter scale

Click thumbnail to view full-size
SeismographSeismogramIntensity of EarthquakesUnderstanding the Richter scaleSeismographAdvanced SeismographModern Seismograph
Seismograph
Seismograph | Source
Seismogram
Seismogram | Source
Intensity of Earthquakes
Intensity of Earthquakes | Source
Understanding the Richter scale
Understanding the Richter scale | Source
Seismograph
Seismograph | Source
Advanced Seismograph
Advanced Seismograph | Source
Modern Seismograph
Modern Seismograph | Source

How are earthquakes measured?

Earthquakes are recorded using seismographs and the recording is called seismogram. The Seismogram has a heavy weight hanging over a firm base. When the earth shakes, the base of the seismograph shakes, but not the weight and this difference between the shaking part and the stable part is recorded as seismograms.

The size of an earthquake is measured from the seismogram and it is called the magnitude of the earthquake. The magnitude is measured from the amplitude of the seismic waves recorded on the seismogram.

The intensity of the earthquake is also measured by rating them on a Mercalli Intensity Scale.

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was recorded on a seismograph in Germany.

Seismogram
Seismogram | Source

How a Seismograph Works?

In this video here, you might have a question as to how the hanging weight is stationary! It is due to Inertia.

Inertia is the resistance an object has to the change in its state of motion.

The video is only a demonstration of how a seismograph works and not a real seismograph.

San Andreas Fault

San Andreas Fault:

I have discussed San Andreas fault here briefly, as this earthquake was caused as a result of a rupture on the San Andreas Fault.

San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault and it forms part of the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American Plate. Its length is about 800 to 810 miles and roughly ten miles deep and is the most famous fault (a planar crack in a rock along which slipping takes place) in the world. It extends from the Salton Sea in Imperial County to Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County.

The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake:

The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake is also called by other names seen below.

Other Names:

  • The Great Quake and Fire
  • The Great Shake
  • The Great San Francisco Earthquake

1906 San Francisco Earthquake

1906 San Francisco earthquake's seismogram recorded in Gottingen, Germany
1906 San Francisco earthquake's seismogram recorded in Gottingen, Germany | Source

A brief Outline:

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake is considered to be one of the most significant and worst earthquakes of all times in the United States and is estimated to have registered 8.25 on the Richter scale. This earthquake occurred on the 18th of April, 1906 early in the morning at 5:12 a.m. killing nearly 3000 people (estimate only, real figure still unknown).

The damage due to the shake was severe in many places that were along the fault line rupture. The epicentre of this earthquake was near San Francisco and a majority of the fatalities were in San Francisco while the rest were reported in the nearby areas.

More than 80% of San Francisco was destroyed as a result of the quake and the fire that broke out after the quake and made it

  1. One of the worst natural disasters in the history of United States
  2. The greatest loss for life due to a natural disaster in California’s history.

Losses and Damage:

  • The cost of damage was estimated to be US$400 million that time (US$8.2 billion in today’s dollars)
  • Insured losses were US$235 million that time (US$6 Billion in today’s dollars).

Besides San Francisco, cities of San Jose, Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa also saw huge destruction.

San Andreas Fault

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San Andreas Fault MapSan Andreas Fault
San Andreas Fault Map
San Andreas Fault Map | Source
San Andreas Fault
San Andreas Fault | Source
Source

Details of the earthquake (magnitude and geo location):

The estimated magnitude of the earthquake is between 7.7 and 8.25 on the Richter. The rating of the quake on the Rossi-Forel Scale is 9.

(Rossi-Forel Scale is an arbitrary numerical scale of intensity of seismic disturbances ranging from one for a barely perceptible tremor to 10 for an earthquake of the highest intensity)

The earthquake was caused as a result of the rupture on the San Andreas Fault. The length of the fault is about 810 miles and runs along the length of California from Cape Mendocino in the North to Salton Sea in the South. The rupture due to earthquake was along the northern region of the fault for a distance of about 290 miles and the surface displacement (offset) was about 20 to 28 feet (higher in the north 24-28 feet and lower in the south 8 -12 feet).

Photo Gallery - Few pictures of the 1906 San Francisco Quake

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Camp in Golden Gate Park Under Military Control After the 1906 San Francisco EarthquakeSpectators sitting on the hillside, watching firesAftermath of San Francisco earthquake, 1906San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906Shreve Building Amid Ruins of San Francisco 1906 earthquakeSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, After the earthquakeSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Van Ness Avenue at Vallejo StreetSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Preparing hot food for the refugeesSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Digging for souvenirsSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Giving out suppliesSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Refugee camp, PresidioSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Provision lineSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, RefugeesSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, City HallSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Street kitchensSan Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Saint Ignatius ChurchMap showing the location of Oregon, Los Angeles and Nevada
Camp in Golden Gate Park Under Military Control After the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
Camp in Golden Gate Park Under Military Control After the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake | Source
Spectators sitting on the hillside, watching fires
Spectators sitting on the hillside, watching fires | Source
Aftermath of San Francisco earthquake, 1906
Aftermath of San Francisco earthquake, 1906 | Source
San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906
San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906 | Source
Shreve Building Amid Ruins of San Francisco 1906 earthquake
Shreve Building Amid Ruins of San Francisco 1906 earthquake | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, After the earthquake
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, After the earthquake | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Van Ness Avenue at Vallejo Street
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Van Ness Avenue at Vallejo Street | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Preparing hot food for the refugees
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Preparing hot food for the refugees | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Digging for souvenirs
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Digging for souvenirs | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Giving out supplies
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Giving out supplies | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Refugee camp, Presidio
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Refugee camp, Presidio | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Provision line
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Provision line | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Refugees
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Refugees | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, City Hall
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, City Hall | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Street kitchens
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Street kitchens | Source
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Saint Ignatius Church
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Saint Ignatius Church | Source
Map showing the location of Oregon, Los Angeles and Nevada
Map showing the location of Oregon, Los Angeles and Nevada | Source

The Quake:

A strong foreshock occurred at 5:12 a.m. on the 18th of April 1906 and it was felt in the San Francisco Bay area. After 20 to 25 seconds this was followed by a great earthquake that lasted for about 40 to 45 seconds causing devastating destruction in San Francisco and surrounding cities. The quake was felt from Southern Oregon to South of Los Angeles and extended as far as Central Nevada internally.

Buildings collapsed, gas, sewers and most water lines broke, chimneys broke and fell, and many people were caught under the debris of collapsed buildings as they were still in bed and did not have enough time to leave the buildings. Broken gas lines led to fire that spread across the city of San Francisco. Brick walls collapsed and pavement were arched and fissured. Trees fell to the ground. The fire Chief Dennis T. Sullivan was also a victim of falling debris. Streets, railway lines and other facilities were destroyed and the whole city was reduced to rubble.

The damage caused by the fire was more than that of the quake. There were many aftershocks, in which some of them were severe.

Recent analysis by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) show that the epicentre was near Mussel Rock on the Coast of Daly City which is to the South of San Francisco, evidenced by a tsunami recorded by a tidal gauge at the San Francisco Presidio.

San Francisco Earthquake 1906 - Before and After Journey Down Market

Damage caused by fire:

  • More than 30 fires broke out due to rupture of gas mains and they burned uncontrollably destroying 28,000 buildings (500 blocks), which account for more than 90% of the destruction due to earthquake.
  • One of the largest fires was started accidentally in a house when a woman was preparing breakfast for her family and it is called the “Ham and Eggs Fire.” This fire burned for 24 hours and destroyed a 30 block area.
  • Many fires were started by fire fighters who were not trained in the use of dynamites. They used the wrong dynamites and a result of that fire broke, when they were trying to demolish buildings to bring fire under control. This helped the fire spread and caused more than 50% of the building damage.
  • The fire fighters did not have the required supply of water to put the fire off as most of the water mains were broken.
  • Many scientific laboratories got burnt in the fire.
  • The United States Army played a major role in protecting valuables and guarding buildings. They also helped the fire fighters with setting up dynamites to demolish buildings. They helped with feeding, sheltering and other help for the survivors.

1906 San Francisco

Loss due to the quake:

  • Dead – More than 3000
  • Homeless people– 225,000
  • Buildings destroyed – 28,000
  • Monetary loss – More than US$400 million in 1906 dollars

Courtesy: eoearth.org

After effects and reconstruction:

Thousands of people were using ferries to cross the bay and move to nearby cities. More than 5000 relief houses were built that accommodated 20,000 people who were displaced. These houses were rented till their houses were rebuilt. Most people moved out within a year and the refugee camp was officially closed on the 30th of June 1908.

Reconstruction plans were immediately drawn to rebuild the city. American Psychologist William James, who was teaching at Stanford at that time, visited the quake site and was impressed by the positivity of the survivors, which he later mentioned in his book “Memories and Studies.” So many other people have also mentioned the fact that the survivors were very positive about the reconstruction of San Francisco to be larger and better than before.

China Town and Chinese Immigrants:

The Chinese population and other poor populations were attempted to be ridden off, but the Chinese rebuilt Chinatown to a modern one. Thousands of Chinese immigrants were able to claim residency and citizenship as their papers were all lost in the quake and fire as the City Hall got completely destroyed.

Nob Hill and Pacific Heights:

Nob Hill was a wealthy area and the mansions in that area were almost completely destroyed in the earthquake, and hence the residents moved to the west where there were cheaper lands and better weather. This also led to the development of the Pacific Heights. Mansions were constructed and most of them were completed by 1915, ready for the Panama-Pacific exposition.

It also celebrated the reconstruction of the city and since then the city memorialised the disaster of the quake at the Lotta’s Fountain (meeting point during disaster where people came searching for loved ones and to exchange information).

Donations by United States except San Francisco

Source

Donation from Foreign Countries

Source

When the news of this disaster spread all over the world, different countries sent in money for relief work. Even individual citizens and companies contributed towards this. Although it was not enough to get people back to their feet, it helped in some way to provide daily meals for them and build some tents.

Donations from United States approximate to a total of $8,228,482

Donations from foreign countries total to an approximate of $474,875

Courtesy: americahurrah.com

Eyewitness Accounts - Screenshots

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Eyewitness statement by Ansel AdamsEyewitness account of Rosa Barreda, letter to a friend dated May 15, 1906Eyewitness account of George Bernard Musson, captain of the S.S. Henley, a British steamer that was at port in San Francisco at the time of earthquake, letter written to his mother on 21st April 1906Percy H. Gregory, an immigrant carpenter, wrote this letter to his mother in Australia on May 29, 1906A letter from Elmer Enewold, a San Francisco resident and member of the National Guard to his dadEyewitness story by Ernest Goerlitz, Conried Metropolitan Opera company's acting managerJohn Barrymore's statement of the earthquakeEyewitness statement of Jack LondonEyewitness statement of Enrico CarusoEyewitness statement of A.P. GianniniEyewitness statement of James StetsonEyewitness statement of Joaquin MillerEyewitness statement of Arnold Genthe
Eyewitness statement by Ansel Adams
Eyewitness statement by Ansel Adams | Source
Eyewitness account of Rosa Barreda, letter to a friend dated May 15, 1906
Eyewitness account of Rosa Barreda, letter to a friend dated May 15, 1906 | Source
Eyewitness account of George Bernard Musson, captain of the S.S. Henley, a British steamer that was at port in San Francisco at the time of earthquake, letter written to his mother on 21st April 1906
Eyewitness account of George Bernard Musson, captain of the S.S. Henley, a British steamer that was at port in San Francisco at the time of earthquake, letter written to his mother on 21st April 1906 | Source
Percy H. Gregory, an immigrant carpenter, wrote this letter to his mother in Australia on May 29, 1906
Percy H. Gregory, an immigrant carpenter, wrote this letter to his mother in Australia on May 29, 1906 | Source
A letter from Elmer Enewold, a San Francisco resident and member of the National Guard to his dad
A letter from Elmer Enewold, a San Francisco resident and member of the National Guard to his dad | Source
Eyewitness story by Ernest Goerlitz, Conried Metropolitan Opera company's acting manager
Eyewitness story by Ernest Goerlitz, Conried Metropolitan Opera company's acting manager | Source
John Barrymore's statement of the earthquake
John Barrymore's statement of the earthquake | Source
Eyewitness statement of Jack London
Eyewitness statement of Jack London | Source
Eyewitness statement of Enrico Caruso
Eyewitness statement of Enrico Caruso | Source
Eyewitness statement of A.P. Giannini
Eyewitness statement of A.P. Giannini | Source
Eyewitness statement of James Stetson
Eyewitness statement of James Stetson | Source
Eyewitness statement of Joaquin Miller
Eyewitness statement of Joaquin Miller | Source
Eyewitness statement of Arnold Genthe
Eyewitness statement of Arnold Genthe | Source
Click thumbnail to view full-size
A screenshot from the USGS websiteThe intensity of shaking recorded for the 1906 San Francisco earthquakeModified Mercalli Intensity scale
A screenshot from the USGS website
A screenshot from the USGS website | Source
The intensity of shaking recorded for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
The intensity of shaking recorded for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake | Source
Modified Mercalli Intensity scale
Modified Mercalli Intensity scale | Source

Some facts about the 1906 San Francisco earthquake:

  • This quake was the first worst natural disaster in the world to be recorded as photographs.
  • This quake led to the in depth study about the San Andreas fault, which was least known about before the quake, and also led to modern earthquake science in the United States. For example there are Real Time Seismographs available from the U.S. Geological Survey department on the internet for people to have a look. They even have archives (please do have a look).
  • According to the USGS website, the intensity of shaking of the earthquake was so high that it did not fit into the Mercalli Intensity scale and so it had to be revised later as Modified Mercalli Intensity scale (MMI scale) with 12 increasing levels of intensity, for this earthquake to fit in.
  • At that time after the quake in 1906, only 375 deaths were reported as government officials feared that the correct death rate would affect real estate prices in rebuilding the city
  • Hundreds of casualties in China Town, went either ignored or left unrecorded
  • The earthquake permanently shifted the course of Salinas River in Montrey County near its mouth, diverting it 6 miles to the south.
  • Around 225,00 to 300,000 people were left homeless (total population was at that time, estimated to be between 400,000 and 410,000)
  • More than 90% of the damage was due to fire in buildings that burned for four days and nights.
  • Since properties were insured for fire damage and not for quake damage, many residents set their quake damaged properties on fire intentionally, in order to be able to claim for insurance.

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Soldiers outside Hall of Justice in San Francisco 1906. US Army soldiers from the Presidio pose for a group shot, with their Springfield 03 rifles, in front of the ruins of the Hall of Justice. The troops aided the local police force in keeping orderSoldiers in San Francisco 1906 ruins.  Soldiers from the Presidio stand amid the rubble of fallen buildings after the earthquake. The Hall of Records (dome) is in the background (right).
Soldiers outside Hall of Justice in San Francisco 1906. US Army soldiers from the Presidio pose for a group shot, with their Springfield 03 rifles, in front of the ruins of the Hall of Justice. The troops aided the local police force in keeping order
Soldiers outside Hall of Justice in San Francisco 1906. US Army soldiers from the Presidio pose for a group shot, with their Springfield 03 rifles, in front of the ruins of the Hall of Justice. The troops aided the local police force in keeping order | Source
Soldiers in San Francisco 1906 ruins.  Soldiers from the Presidio stand amid the rubble of fallen buildings after the earthquake. The Hall of Records (dome) is in the background (right).
Soldiers in San Francisco 1906 ruins. Soldiers from the Presidio stand amid the rubble of fallen buildings after the earthquake. The Hall of Records (dome) is in the background (right). | Source
  • Mayor Schmitz requested all available troops to be sent to the quake site and they all assembled at the Hall of Justice by 7:00 a.m. There were a total of 1,700 troops who remained there for 10 weeks maintaining hold on security.
  • The earthquake permanently shifted the course of Salinas River in Montrey County near its mouth, diverting it 6 miles to the south.
  • Around 225,00 to 300,000 people were left homeless (total population was at that time, estimated to be between 400,000 and 410,000)
  • More than 90% of the damage was due to fire in buildings that burned for four days and nights.
  • Since properties were insured for fire damage and not for quake damage, many residents set their quake damaged properties on fire intentionally, in order to be able to claim for insurance.

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Entrance gate to Stanford UniversityTrain knocked over at Pt. Reyes Station
Entrance gate to Stanford University
Entrance gate to Stanford University | Source
Train knocked over at Pt. Reyes Station
Train knocked over at Pt. Reyes Station | Source
Source
Source
Source
  • After Tenor Enrico Caruso’s performance of Don Jose in “Carmen” the night before the quake at the Grand Opera House in San Francisco, he woke up to a great tremor that morning and fled the hotel.
  • Alice Eastwood, the Curator of Botany at the California Academy of Science, entered the burning building and saved nearly 1500 specimens of a newly discovered rare species of plant before the laboratory was completely destroyed by fire. He was later credited for that.

Proclamation by the Mayor Schmitz
Proclamation by the Mayor Schmitz | Source


  • Due to excessive riots, Mayor Schmitz issued an order of Authority to the Police Force to kill people involved in plundering or any other crime.
  • There were refugee camps at Golden Gate Park, The Presidio, The Panhandle and beaches between Ingleside and North beach which operated for more than two years. The largest of them were the Golden Gate Park and the Presidio

  • Some insurance companies went bankrupt, whereas some others paid most claims in full or at least part. This earthquake is considered as the worst incident for insurance industry before the 9/ll attacks
  • This quake has had the largest relief effort till date
  • Scientists walked the entire length of the earthquake rupture (even through the poison Oak trees) to study how much the faults had slipped.
  • Prof. Henry Fielding Reid, Professor of Geology at John Hopkins University used above observations and formulated his elastic rebound theory (gradual accumulation and release of stress and strain) which is the principle model for the occurrence of earthquakes.

1906 San Francisco Earthquake-computer model

I hope this has been useful. Please feedback if there are any errors as these figures were collected after a lot of research. I would also like to hear your thoughts and experiences if any.

Thank you for reading.

Livingsta

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Comments 31 comments

livingsta profile image

livingsta 11 months ago from United Kingdom Author

Hello FatBoyThin,

Thank you for passing by. I am glad that this hub was useful for you. Thank you for your feedback and votes. Have a great 2016!


FatBoyThin profile image

FatBoyThin 17 months ago from Kinneff, Scotland

I've heard of the San Francisco earthquake of course, but for some reason I'd always thought it was a fairly small-scale disaster. This has really opened my eyes! Great Hub, thoroughly researched and well written. Voted up.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Epigramman, thank you so much. I am so pleased that you found this interesting. It was great to research and write about a historic earthquake. So many facts and information to learn and know. Thank you for the share.

Sending wishes and smiles back to all of you (Colin and Little Miss Tiffy and Mister Gabriel) :-)

Have a great weekend!


epigramman profile image

epigramman 3 years ago

Like HUBWOWWWWW!!!!! This has to be the definitive statement on earthquakes and also a look at a very historic one too.

I love how to you explain them from a technical standpoint and then describe the one in San Fran. Excellent use of images and videos and this world class hub presentation truly deserves a honored spot on the Louvre Hall wall of fame in the non-fiction gallery.

I will gladly and madly share and link this great work of research by you on my FB page

Sending to you warm wishes from Colin and Little Miss Tiffy and Mister Gabriel at lake erie time ontario canada 2:58pm


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Rolly, thank you. I am glad that you found this interesting and I totally agree with what you say. Sending you smiles too :-)

Hugs and blessings, have a great week ahead!


Rolly A Chabot profile image

Rolly A Chabot 3 years ago from Alberta Canada

Hi livingsta... what a fact filled hub this has been to read. Thank you for all your hard work. I have only had one experience in an earthquake and it was enough for me. I think I will stay on solid ground... smiles.

Hugs and Blessings


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Elias, thank you for reading, voting and sharing. I am pleased you liked it. Have a good day!


Elias Zanetti profile image

Elias Zanetti 3 years ago from Athens, Greece

Very good article, voted up and shared.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Debbie, thank you for reading and I am pleased that you found reading this interesting. Thank you for your appreciation. Have a good weekend!


Deborah Brooks profile image

Deborah Brooks 3 years ago from Brownsville,TX

What a wonderful interesting

Hub.. i felt like i was living history ... excellent hub

Deb


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Arun, thank you so much for reading and appreciating. I am pleased that this hub has been interesting to read and detailed. Also thank you so much for sharing! Have a great weekend!


ARUN KANTI profile image

ARUN KANTI 3 years ago from KOLKATA

Livingsta-As a physicist you have so nicely explained the technical details of the most signifiant earth quake in history. Thanks for sharing with us .Excellent, shared


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Mike, thank you for reading and appreciating. I am pleased you liked it. Have a great weekend!


Mike Robbers profile image

Mike Robbers 3 years ago from London

I love historical posts that shed light on events that marked history; what is more, your post was really informative and well writenn. Congrats.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Joanveronica, thank you for reading and sharing your experience and thoughts. Also thank you for sharing this hub. Have a great day!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Marcy, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts. I am glad you liked this. Have a great day!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Daisy, thank you so much for reading and appreciating. I am pleased you liked it. Have a good day!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Michelle, so true. I could feel what people would have gone through while writing this hub. Thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts. Have a good day!


joanveronica profile image

joanveronica 3 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

Fantastic article! I knew about it because it also affected Valparaiso Chile when my grandparents (British grandfather) were living there. Shared!


Marcy Goodfleisch profile image

Marcy Goodfleisch 3 years ago from Planet Earth

Earthquakes are really fascinating to me - the movement of enormous plates of earth, or the uplift of sections, all those ways of creating these acts of nature are just - fascinating. We are so small, and the earth is so huge. Great topic!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California)

Dahlia,

Only a physicist could have explained the technical details of earthquakes the way you did, my friend. Well done!

Thanks for all the time you spent in researching and writing this excellent article.


midget38 profile image

midget38 3 years ago from Singapore

Natural disasters like these are so traumatic and life changing...and it takes so much time to get over the obstacle. Thanks for sharing!!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Mr Archer, thank you for reading and I am pleased you found this interesting. I did look up for the New Madrid quakes and it looks like a series of quakes that happened over a period of time.

I have not heard about the earthquake app, interesting to know. I will have a look. Terrifying to hear about your experience. I can imagine what you say. Have a great day and thank you so much for the votes!


Mr Archer profile image

Mr Archer 3 years ago from Missouri

Very thorough and interesting. I myself am interested in the 1811 - 1812 New Madrid Quakes. I actually have an earthquake app on my iphone, and on my laptop. About 18 months ago I had the unique experience of being awakened at a bit after 10:00 PM to a hum, or growl that was more heard than felt. It turned out to be an earthquake in central Oklahoma, about 100 miles away. If I felt that small quake, when the New Madrid wakes up my city might be hopping like crazy!

Voted up and interesting. Good job.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Thank you Gable, I am pleased you liked this. Thank you for the votes. Have a great week ahead!


Gcrhoads64 profile image

Gcrhoads64 3 years ago from North Dakota

Excellent, very well researched article. ++


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Pstraubie48, thank you so much for reading and sharing your experiences and thoughts. I am pleased this was interesting read for you. I can imagine how you feel about the earthquake reports.

Sending angels to you too.

Have a blessed week ahead :-)

Livingsta


pstraubie48 profile image

pstraubie48 3 years ago from sunny Florida

It was somewhat surprising to me that the deaths were not reported as they actually were at the time.

this was very interesting to read and to learn of the many facts I did not know.

We lived in Japan and earthquakes were frequent---not huge ones but enough to rattle us out of bed at night. And they kept reporting that a big one was on the way any day. Of course it happened 30 years after we left but the thought of that big one was stashed away in our minds.

Again thanks for sharing.

Sending Angels to you today :) ps


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Suziecat, thank you for reading. Yes unbelievable!!! I am pleased this was interesting for you. Have a good day!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Appsthatpayyou, thank you for taking the time to read and share your thoughts.It is indeed a very sad incident. Also thank you for the appreciation, votes up and share. Have a good day!


suziecat7 profile image

suziecat7 3 years ago from Asheville, NC

Excellent Hub. I can't believe the mayor would issue an order to kill despite the chaos. Thanks for the interesting read.

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