Emperor Akbar the Great of Mughal Empire

Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great

Akbar the Great

Jalaluddin Muhammad also known as Akbar succeeded his father Humayun to Mughal Throne (Naseeruddin Muhammad) when he was thirteen years old. He is the greatest King from the Mughal Empire and one of the notable personality in the history of India as he was very much successful in every aspect. He consolidated his power after being successful in fighting two battles, one with the descendants of Sher Shah Suri and the other was with the Hindu king Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat. He solidified his rule by pursuing diplomacy with other rulers. He began marriage alliances with the Hindu Rajput princesses and exercised great religions tolerance. He started religious debates with scholars from various religions. His reign significantly influenced art and culture in the nation.

Three important sources are available to study the history of Akbar. They are Akbar Nama written by Abul Fazal, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh by Abdul Qadir Badauni, Tabaqat-i-Akbari by Nizamuddin Ahmed. During his father's reign, Akbar was appointed as governor in Punjab and Bairam khan was appointed as his guardian. He was coronated at Kalanaur after the death of his father and then had returned to Delhi. With the help of Bairam Khan, Akbar defeated Hemaraj (Commander of Bihar King Md Adil Shah ), who occupied Delhi after the death of Humayun. Akbar has successfully occupied many territories and expanded the Mughal Empire in India. His military conquests include Malwa, Garh Katanga in 1561, Gujrat in 1572, Bihar and Bengal from 1574 to 76, Kabul in 1586, Baluchistan and Kashmir in 1586, Sind in 1591 and Orissa in 1592.

Akbar's Administrative Reforms: He introduced Mansabdari system (military and civil bureaucracy) in which mansabs (ranks) were assigned to government officials and military commanders. Hence, they were known as mansabdars. Their salaries were paid not in cash but through assignment of land revenue of a particular area known as jagir.

Akbar's Revenue Reforms: He introduced zabti system in which assessment of land revenue was made on the basis of measurement of land (the name of Todarmal is associated with this system) and later the Dahsal system in which the average produce of different crops as well as the average prices prevailing over the last ten years were calculated and state's share was fixed at the one-third.

Akbar's Religious Policy and Reforms: Akbar abolished pilgrim tax (1563), Jizya (1564) and held religious debates at Ibadat Khana (1575-82) which resulted in the proclamation of his new religion Tauhit-i-llahi (Din-i-llahi or universal religion) in which he incorporated the best principles from all religions.

Akbar combined the foreign and indigenous elements in his architectural movements. The most important of his buildings were Agra fort and the buildings at Fatehpur Sikris, which include Diwan-i-khas, Panch mahal, Birbal-ki-beti-ka-mahal, Marian's Palace, Palace of Rani Sultana, the tomb of Salim Chisti and the famous Buland Darwaza, which he constructed in commemoration of his victory over Gujarat. Akbar's tomb was constructed at Sikandra (near Agra) which was designed on the principles of a Buddhist Vihara.

More by this Author

Comments 17 comments

Surabhi Kaura profile image

Surabhi Kaura 6 years ago from Toronto, Canada

Well written! Yes, Akbar was the greatest King. He left his mark in the Indian histoy. Akbar's left hand was Birbal, who used to find answers of arduous questions for Akbar. Their stories are still famous in India. You've provided excellent information about Akbar. Thanks for posting this article.

dilipchandra12 profile image

dilipchandra12 6 years ago from India Author

Surabhi Kaura, you are right, Raja Birbal is one of the most prominent personality in the Akbar's court. He was the advisor / minister of the Mughal court in the administration of the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great. His duties were mostly military and administrative. He was also a very close friend of the Akbar, they frequently use to have witty and humorous exchanges between them which have become part of a rich tradition of folklore.

Thanks for stopping here and leaving ur comments.

Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY

This is interesting. I don't know much about Indian history and the Mughal Empire. I know all about the Mongols but not this empire. I'll have to delve into this more. Thanks for the info.

dilipchandra12 profile image

dilipchandra12 6 years ago from India Author

Robwrite... Thank q.

Uma07 6 years ago

India has a great historical background.Akbar's rule was unquestionable and he went on to become the greatest mughal ruler.You took me down memory lane when we had to study all these in History at school.

Great hub!


A great hub! I enjoyed reading it ....

dilipchandra12 profile image

dilipchandra12 6 years ago from India Author

Uma & CHEMISTRYOFLIFE... Thank you for the comments.

sushma 5 years ago

the mughal empire is intersting.and akbar life is very intersting.

Jalal Naqvi 5 years ago

the akbar is good for both muslims and hindus

Abhimanyu 5 years ago

I got all the information that i needed for my project.

Flickr 4 years ago

things....i never knew. very interesting.

shabaz banu 4 years ago

thanx for the person who has posted this article..through this i have revised my history which i've learnt in ma school...and i surely speard this to every unknown individual................

ayes 4 years ago

best para

adithi 3 years ago

uncle thank u it was useful in my project

saiqa khan 3 years ago

great information

chandni 3 years ago

Indian history has always facinated me...i luv reading abt Rajput and Mughal rulers...keep up the gud work n also write abt Rajputs.

pawani singh 2 years ago

thanks. it is helpful for my project work...

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.

    Click to Rate This Article