Bacteria Essential oils tea, tree Antibacterials and Antioxidants
Bacteria Essential oils Antibacterials and Antioxidants, Drug resistance, Antibacterial activity of Tea Tree Oil and its chemical composition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Antioxidant activity of plant extracts
Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and parasites. As this is especially true in hospitals and chronic care facilities, which provide strong selective pressure for the emergence of resistance because of the large quantities and the variety of antibiotics used in these environments, products of complementary and alternative medicines such as essential oils have become particularly popular in recent decades
Antibacterial activity of Tea Tree Oil and its chemical composition
information on antibacterial activity on tea tree oil and what their chemical composition is :Antibacterial activity of Tea Tree Oil and its chemical composition. The chemicals found in tea tree oils
Tea tree oil (TTO) has been one essential oil of great interest over recent years. TTO is derived from leaves of the Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia, by a steam distillation process. TTO is reputed to have several medicinal properties including antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties as established both in vitro and in a growing number of clinical trials. TTO is popular as a topically applied product for symptomatic treatment of common skin disorders such as acne, tinea pedis, bromidrosis, furunculosis, and mycotic onychia. TTO is also commonly used in folk remedies like the symptomatic treatment of burns, colitis, coughs and colds, gingivitis, impetigo, nasopharyngitis, psoriasis, sinus congestion, stomatitis and tonsillitis.
The chemical composition of tea tree oil has been well defined and consists largely of over 100 components, the majority being cyclic monoterpenes and their alcohols. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity exhibited by TTO is principally attributed to terpinen-4-ol with other oil components acting as lipophilic solvents and penetration facilitators.
To standardise and regulate the quality of TTO, and due to the variability in the chemical content, International Standard ISO 4730:2004 was introduced to set minimum and maximum concentrations for each of 15 main components: Terpinen-4-ol, γ-Terpinene, -Terpinene, 1,8-Cineole, Terpinolen, -Terpineol, -Pinene, p-Cymene, Aromadendrene, δ-Cadinene, Limonene, Ledene, Sabinene, Globulol, Viridiflorol.
TTO and other antimicrobially active essential oils are believed to act as damaging agents of cell membrane structure in bacteria, which provide a barrier to the passage of small ions such as H+, K+, Na+ and Ca2+ and allow cells and organelles to control the entry and exit of different compounds. This permeability barrier role of cell membranes is important to many cellular functions, like the maintenance of the energy status of the cell, solute transport, regulation of metabolism, and control of turgor pressure. However, organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus( including methicillin-resistant S. aureus) and Escherichia coli are relatively susceptible to the antimicrobial action of TTO, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa appear to be more resistant than nonsporulating, nonmycobacterial gram-positive bacteria. It is demonstrated that the outer membrane of Ps. aeruginosa provides an essential contribution to its high resistance, in comparison with other organisms, there are differences in lipopolysaccharide composition and in the cation content of the outer membrane.
What is Escherichia coli ? more information on e. coli o157
Escherichia coli is believed to be one of the most versatile of all bacterial pathogens. Some strains are important members of the normal gut flora in man and animals, whereas others possess virulence factors that enable them to cause infections. E. coli colonises the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. E. coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohaemorrhagic colitis.
Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis is part of the commensal bacterial flora of healthy people and a frequent coloniser of human skin, throat or nose S. epidermidishas emerged over recent years as an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a large diversity of nosocomial infections, especially in patients with implanted medical devices. Antibiotic resistance and the ability of many nosocomial S. epidermidis isolates to form biofilms on inert surfaces make these infections hard to treat. This opportunistic bacterium is also frequently responsible for infections in immune-compromised patients.
What is Pseudomonas aeruginosa ? Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis infection control is one of the most ubiquitous of bacterial species and comprises an almost limitless number of strain populations .
Ps. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections of skin and burns. It is a major lung pathogen in cystic fibrosis and can cause pneumonia in intubated patients. It can also cause urinary tract infections, septicaemia, osteomyelitis and endocarditis. Ps. aeruginosa is notorious for its involvement in nosocomial infections as well as trauma wounds and its resistance to antibiotics. so treatments for Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not always easy.
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Antioxidant activity of plant extracts
Antioxidant activity of plant extracts: the use of Antioxidants extracted from plants the brake down. Due to the fact that reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and other free radicals can cause functional abnormalities and pathological changes leading to and exacerbating many chronic diseases like heart diseases, stroke, arteriosclerosis, gastric ulcer, cancer, as well as cause aging process and also to replace synthetic antioxidants, which are being restricted due to their side effects such as carcinogenicity, an interest in the antioxidant activity of plant extracts has increased dramatically.
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