Chemistry Notes on Atomic Structure, Electron Configuration, Periodic Trends and Bonding
Electron Configuration Table
Paramagnetic - elements that have unpaired electrons
Dimagnetic - elements that do not have unpaired electrons
Pauli Exclusion Principle - No 2 electrons can have identical quantum numbers and will be found in opposite spins as marked by a (-1/2 and 1/2)
Degenerate orbitals - orbitals with the same principal energy levels (n) have the same amount of energy because there is no electron-electron repultion, only proton-electron attraction and kinetic energy motion.
Principal Energy Levels(n)
Excited Electron States
Wavelength and Photons
When you excite an electron (give it energy) it moves to a higher energy level. When it returns to the ground it gives off wave energy (some type of light).
- Speed of light: λv=C
- Plank's Constant: ΔE=hv
- v=hertz/frequency (cycles per second)
- Energy=mass x the speed of light (C0
- deBroglie's Equation: λ=h/(m)(v)
Periodic Table Trends
- Ionization energy - decreases down a group, increases across a period
- Electronegativity - decreases down a group, increases across a period
- Atomic Radius - increases down a group, decreases across a period
***The electrons ALWAYS want to be as far apart as possible!***
Number of electron pairs and VSEPER (Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) arrangement.
- 2 pairs = linear
- 3 pairs = Trigonal planar
- 4 pairs = tetrahedral
- 5 pairs = Trigonal bipyramidal
- 6 pairs = Octahedral
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