How to Use Critical Thinking Skills - Analyse, Evaluate, Predict, Improve Long-Term Memory for Dyslexics

Why Critical Thinking Skills?

Well, because nifwlseirff asked an interesting question : How do you Learn or Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

In this hub we'll be

  • looking at the different ways information is presented,
  • exploring the processes which need to be gone through in order to absorb that information,
  • then seeing how we analyse and evaluate what we are being told
  • and what we can do with it.

The outcome of having taken in the knowledge presented will be different for each person and the applications will be even more varied.

My interest in critical thinking skills? Teaching dyslexic students basic study skills is important. It relies on thinking about information presented in order to learn. It has to be a highly structured and progressive process which can be followed and practised in order to commit information to long-term memory, thereby facilitating other information arriving in long-term memory. Critical thinking relies on those basic skills.


Study the Details

Studying documents
Studying documents | Source

Why do we Need Information?

  • for the study of specific subjects
  • for interest, learning about your favourite sport, author, artist, actor, car
  • for personal information on health issues, educational courses, jobs, emergencies...
  • in order to reason & make decisions regarding finances, choosing a house, buying a car...


The World Around Us

Information about an area
Information about an area | Source
What can you see? What do you think?
What can you see? What do you think? | Source

Where does the info come from?

  • we listen to people, to radio, to teachers
  • we read newspapers, books, magazines, pamphlets
  • we look at and listen to television - news, documentaries, reports
  • we read, look and listen on our PCs, laptops, etc.
  • we look at the world around us


How do we analyse and evaluate it?

  • is it interesting?
  • is it relevant? to me? to the question/subject?
  • is it true?
  • is the presenter reliable/reputable?
  • is the presenter biased?
  • are both sides of an argument presented?
  • how much proof of detail/fact does the source give?
  • are references given?
  • is it well-presented (varied, with colour, easy to follow, planned & sequenced)?
  • is the message clear?
  • does it have visual back-up where relevant?
  • can questions be answered with integrity 'off the cuff'?
  • does it make me think?
  • is it useful for me?


So what?!

Booooring!
Booooring! | Source

What reaction do we have?

  • we form an opinion about it - interesting, boring, colourful, fascinating...
  • we might understand it easily or it might be confusing or complicated
  • we like or dislike it
  • we might be angry or happy or sad about it
  • we might find it useful and/or informative
  • we react, criticise, reason & decide by asking ourselves the questions above


How do we adapt this process to the classroom?

I'm referring to my experience in the classroom with dyslexics but this is equally applicable to any class of pupils being presented with information for learning, be it reading, science, geography or history.

It is useful to follow this sequence:

  • looking and listening, probably more than once,
  • then speaking, discussing, repeating,
  • then reading,
  • then writing,

just like we do when we learn our own language.

By looking and listening we take in information (if it is well-presented); information may be presented with visual cues but often also involves listening. The listening can be repeated, be it in exactly the same way or in an alternative fashion to keep the interest, to keep the content fresh. It may be listening to the teacher or someone else talking (cd or video as a specialist resource), it may be listening to reading (by teacher or peers), or listening to the radio or a recording.

Speaking refers to repeating or talking about the information. A teacher needs to find out how much is remembered, so having asked the pupil to pick out certain facts whilst listening and viewing, for example

  • Who is the most important person?
  • What type of car did they talk about?
  • What did he like to eat?

s/he will ask who can offer those pieces of information, making sure everyone gets a turn, and the information will be discussed in an attempt to get as much out of it as possible - pupils' ideas, any insights into what else they can surmise; many will open avenues of exploration, be inspiring, be accurate, or not so. Whichever it is, a discussion is valuable to everyone and reinforces what has been heard, as well as giving opportunities to reiterate what has been learnt or help others learn (as this is a powerful way of learning oneself).

It might then be necessary to read further about the topic, either in a text book, or on the net, or by looking up information in the library. This could involve making notes but photo-copying is a useful alternative if writing presents difficulties (and it saves time!). Listening and discussion can come back into the frame at this stage when new facts and ideas emerge and need sharing and evaluating.

Evaluating is done by asking questions such as those in the analysing & evaluating section above, making the pupils think carefully and realise that all information should not always be taken at face value, depending on the subject and the source. A History exam requires the pupil to do just that, to look at a source and, with background knowledge of the period of History being examined, to be able to decide whether that source is valid or not and discuss whether the content, or some of it, can be relied upon. There may not be a definitive conclusion but it is the process of evaluating, of being aware of possibilities and pitfalls, which is the most important.

Inevitably, some sort of writing will be necessary to record what has been learnt, what has been discussed, how some points have been evaluated and what opinions have been formed. The information will be put to use in the form of an essay or power-point presentation or verbal and visual presentation. Some will be hand-written, some typed, some recorded with voice-activated software, some dictated for typing by another.

The information will also, hopefully, be put to use by storing it in the memory and being able to recall it when needed, to apply it to the relevant situation, in order to make reasonable decisions.


Do You Know Where This Is?

The Big Picture - where? when? who? why?
The Big Picture - where? when? who? why? | Source

Cornell Note-taking System

A4 sheet, Cornell layout
A4 sheet, Cornell layout | Source

Example - Teaching a Study Skills Lesson

Study skills are important for any pupils, more so for dyslexics as they need to have a structured, directed way of dealing with learning and recording.

I often start off a lesson with 'jokes', to exercise the memory. This is set up by telling a joke, asking why it's funny, asking for it to be repeated and then saying I'll see who can remember it for the next lesson (in other words, to encourage repetition as this commits information into long-term memory). Anyone can bring another joke and the process is repeated. It also helps to have this sort of routine for lessons.

We'll then start with Observation:

I use a ‘Big Picture’ with lots of detail, such as that illustrated here, and ask the pupils to look at it for 1 minute, looking at each part of it in as much detail as possible.

I give out A4 plain sheets – after the minute, the picture is taken away. I ask the pupils to write/draw what they, individually, can remember of any details in the picture.

Then they listen to each other to find out what each has seen. I ask questions, such as: how many people/animals/.. did you see? What colour was....? What sort of building was there? What were the people in the foreground doing? A discussion ensues. Some pupils will argue the details, some will guess, some will be accurate and some not; they try to remind each other what was next to what.

I then go into more detail: What were the people wearing? Can you date the picture? Why was it painted/taken? What country is it? What kind of countryside? What do you think is the relationship between that person and those people?

Let them discuss and compare.

Ask them: (answers in brackets refer to the illustration here)

  • what the picture is of (a town/city centre.... a church.... a market.... Where? Birmingham)
  • where they think the picture comes from, (a print of an artist's impression, from information under the picture)
  • who might have painted it or photographed the scene, (again from info under the pic)
  • what period of history it might represent (the clothes and the buses indicate the era - 1949/early 50s)

They will have all sorts of ideas, some informed, some guesses; you'll probably be surprised at the knowledge some have. Then discuss any other detail which is of interest.

Ask them

  • for what purpose might the picture have been made;
  • to record history?
  • to influence?
  • to state fact?
  • to raise the artist's reputation or opinion?

(probably to depict a typical 50s scene on market day in the middle of Birmingham, to be a decorative piece but also as a conversation piece)

They are evaluating what they have seen. Then tell them what it’s about and ask them questions to check that the information has been retained. They should then add to their notes (always give a choice of picture or word notes).

All notes are kept and put in a file/folder, named and dated. They should refer to these notes and be able to tell you about a certain week’s lesson when they look back at them. Reminders are very important, to be able to commit all information eventually to long-term memory.

Further information on the subject can then be searched for, with help for reading where necessary. Notes (the Cornell method is good) are made and then all report back to the rest of the class for the next lesson. The accumulated information is discussed, a reminder is given about the process they have gone through and the usefulness of such is discussed. Individual or group presentations can be made about various aspects of the research.


Critical Thinking

Students like being critical. Channel their natural instincts and see where it takes you! Allow them to observe, to discuss and to find out more about whatever their interests are. These days, with the National Curriculum prescribing all, it is often difficult to stray off the set sequence of subjects. If there is time for separate Study Skills tuition, then it can be used to great effect whilst exploring subjects which otherwise are not afforded the time.

To evaluate something is quite a difficult concept, to challenge what is before you in black and white (or colour!), to ask who is providing the information and why, to see if the information is worthy or not... all this can be a difficult journey. With practice it can be rewarding and can be applied to many aspects of life.



Copyright annart (AFC) 2014 (No copying without permission; no changing of original hub)

  • Critical Thinking Brain Training - Marbles: The Brain Store

    Your frontal cortex is responsible for your critical thinking skills. The most effective leaders have the best critical thinking skills, so we like to think of the frontal cortex as the CEO, the president, the four-star general and the commander in c

  • Montgomery College

    Go to this site and search 'Cornell' for the note-taking system

More by this Author


20 comments

annart profile image

annart 22 months ago from SW England Author

Thank you for your kind comment, Audrey. I'm glad you enjoyed it.

Ann


AudreyHowitt profile image

AudreyHowitt 22 months ago from California

Love this wonderful hub!!


annart profile image

annart 22 months ago from SW England Author

Wow! Thanks, R.Q., for such a lovely comment.

I'm not sure what the criteria for HOTD is because I often see hubs which are below the standard of many others. That's only my opinion though!

For me, the pleasure comes from my fellow-hubbers' comments and conversation, so thanks again!

It's been great to 'see' you today!

Ann


Romeos Quill profile image

Romeos Quill 22 months ago from Lincolnshire, England

What's not to like about this Hub?

Should be required reading in its field and surely a worthy contender for HOTD.

Best Wishes Ann;

R.Q.


annart profile image

annart 2 years ago from SW England Author

Thank you, Rachael, for the visit, votes and the lovely comments. Good to see you today. Ann


RachaelOhalloran profile image

RachaelOhalloran 2 years ago from United States

This is a very good tutorial for a writer. I think it is especially important when it comes to relying on past information for a story or article basis. Information is only as good as the research and it can impact decisions made with critical thinking.

Critical thinking is imperative so that one can disseminate fact from fiction when reading articles that offer more than one point of view.

Good article. Voted up and interesting.


annart profile image

annart 3 years ago from SW England Author

Thank you, Tom, for stopping by and for the compliment. Yes, I hope so too; I know they did at our school for dyslexics and I think our present National Curriculum sets out pretty good guidelines for analysis of text. I think the 60s were quite good on the English/Grammar/Creative writing side of things. We seem to be coming round full circle, happily, though I'm not happy that education ministers go through 'fashions' or feel the need to experiment with children's schooling just to make a name for themselves. I do so wish they would ask the experts and actually listen. Sorry, seem to be ranting! Good to see you. Ann


Tusitala Tom profile image

Tusitala Tom 3 years ago from Sydney, Australia

This wonderful article got me to reaching for an old English text book I had to study way back in the late 1960s before sitting for my 'adult age' matriculation. The book? Thinking and Writing by B Bailey and D H Morgan. It was published in 1966 (No ISBN number) In it there is a chapter on Criticism and Evaluation. To me, then already over thirty, this book was an 'eye-opener' on being able to look really objectively at writing. I only hope school teachers are still teaching kids critically when it comes to the printed word.


annart profile image

annart 3 years ago from SW England Author

howcurecancer: Thank you for reading and for your comment. Good of you to follow me too; I'll have a look at your hubs as I'm involved with a breast cancer group called 'Breakthrough' in the UK.


howcurecancer profile image

howcurecancer 3 years ago

A great article! Very useful, I think.


annart profile image

annart 4 years ago from SW England Author

illustratedshorts: thanks for reading and for the comments; there are lots of great teachers out there and I had quite a few good ones but, yes, there should be more. I appreciate your support.


illustratedshorts 4 years ago

I wish some of my teachers had taken your advice!


annart profile image

annart 4 years ago from SW England Author

Thank you kingmaxler for dropping by and for your kind comments. There are many good teachers but I wish their training would include things like this! Sadly their curriculum doesn't always give enough time either. Have a great day!


kingmaxler profile image

kingmaxler 4 years ago from Olympia, Washington USA

What a great article. I wish that teachers everywhere could read this and implement the ideas you have put forth.


annart profile image

annart 4 years ago from SW England Author

Hi Ronnie: It is a position in which one has to be aware and sensitive of others' abilities and interests and guide them accordingly. You are so right about 'make or break'; it's almost a lottery in that you're lucky if you happen to have the teachers who make learning fun and who know how to make the most of a learning situation. Thank you for visiting and for the comment.


R. J. Lefebvre 4 years ago

annart,

After reading your hub, I feel like there are people alive and awake in key positions of existence. I believe the learning process is a make or brake, depending on the environment and the teachers, parents, etc.

Ronnie


annart profile image

annart 4 years ago from SW England Author

nifwiseirff: I totally agree with you. Thanks for your comment and for dropping by again.


nifwlseirff profile image

nifwlseirff 4 years ago from Villingen Schwenningen, Germany

I love how you have incorporated summarizing into the note-taking. I think both summarizing/paraphrasing and critical thinking skills should be taught more thoroughly in schools!


annart profile image

annart 4 years ago from SW England Author

I'm so pleased someone has finally commented on this one! Thanks Billy for your comments and thoughts. Yes, standardised tests are only relevant on the day, like a car's MOT (not sure what you call that in the US! - certificate of worthiness maybe?). I really appreciate your continued support.


billybuc profile image

billybuc 4 years ago from Olympia, WA

Without a doubt the best thing we can teach children is to think critically and logically. That is the tool they will use the rest of their lives...not math, not history, not any of the other subjects. I was taught that truth early on in my teaching career and I have never forgotten it. Standardized testing is worthless as an indicator of true intelligence.

Excellent hub my friend!

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working