Different Types of Ecosystems: Natural And Artificial Ecosystems

Deserts, forests, and meadows are terrestrial ecosystems.
Deserts, forests, and meadows are terrestrial ecosystems.

Environmental degradation is a major issue of our time. A basic environmental building block is the ecosystem. I am going to talk about the different types of ecosystems, in part because when I was working on a project on this subject, I could find no resources.

Definition of "Ecosystem": An ecosystem is a combination of two words: "ecological" and "system." Together they describe the collection of biotic and abiotic components and processes that comprise and govern the behavior of some defined subset of the biosphere.

These are the primary types of ecosystems:

  • natural ecosystems: Natural ecosystems may be terrestrial (meaning desert, forest, or meadow) or aquatic, (pond, river, or lake). A natural ecosystem is a biological environment that is found in nature (e.g. a forest) rather than created or altered by man (a farm).

Cultivated farms and gardens are types of artificial (human made) ecosystems.
Cultivated farms and gardens are types of artificial (human made) ecosystems.
  • artificial ecosystems: Humans have modified some ecosystems for their own benefit. These are artificial ecosystems. They can be terrestrial (crop fields and gardens) or aquatic (aquariums, dams, and manmade ponds).

This article focuses on types of natural ecosystems, how they are interdependent, and what we can do to protect them.

Types of Natural Ecosystems

There are two main types of natural ecosystems:

  • Aquatic natural ecosystem
  • Terrestrial natural ecosystem

In aquatic ecosystems, organisms interact with water (the word "aqua" means water). In terrestrial ecosystems, organisms interact with land (the word "terra" means land).

Aquatic ecosystems include rivers, ponds and lakes.
Aquatic ecosystems include rivers, ponds and lakes.

Aquatic Ecosystems

Aquatic ecosystems in general cover 71% of the earth's surface. As a type, aquatic ecosystems can be classified again into three varieties, defined by the kind of water with which organisms interact.

  • Freshwater This type includes lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, and wetlands and makes up the smallest percent of the earth's aquatic ecosystems.
  • Transitional communities These are places where freshwater and saltwater come together, including estuaries and wetlands.
  • Marine More than 70% of the earth is covered by marine, or saltwater, ecosystems. These include shorelines, coral reefs, and open ocean.

Mountains, forests, deserts, and grasslands are types of terrestrial ecosystems.
Mountains, forests, deserts, and grasslands are types of terrestrial ecosystems.

Terrestrial Ecosystems

Terrestrial ecosystems are classified by the type of land or terrestrial area.

  • Forest These ecosystems feature dense tree populations and include tropical rain forests.
  • Desert Deserts receive less than 25 cm of rainfall per year.
  • Grassland These ecosystems include tropical savannas, temperate prairies, and arctic tundra.
  • Mountain Mountain ecosystems include steep elevation changes between meadows, ravines, and peaks.

Energy, Ecosystems, and the Food Chain

The ecological cycle: plants process the sun's energy through photosynthesis, insects eat plants and absorb the sun's energy, and owls eat small mammals.
The ecological cycle: plants process the sun's energy through photosynthesis, insects eat plants and absorb the sun's energy, and owls eat small mammals.

Life is based on energy. For earth, the sun is the primary source of energy. Plants turn sunlight into chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis.

Plants and trees are the energy producers. Herbivores (plant eaters) and carnivores (meat eaters) are energy consumers. They take in the chemical energy from sunlight through the food they eat. With that energy they carry out all the processes of life.

The food chain illustrates this energy relationship.

When an insect eats a plant, the insect takes in some of the sun's energy. If a bird eats the insect, the energy is transferred again. When a mammal, like a wild cat, eats the bird, then the energy is transferred one more time. This is how energy flows through an ecosystem.

Global Interdependency of Ecosystems

Human impact on the environment, including development of river dams like this one, raises concerns among ecologists.
Human impact on the environment, including development of river dams like this one, raises concerns among ecologists.

Ecologists are very concerned with man's impact on the environment. All organisms and ecosystems on earth are linked to one another. They are said to be "interdependent."

The principles of ecological interdependency are

  • all species are dependent upon one another
  • when one is removed, through extinction or for human use, other species are effected, however indirectly
  • the impact of one species' extinction can slowly cause extinction of other species

An example of these principles is the relationship between sea otters, kelp, and sea urchins. Each species depends upon the others. Sea urchins eat kelp and sea otters eat sea urchins. All three species may be harvested by humans, upsetting the balance among the three. Industrial harvest of kelp removes sea otter habitat. Human hunting of sea otters also removes otters from the area. When sea otter populations move or die, sea urchins increase and devour entire stands of kelp. Harvesting too many sea urchins can lead to a decline in sea sea otter populations, which in turn leads to rebound in sea urchin population, denuding the kelp forest and discouraging sea otters from returning.

Without efforts to conserve natural resources, as well as recycling and reusing, some resources will be gone forever. If we do not take care of our planet's delicate balance of ecosystems, then that will be the end of us and our world.

Ecosystems require balance to thrive. When one element increases or decreases, the ecosystem must adapt to the change. For example, if a meadow or forest ecosystem receives less moisture than is normal, the fruit-bearing plants may not produce as much food for native animals. In turn, those animals will reproduce at a lower rate.

Humans have had a huge impact on the earth's ecosystems. The fertilizers used in farming, for example, often run off into streams and lakes, causing more algae than usual to grow. The increased algae kills off plants and animals in the lake. Soon, the lake's ecosystem is out of balance.

Human behavior has introduced pollution into the earth's ecosystems through the air, water, and soil. Also, human use of natural resources, especially fossil fuel, is altering the environment in serious and alarming ways.

Scientists have developed many tools to analyze human impact on the environment. One such tool is the environmental Kuznets' curve. Proposed by economist Simon Kuznets in the 1960s, the curve suggests a relationship between environmental quality and economic development.

According to the theory, certain elements of the environment (air and water, specifically) tend to degrade at first as a society develops and becomes more prosperous, and then improve in quality. Nevertheless the generalization that environmental quality can be expected to improve with increasing income is hotly contested—especially in a world where income and its environmental effects are very unevenly distributed between regions. Biodiversity, especially, seems to be decreasing as world income increases.

Are you taking any steps to save the environment?

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More Resources

In this article, I provide you with information about different types of natural ecosystems. There are many environmental issues to understand, including global warming, acid rain, and depletion of ozone.

More by this Author


Comments 61 comments

amorea13 6 years ago

Hi Forthefuture - I liked this hub and learned a lot - I am interested in this subject now though I spent a lot of years not bothering about it!Guess I'm like a lot of people!

I am also interested, however, in how 'big business' and government are NOT (not really) interested in truly doing anything which will interrupt their income-streams. They TALK about it but don't want to really lose their profits. It's down to the 'ordinary' person - as it always has been. Thanks for this hub - great.


Forthefuture profile image

Forthefuture 6 years ago from India Author

thanks..thank you very much..!!! sir..!! I would like to say you sir.! thanks again.! and about environment there are too many people ( I am also include) they just say to care of environment.! but don't do anything..! huh...


2uesday profile image

2uesday 6 years ago from - on the web, I am 2uesday.

Even though I try care about the environment it feels like a drop in the ocean when I look around at the waste and pollution that is considered acceptable. I hope you enjoy writing here on HubPages and I think you have made a good start with this page.


dramatis personae profile image

dramatis personae 6 years ago from USA

Hi this is a very nice hub. I'm new here too and just thought I'd drop by to say hi. I saw your comment posted in the forums. Hi.


Forthefuture profile image

Forthefuture 6 years ago from India Author

thanks 2uesday and dramatis.....thank you very much...!!!!


wednesday 5 years ago

Hi guys this info really helped me a lot in making my bio project. Thank You once again and keep giving people information about environment and ecosystem. Thank You


aLekhYa 4 years ago

.....?.......


kahot ano 4 years ago

ang hirap hnd ko maintindihan hay.................... naku bkt ganito


kathryn 4 years ago

tnx..i realy appreciate this


Sharanya 4 years ago

Hi ppl this info really helped me a lot in making my biology project. Thank You once again and keep giving people information about environment and ecosystem. Thanks guys!


Mellissa 4 years ago

This was AWESOME!!!!!!


priyanka vyas 4 years ago

It's good but you can include that how an aquarium made up


lana 4 years ago

1-forest ecosystem

2-narine ecosystem

3-natural ecosystem

4-tundra eosystem

5-fresh water ecosytem

6-marine ecosytem


sne khoza 4 years ago

I need help about,how the animals interect in forest ecosystem


soumya pandey 4 years ago

thanx


joseph 4 years ago

bobo


vladimere 4 years ago

SAVE MOTHER EARTH


pota 4 years ago

d ko maintindihan men


isagani taruc 4 years ago

thamk...for the info...VERY helpful...for me!!!!!!!!


innocent nhimbe 4 years ago

the natural ecosystem they have no cultivation occurs


Forthefuture profile image

Forthefuture 3 years ago from India Author

thanks to all for commenting on my article..thank you.


Sadaf 3 years ago

You May Include the Types Of Artificial Ecosystem With Main Points Clearly.


angel roshani 3 years ago

stop!!! stop !!! stop!!! pollution ........


abra 3 years ago

tnx a lot


BAHO BOTO 3 years ago

ANU YUN.......!!1


JANANISELVARAJU 3 years ago

REALLY ITS VERY HELPFUL FOR EVERYONE . YOU DONE A GREAT JOB. THANK YOU


brealiana5901 3 years ago

Tnx a lot for the info...

its very helpful...

save mother earth!..people


zohaib farman 3 years ago

plz add ecosystem its component and its types in one topic


Banita sinha 2 years ago

Thnx for the vital information.... it has helped me in making my bio project...


ELLAJOY 2 years ago

THANK YOU TOO FOR INVITING ME AS ONE OF YOUR GROUP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Divya Kushwaha 2 years ago

Thanx....


sneha 2 years ago

this helped me for my exams thanks........sir


subhash kushwaha 2 years ago

Very very thank u sir


rose 2 years ago

i hate science bad


nisheet zehbi 2 years ago

nyc effort. but can b even better and elaborated. thanx anyways :)


Rjade!!.. 2 years ago

Gosh!! Science so hard


kumar 2 years ago

not easy to understand


sham 2 years ago

supreb yaar ....lv u


tanishka 22 months ago

Its osum!


rasika 21 months ago

was very helpful osome


Ronald sowan 20 months ago

thank u 2 help me sir


bakhtawar 19 months ago

I like it


abing sumpi kago 18 months ago

Thank you...it is really wonderful da way this article describe ecosystem. It help me a lot.....


18 months ago

very nice note related environment. thanks lot.


mallika 17 months ago

I like my environment some people destroy the nature like cutting the trees that should be avoided


aishwarya 17 months ago

hey pple info reallyyy hlpd me a looot in makein ma prjsct..tnkuba lot


meccka 14 months ago

protec the mother nature and help the endengerd spiceis


chrishilda sarcol 13 months ago

hay ang hirap hindi ko maintindihan.........


Jessy Villa 13 months ago

Thank you very much ! It helps me to do my project !


Bharath 13 months ago

Thankyou for my exam


sree 12 months ago

it is helpful for children to get a more knowledge


fish 10 months ago

this was h elp ful my essay thing said what are benefits of your ecosytem (desert) i put less than 25 cm of rain fall a year . :)


lil savage 10 months ago

bruh


ashi 9 months ago

thanks.......


thaddaeus 5 months ago

this is really helpful for my mid report


Ayush Sinha 2 months ago

It's very helpful thanx I got the appropriate answer for my exam


LOL 7 weeks ago

thanks it works


lol 6 weeks ago

feosp


JUBLES 4 weeks ago

GREAT STUF .....HELPED ME TO STUDY FOR MY EXAM AND PASS


maria lesiel 7 days ago

this is a big help for me. it gives me additional knowledge on my studies especially on my exam... thanks a lot, more power and God bless...


maria lesiel 7 days ago

this is a big help for me. it gives me additional knowledge on my studies especially on my exam... thanks a lot, more power and God bless...

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