Disorders of human skeleton

Although human skeleton is hard and strong yet deformities do occur resulting in reduced movement or complete immovability. Deformities of the skeleton are of several types. They may be genetic, hormonal, pathogenic or due to the deficiency of nutrients. Some of the most important types of the deformities of the human skeleton will now be discussed.

Genetic deformities of human skeleton

Common genetic deformities of the skeleton are microcephaly, hare lips (cleft palate) and osteoarthritis. Microcephaly is characterized by small sized skull. A hare lip is a condition that leads to inhalation of food into the lungs. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease of the joints in which the degeneration of the bone and cartilage occurs. It is most common in people of old age.

Hormonal deformities of human skeleton:

The most common hormonal deformities of the human skeleton are acromegaly and osteoporosis. Acromegaly is the abnormal development of the bones of the face, hands and feet due to hyper secretion of anterior lobe of pituitary gland. Osteoporosis is the reduction in bone mass of aged women due to the decreased level of estrogen in blood.

Nutritional deformities:

These are the deformities of the skeleton occurring due to lack of one or more important components of the diet. It is important to understand that a balanced diet does not necessarily mean a diet in large quantity. It means a diet having balance of quality as well as quantity. Sometimes the diet of a person is sufficient in terms of quantity but as far as quality is concerned the diet is not good and thus the person develops symptoms similar to a person who do not get enough nutrition. The most important deformities of the skeleton related to the nutritional deficiency are rickets and osteomalacia. Rickets is a condition in children in which the bones become bent and destroyed and may result in knock-knee and bowleg. IT is caused by defective calcification which results from the deficiency of vitamin D in diet. Osteomalacia is the adult rickets. It is characterized by the softening of bone in which the mineral content of bone substance becomes greatly reduced. It is due to long standing deficiency of vitamin D in diet.

2 other important disorders:

Besides the above deformities of the skeleton there are also some other important disorders of human skeleton and are described blow;

Sciatica: The term sciatica is used to describe the condition in which the patient feels stabbing pain along the sensory distribution of the sciatic nerve. The pain is experienced in the posterior aspect of the thigh, lateral and posterior sides of the leg and lateral part of the foot.

Arthritis: Arthritis as the name indicates is the inflammation of the joints. The infection usually results from the invasion of the bacteria. The inflammatory arthritis primarily affects the joints but there are also extra articular manifestations which include skin, blood vessels and muscles.

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