Every Word Tells a Story 13 - Museum, Miniatures and Mausoleum

Hieroglyph for Water
Hieroglyph for Water

Mmmmm....

In our continuing etymological adventures we finally arrive at my favourite midpoint, M. ( Yes I admit I am partial to the letter as my name begins with an M).

M has had an interesting journey. It started as the Egyptian hieroglyph for water. It is thought to have then been borrowed by the Semitic alphabet as 'Mem' - their word for water. This was also adopted by the Phoenicians. It then arrived in the Greek alphabet as 'Mu'. ( μ).

Curiously and perhaps confusingly this bilabial nasal consonant was also described as a vowel in words ending in -sm. ( Phantasm, Spasm).

However, nowadays, it is agreed that 'M' is a syllabic consonant in words ending in -ism such as Prism and Schism.

Spot the Water hieroglyphs!
Spot the Water hieroglyphs!
Library of Alexandria , part of the Mouseion of Alexandria, Egypt.
Library of Alexandria , part of the Mouseion of Alexandria, Egypt.

The earliest reference to a Musaeum is the Mouseion of Philosophy and Research at the ancient city of Alexandria that was built by the Ptolemaic dynasty. The Library of Alexandria was part of this this great centre of study devoted to the sciences and art where many ancient scholars congregated. One of the greatest tragedies of the ancient world was the fire that destroyed this library and the thousands of papyrus scrolls collected within.

Museum

You can see the hieroglyphic 'm' is several segments on the plaque above. The above slab of Egyptian goodness can be found in the Louvre, which, incidentally brings us to the wonders of the Museum. Many of you would have visited a museum.You may even have wondered where the word 'Museum' comes from. Well, wonder no more.

The origins are from the Greek 'Mouseion' meaning the 'seat of the Muses'. It literally meant a temple dedicated to the Muses. As the muses inspire the study of science, arts and literature th 'mouseion' was a place of study. Somewhere in the 17th century the word transmogrified into Latin 'Museum' and alluded to place where collections of literary, art or scientific articles were assembled for public contemplation and study.

A Museum is a haven of learning, a symbol of culture and collective memory. Museums help to seek out, assemble, preserve and exhibit articles of immense scientific, cultural, educational and historical significance. They represent the ultimate desire of our species to learn and to self actualise. Take yourself and your offspring to one if you haven't been recently - it will always be a journey of discovery that will blow your mind.


The British Museum
The British Museum

Top Ten Museums of the World by Visitor Numbers ( 2016)

Ranking
Museum
Location
Visitors/ Year
1
The Louvre
Paris, France
8.6 million
2
National Museum of China
Beijng, China
7.3 million
3
National Museum of Natural History
Washington D.C., USA
6.9 million
4
National Air and Space Museum
Washington D.C., USA
6.9 million
5
British Museum
London, UK
6.8 million
6
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York City, USA
6.5 million
7
Vatican Museums
Vatican City, Vatican
6.0 million
8
Shanghai Science and Technology Museum
Shanghai, China
5.9 million
9
National Gallery
London, UK
5.9 million
10
National Palace Museum
Taipei, Taiwan
5.3 million
Apollo surrounded by all his nine Muses - Simon Vouet
Apollo surrounded by all his nine Muses - Simon Vouet
Mnemosyne by Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Mnemosyne by Dante Gabriel Rossetti


"As for the Mousai (Muses) . . . the majority of the writers of myths and those who enjoy the greatest reputation say that they were daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory); but a few poets, among whose number is Alkman [lyric poet C7th B.C.] state that they were daughters of Ouranos (Uranus, Sky) and Ge (Gaea, Earth). Writers similarly disagree also concerning the number of the Mousai; for some say they are but three, and others that they are nine, but the number nine has prevailed since it rests upon the authority of the most distinguished men, such as Homer and Hesiod and others like them." - Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 7. 1 (Greek historian C1st B.C.)

Muses

Who are these muses that give us the word Museum?

The Muses are the personification of knowledge- of arts, science, music and literature.

In ancient times, there were only three muses - Melétē ( Practice) , Aoidḗ ( Song) and Mnḗmē ( Memory). These three are known as the ancient muses or 'Titanical muses' and were worshipped on Mount Helicon.

In Hellenistic period, the muses multiplied to nine and were categorised and assigned names and functions. As with most Greek deities, they sprang from the loin of Zeus, who was nothing short of prolific in producing offspring. Many historians describe the nine muses as daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne - the Goddess of memory. However, some older myths depict them as the product of the Sky ( Uranus) and Earth ( Gaia).

The muses are also considered in some myths as water nymphs created when the springs of Helicon burst forth as the winged horse Pegasus touched his hooves on the grounds of Helicon. Hence you can se the muses sometimes depicted with Pegasus. another tradition is to depict Apollo with the muses - as he is known as their leader.

The nine muses are Calliope ( Epic Poetry) , Clio ( History), Euterpe ( Lyrical Poetry), Erato ( Love Poetry), Melpomene ( Tragedy), Polyhymnia ( Hymns), Terpsichore (Dance), Thalia (Comedy) and Urania ( Astronomy).

As most of classical learning was memorised in meter form before the arrival of prose, the muses represented metrical speech or ' Mousike'.

This rhyming speech or 'Mousike' became the English word Music.

The Nine Muses

Name
Aspect
Symbol/ Emblem
Calliope
Epic Poetry
Writing Tablet, Stylus, Lyre
Cleo
History
Scrolls, Books
Euterpe
Lyrical Poetry, Song, Music
Panpipes, Flute ( Aulos)
Erato
Love Poetry
Cithara - a type of Lyre
Melpomene
Tragedy
Mask of tragedy, Sword
Polyhymnia
Hymns
Grapes, Veil
Terpsichore
Dance
Lyre. Plectrum
Thalia
Comedy
Mask of Comedy, Shepherd's Crook
Urania
Astronomy
Globe and Compass

The Nine Muses by Jose Luis Munoz Luque

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Calliope by Jose Luis Munoz LuqueClio by Jose Luis Munoz LuqueEuterpe Jose Luis Munoz LuqueErato  by Jose Luis Munoz LuqueMelpomene by José Luis Muñoz LuquePolyhymnia by Jose Luis Munoz LuqueTerpsichore by Jose Luis Munoz LuqueThalia by Jose Luis Munoz LuqueUrania by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Calliope by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Calliope by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Clio by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Clio by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Euterpe Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Euterpe Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Erato  by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Erato by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Melpomene by José Luis Muñoz Luque
Melpomene by José Luis Muñoz Luque
Polyhymnia by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Polyhymnia by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Terpsichore by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Terpsichore by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Thalia by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Thalia by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Urania by Jose Luis Munoz Luque
Urania by Jose Luis Munoz Luque

Delicious Mango Salsa Recipe


INGREDIENTS

2 large mangos, diced
1-2 green chilli or jalapeno, finely diced
1/3 cup red onion, finely diced
1 small handful cilantro, finely chopped
1 lime, juiced

A pinch of sea salt to taste

INSTRUCTIONS

Combine all ingredients, mix, and serve. Store in the refrigerator in an airtight container for 3-5 days.

Mango

Growing up in India, the aroma of a ripe mango still lingers in my olfactory memory as the smell of summer. The mango is a tropical fruit belonging to the Mangifera family originating from south east asia and now cultivated worldwide. The commonest species is Mangifera Indica and it is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and Philippines.

It is also one of the words that originate from my mother tongue Tamil ( Tamilnadu) and its sister language Malayalam ( Kerala). The Tamil word Manga was borrowed by the Portugese and then got anglicised as Mango.

The flavourful mango is high in Vitamin C and Folic Acid. Interestingly pregnant women describe a craving for mango in India - perhaps it is an evolutionary protection as folic acid helps protect the foetus from nervous system deformities such as spina bifida.

The mango peel and pulp also contain high levels of beta carotene and flavonols.


Mango Tree - Mangifera Indica
Mango Tree - Mangifera Indica

Words in English from Tamil Language

Tamil is one of the longest surviving classical languages in the world. Tamil inscriptions date back to 500 BC and have even been found in Egypt as evidence that the Tamils from southern India traded with the classical kingdoms. over 70 million speakers around the world speak Tamil.

Ancient Tamil Literature has survived in Southern India - the oldest of which dates back to 1st century BC.

Mango isn't the only word that has been borrowed into English from Tamil - here is a list of other words that originate from Tamil roots.


Some English Words with Tamil Origin

English Word
Tamil origin
Tamil meaning
Anaconda*
Aanai Kondran (ஆனை கொன்றன் )
Elephant Killer ( tamil labourers worked in Portuguese South America)
Betel*
Vettrilai (வெற்றிலை)
வெற்று (vettru, "nothing") + இலை (ilai, "leaf"
Cash*
Kasu (காசு)
Money, Coins
Catamaran*
Kattumaram (கட்டுமரம்)
"kattu"=tied up, "maram"=wood
Cheroot*
Suruttu (சுருட்டு)
Roll
Coir*
Kayiru ( கயிறு)
Rope
Congee*
Kanji (கஞ்சி)
Water with rice, porridge
Coolee*
Coolie (கூலி)
Labourer
Copra*
Kopparai (கொப்பரை )
Coconut Husk
Corundum*
Kurundham (குருந்தம்)
Ruby
Cot*
Kattil (கட்டில்)
Bedstead
Curry*
Kari (கறி)
Sauce
Godown*
Kidangu ( கிடங்கு)
Store Room
Ginger*
Inji (இஞ்சி)
Ginger root
Jaggery*
Sakkarai (சக்கரை)
Cane Sugar
Maldives
Maalaitheevu (மாலத்தீவு )
Maalai மால (garland) and Theevu தீவு (island
Mango*
Manga (மாங்காய்)
Mango fruit
Moringa*
Murungai (முருங்கை)
Moringa oleifera ( Drumstick Tree)
Mulligatawny*
Milagu Thanni (மிளகுத்தண்ணி)
Pepper Water
Orange* ( Persian: nārang )
Narthangai / Narangai ((நார்த்தங்காய்)
Citron, Citrus Fruit
Pagoda
Pagavadi ( பகாவடி)
House belonging to a deity
Palmyra*
Panai Maram (பனை மரம்)
Palm Tree
Pariah*
Paraiyar ( பறையர்)
Untouchable, Ostracised
Patchouli*
Patchai Ilai (பச்சை இலை)
Green Leaf
Rice
Arisi (அரிசி) to Latin oryza
Rice grain, Paddy
Serendip (Old name for Sri Lanka) from which comes Serendipity
Cheran theevu ( சேரன்தீவு)
Cheran's Island
Tamil*
Tamizh (தமிழ்)
Tamil Language
Teak*
Thekku (தேக்கு)
Teak wood
Vetiver*
Vetti Veru (வெட்டிவேர்)
Aromatic Troipcal Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides)
 
 
 
* Source: Oxford English dictionary (OED)
Niccolo  Machiavelli by Santi di Tito.
Niccolo Machiavelli by Santi di Tito.

Machiavellian

My humble attempts at attributing English words to Tamil come from an etymological enthusiasm for the language rather than a cunning deceit. Talking of unscrupulous, deceitful or cunning behaviour the word that sums them all up is 'Machiavellian'.

The honour of becoming such admonishing adjective lies with the Florentine Statesman Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527). Machiavelli was born in Florence and raised in politically unsettling times. The Church waged frequent wars with the Italian city states. Allegiances changed like the shifting sands, lands were annexed and mercenaries flourished. Chaos and intrigue reigned supreme.

One could argue Machiavelli was merely a product of his times. His much read and frequently reviled book is the work ll Principe ( The Prince) . The central concept of his tenet was that ' the end justifies the mean' and he outlined political maxims for the ascendancy of the 'new prince'. He advised brute force, corruption and coercion to establish power. The book was promptly banned by the Church and placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum - an index of prohibited books.

This notorious work gained him fame beyond his lifetime by turning his name into the adjective' Machiavellian'.

It is not clear if Machiavelli did wholeheartedly support such deceit and coercion or was merely highlighting the world as it was. Some scholars feel he may be perhaps actually promoting Republican ideals by falsely glorifying tyrannical actions. As in his other work Discourses on Livy, he promotes Republican ideals.

Misunderstood or not, he has achieved etymological immortality.

Illuminated Manuscript
Illuminated Manuscript
Lead Tetroxide ( Minium)  Pb2+2Pb4+O4
Lead Tetroxide ( Minium) Pb2+2Pb4+O4
To Miniate
To Miniate

Miniature

Everybody who is familiar with the word Miniature will perhaps consider it as an extension of the prefix Mini- as in small scale. Miniature is generally used to describe a small scale work of art. You may be surprised know that this is simply an etymological misunderstanding.

The root of the word Miniature comes from the Latin word Minium. This is the name of the naturally occurring mineral of lead tetroxide, also known as red lead. In Medieval times the intensely calligraphic manuscripts were illuminated with the use of colourful inks. The red ink that was used to illustrate the small scale art within the manuscript was from the pigment extracted from red lead.

The act of highlighting the letters and art using the red or vermillion pigment was to 'Miniate' and the resultant small pieces of art called 'Miniatures'.

This has understandably led to the false etymology that led to the word Miniature to mean 'small scale art' .

The word Miniate now describes the art of illustrating letters and manuscripts using highly coloured pigments and inks and not just the red pigment.

Minium itself was from the name of the river Minius in Iberia, known to the Imperial romans as a site where they could find cinnabar. The word Minium was applied to the red pigment that coated the cinnabar crystals after extraction.

Minius is one of the longest rivers in Galicia, known now as Minho or Miño. The Romans called it the 'red river'.

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Statue of Mausolos at the British Museum
Statue of Mausolos at the British Museum
The Masonic House of the Temple of the Scottish Rite, Washington, D.C.,  by architect John Russell Pope,, was inspired by the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.
The Masonic House of the Temple of the Scottish Rite, Washington, D.C., by architect John Russell Pope,, was inspired by the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

Mausoleum

The name Mausoleum now means an elaborate tomb. The very first time this was applied to a tomb is to one of the seven ancient wonders of the world, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.

The elaborate tomb was an architectural marvel constructed around 350 BC at Halicarnassus . This city was within a small kingdom under the Achaemenid Empire on the western coast of Asia Minor. It was built in memory of their King Mausolos, who died leaving his sister-wife ( Yes, they kept it in the family) Artemisia as the ruler. She decided to build a tomb worthy of his memory and commissioned the greatest Greek architects of that time Satyros and Pythius of Priene. The tomb was over 148 feet tall and rectangular in shape. It was built with gleaming white marble and was decorated with elaborate sculptures on each side by four different sculptors of that period Leocharus, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus. The roof held a large brass chariot drawn by four horses.

The people marvelled at such a feat of architecture. As it was built in memory of Mausolos, it was named the Mausoleum. such was the splendour of the tomb that the word has become synonymous with all tombs.

Sadly the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was destroyed by a series of earthquakes between the 12th and 14th century. All that remains now is the rubble and a few columns in the city of Bodrum, Turkey.

Some of the artifacts from the tomb are held in the British museum. The marble from the ruins was used to fortify the fort at Bodrum by Crusaders.

The influence of the Mausoleum is not lost on architects of our era. Several modern buildings such as the Masonic House of the Temple of the Scottish Rite, Washington, DC, and the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne among others were all inspired by the Mausoleum.

Maelstrom
Maelstrom
First knonw use of the word Maelstrom in English, by Edgar Allan Poe.
First knonw use of the word Maelstrom in English, by Edgar Allan Poe.

Maelstrom

We conclude with the tumultous whirlpool of swirling water, the Maesltrom. One of the examples of Scandinavian words borrowed into English, the original Maelstrom refers to the Moskstraumen swirling body of water off the coast of Norway near the Lofoten islands. this is in fact the second strongest whirlpools in the world.

The strongest known maelstrom is Salstraumen close the Arctic Circle near the Norwegian city of Bodø. The third most powerful maelstrom is The Corryvreckan. It is situated on a narrow strait between the islands of Jura and Scarba, on the northern side of the Gulf of Corryvreckan, Scotland.

The word Maelstrom itself is from the Nordic malström and the Dutch maalstroom, from malen (to grind) and stroom (stream). This refers to the grinding motion of the whirlpool akin to the mill.

The rod first appeared in the English language from none other than our melancholy gothic maestro, Edgar Allan Poe in his short work, A Descent into Maelstrom.

Ancient Map of the Maesltrom off Norway complete with marauding sea monsters
Ancient Map of the Maesltrom off Norway complete with marauding sea monsters
Odysseus sailing between Scylla and Charybdis
Odysseus sailing between Scylla and Charybdis

Scylla and Charybdis

Those who have benefited from a classical education may recall that Odysseus had to navigate his ship between the twin dangers of Scylla ( A formidable rock shoal with monsters) and Charybdis ( a Whirlpool of destructive force).

This unenviable task has come to mean between two equally destructive choices. As in 'Between rock and a hard place'. Between a 'Scylla and Charybdis' means the same, only you sound smarter.

The Salstraumen Whirlpool

Samuel A Maverick, A Texas Rancher who gave the word Maverick to English language by refusing to brand his cattle.
Samuel A Maverick, A Texas Rancher who gave the word Maverick to English language by refusing to brand his cattle.

Maverick

I always considered myself a Maverick. An independent minded original. A trendsetter. An outsider and a non conformist. ( I could also more likely to be delusional).

The word Maverick originated due to the eponymous actions of a Texas Rancher Samuel Augustus Maverick (1803–70). This non conformist refused to brand his cattle. Originally the name Maverick was used to refer to an unbranded cow. Subsequently this resulted in his name being synonymous with rule breakers and unorthodox thinkers.

Samuel Maverick served as the Mayor of San Antonio, Texas, in 1839. Also served as a Delegate to the Texas Republic Constitutional Convention in 1836, and Member of the Texas State Legislature in 1845.

I shall leave you with a maverick mindset and much magnificent musings. The journey through M concludes here, but who knows what wonderful marvels 'N' will bring. I promise not to keep you waiting long. thank you for your patience and persistent readership. I appreciate it very, very, much.

Alphabet art by Jason Wright - name the 'M' animals and plants within
Alphabet art by Jason Wright - name the 'M' animals and plants within

© 2016 Mohan Kumar

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Comments 12 comments

BlossomSB profile image

BlossomSB 8 weeks ago from Victoria, Australia

This is a very interesting article and quite informative. I love all the images, too, you have spent a lot of time in research for some of the material. However, I think that some of the words that you list as having a Tamil origin may be the other way around: that they may have been adapted from English into the Tamil language. Words such as 'cash' and 'mango', for instance originally came to the English language from the French, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Never-the-less, I really enjoyed your article and all the work you must have put into it.


Docmo profile image

Docmo 8 weeks ago from UK Author

Thanks for your comments. Much appreciated. As Tamil is one of oldest surviving languages ( gors back further than 500 BC) there is evidence that words like mango and cash were absorbed into English, Portugese or French when they colonised India. compared to Tamil English is a very young language that has grown through adopting and assimilating words from every other language ...


teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 7 weeks ago

It is good to read another one of your interesting articles, Doc. Inserting the mango trivia as clever. I will have to try the recipe. I now know what a maelstrom is and to avoid them!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 7 weeks ago from UK Author

Thank you Dianna. Appreciate your visit and comment. Good to be back.


Sunshine625 profile image

Sunshine625 7 weeks ago from Orlando, FL

Not delusional, you are indeed a maverick. This collection of information is magnificent. And you have been missed. :)


Docmo profile image

Docmo 7 weeks ago from UK Author

Aww Sunshine. It's good to be back. Hope all is well. I missed y'all. I missed the sunshine smile.


fpherj48 profile image

fpherj48 7 weeks ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

Huh?? Did someone say, "DOCMO??" Oh mah Lord Pig Sty! Ah had no idee-er that you was so dang smart an all that! Ah have fallen in love with you all over again! Oh mah man...sing to me..talk to me in all those fancy langwedges! I ain't never leavin yo cute butt never agin! Daisy

Welcome home! We MISSED you!.....Paula :)


Docmo profile image

Docmo 7 weeks ago from UK Author

Oh mah Daisy, as missed you mah baby! Mah cute lit'l sugar plum. - Pig Sty

It's like I never left. Good to be back Thanks, Paula.


btrbell profile image

btrbell 7 weeks ago from Mesa, AZ

Wow! So impressive! You have put so much interesting information here. I had no idea! Love this and how much I've learned from it! I'd say welcome back but I've been gone too. So instead....geeat to see you here again!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 7 weeks ago from UK Author

Great to see you here too - really glad you enjoyed this. Thank you.


bravewarrior profile image

bravewarrior 6 weeks ago from Central Florida

Fascinating stuff, Doc! Is is my imagination or do all the nine muses have the same face? It looks that way to me.

Thanks for the education. It's great to see you back!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 6 weeks ago from UK Author

Thank you Shawna, its good to see you here. The Muses as depicted by that artist do indeed have the same face.

It's good to be back.

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