First World War Artists - The Art, Paintings and Poetry of the Great War 1914-18

Grenade Attack on Panzer Tanks by Fritz Fuhrken

Grenade attack on Panzer Tanks, Battle of Amiens, The Somme 1918 by Fritz Fuhrken. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Grenade attack on Panzer Tanks, Battle of Amiens, The Somme 1918 by Fritz Fuhrken. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

World War I - the war to end all wars

The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;
And bugles calling for them from sad shires
What candles may be held to speed them all?


from 'Anthem for Doomed Youth' by Wilfred Owen (1893 - 1918)

Much has been written about World War I, the Great War, the war to end all wars. But nothing evokes the horror, the misery, and the needless suffering, quite so well as the poetry and art produced by the men and women who witnessed this carnage at first hand. A few daubs of paint, or a few well-chosen words have the power to instantly conjure up the dreadful, inhuman suffering that men and boys went through in the 1914-1918 trench warfare in Europe.

Both sides of this conflict had their artists and poets, and this first painting (above), by Fritz Fuhrken was painted by a young German soldier who was captured in France towards the end of the war, and subsequently held in a Prisoner of War camp in Yorkshire, England. The painting is very simple, yet it readily conveys the horror of a tank under grenade attack during the Battle of Amiens. Fuhrken has used a wash of red paint as his background, and this helps the painting to convey a sense of danger, destruction and bloodshed.

The Crest of Vimy Ridge by Gyrth Russell (1918)

The Crest of Vimy Ridge by Gyrth Russell. (1918) Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
The Crest of Vimy Ridge by Gyrth Russell. (1918) Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

A Rendezvous with Death

"I have a rendezvous with Death
At some disputed barricade,
When Spring comes back with rustling shade
And apple-blossoms fill the air -
I have a rendezvous with Death
When Spring brings back blue days and fair"

From "Rendezvous" by Alan Seeger

Between 1914 and 1918 much of the fiercest fighting took place in the fields of France and Belgium. The war ravaged landscape was vividly captured by official war artists who were specially commissioned for the job. This painting of Vimy Ridge by Gyrth Russell evokes a grim, grey, muddy dawn in a countryside devoid of beauty, and made barren by desparate and prolonged conflict.

Gyrth Russell was a Canadian, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1892. He was commissioned in London by Lord Beaverbrook, and spent much of 1918 recording the nightmarish landscape of battlefield France, working alongside artists such as Frank Brangwyn and Augustus John.


House of Ypres by A. Y. Jackson, 1917. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
House of Ypres by A. Y. Jackson, 1917. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

House of Ypres

At first glance this painting by Canadian artist Alexander Young Jackson (1882-1974) is reminiscent of the work of Vincent Van Gogh. It is only when we start to look at the subject matter do we realise that this artist, painting in an Impressionistic style, is actually recording the grim reality of war. Houses demolished, homes and lives destroyed. Only the mounted soldiers glimpsed through the ruins, survive in this ugly scene of damage and disaster.

Alexander Jackson first came to Europe to study art in Paris, but when war broke out he soon signed up to fight alongside his fellow Canadians. Ater sustaining an injury at the Battle of Sanctuary Wood in June 1915, he was sent to the UK to recover. It was here that he came to the attention of Lord Beaverbrook, and, in 1917, Jackson returned to France to record the hostilities as an official war artist. He remained in France until 1919, and resumed his career in his native Canada after the war ended.

Gassed by John Singer-Sargent

Gassed by John Singer Sargent. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Gassed by John Singer Sargent. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

Gassed!

'Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs,

And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots,
But limped on, blood-shod. all went lame; all blind;
Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
Of gas-shells dropping softly behind.'

From 'Dulce et Decorum Est' by Wilfred Owen

John Singer Sargent completed this large oil painting in March 1919. 'Gassed' depicts the aftermath of a mustard gas attack in heart-rending detail. A line of wounded soldiers trudge wearily towards a dressing station, and just as in Wilfred Owen's haunting poem, 'Dulce et Decorum Est', the men stumble blindly forward, their eyesight stolen by the cruel fumes of the mustard gas. Each man staggers on with his hand upon his comrades shoulder to steady and guide his route, as they pick their way through the bodies of dead and dying servicemen.

Sargent was commissioned by the British War Memorials Committee in 1918, to document the war in France and Belgium. Initially he was stationed with the Guards Division near Arras, and subsequently at Ypres with the American Expeditionary Forces.. 'Gassed' was voted picture of the year by the Royal academy of Arts in 1919, and it is now part of the collection at the Imperial War Museum in London, England.

Mud Road to Passchendaele by Douglas W. Culham

Douglas W. Culham - Mud Road to Passchendaele. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Douglas W. Culham - Mud Road to Passchendaele. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

The Road to Passchendaele

'Here on the ridge where the shrill north-easter trails
Low clouds along the snow,
And in a sreaming moonlit vapour veils
The peopled earth below,
Let me, O life, a little while forget
The horror of past years -
Man and his agony and sweat,
The terror and the tears,'

From 'The Ridge: 1919' by Wilfrid Gibson

Douglas Culham was a Canadian serving with the 3rd Canadian Division Ammunition Column at Passchendaele when he painted this eerie night-time picture of the supply line. The nightly ammunition run to the 18-pounder batteries during the Battle of Passchendaele in October and November, 1917, was essential but dangerous work. Culham's painting can today be seen in the Canadian War Museum.

Alfred Theodore Joseph Bastien - Canadian Gunners in the Mud. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Alfred Theodore Joseph Bastien - Canadian Gunners in the Mud. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

Canadian gunners struggling through mud.

Belgian artist Alfred Bastien (1873-1955) volunteered as a war artist in 1915, working initially with Belgian troops, then, from 1917, with the Canadian troops at Arras and Paschendaele. His painting of Canadian gunners struggling through mud, is now part of the Beaverbrook collection in the Canadian War Museum. Bastien's loose, Impressionistic style of painting powerfullly evokes the hostile environment and the skillful determination of desparate men as they battle nature itself to free their heavy artillery from the mire.

Gondola Basket of a Zeppelin by  Felix Schwormsatdt 1917. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Gondola Basket of a Zeppelin by Felix Schwormsatdt 1917. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

A new way of fighting - from the air

"I know that I shall meet my fate
Somewhere among the clouds above;
Those that I fight I do not hate,
Those that I guard I do not love;

From "An Irish Airman Forsees his Death" by William Butler Yeats

The First World War was different from all previous wars in very many ways, but one of the biggest differences was in the use of airships and aeroplanes. This painting is by Felix Schwormstadt (born Hamburg 1870, died Locarno 1930) and is of the cabin of a Zeppelin airship.

Aeroplanes and airships were comparatively new inventions in 1914. The Wright Brothers made their first recorded test flights in December 1903, so the idea of aerial assaults was a novel one. Airships and aeroplanes soon proved their worth however, and the innovations and improvements made during World War One served to speed the development and spread of aircraft in general. The exploits of the so-called 'knights of the air' soon passed into legend, and one particularly successful flying ace was a German named 'Manfred von Richthofen', more popularly known as 'The Red Baron.'

English: 8th August, 1918 (oil-on-linen, 107 cm x 274 cm, 1918-1919) by Will Longstaff, Australian official war artist. Depicts a scene during the Battle of Amiens. The view is towards the west, looking back towards Amiens. Courtesy of Wiki Commons
English: 8th August, 1918 (oil-on-linen, 107 cm x 274 cm, 1918-1919) by Will Longstaff, Australian official war artist. Depicts a scene during the Battle of Amiens. The view is towards the west, looking back towards Amiens. Courtesy of Wiki Commons

The Art of Camouflage

"Good-morning, good morning!" the General said
When we met him last week on the way to the line.
Now the soldiers he smiled at are most of 'em dead,
And we're cursing his staff for incompetent swine
"He's a cheery old card," grunted Harry to Jack
As they slogged up to Arras with rifle and pack
But he did for them both with his plan of attack

From 'The General' by Siegfried Sassoon

Australian artist, Captain William Frederick Longstaff (1879- 1953) enlisted with the Australian Imperial Force at the outbreak of the First World War. He was already an experienced soldier, having previously served in the Boer War, and he was soon on his way to Gallipolli. Later in the war he served in both France and Egypt before being commissioned as an official War Artist on the Western Front in 1918. After the war ended, Longstaff settled in Sussex, England where he continued to paint, specialising in portraits and military subjects.

Longstaff was a pioneer in the use of camouflage, and his work, whilst in active service, is credited with having helped to save many lives.

 Dead Germans in a Trench by William Orpen 1917. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Dead Germans in a Trench by William Orpen 1917. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

Respecting the Dead

'Near Martinpuich that night of Hell
Two men were struck by the same shell,
Together tumbling in one heap
Senseless and limp like slaughtered sheep.'

From 'The Leveller' by Robert Graves

William Orpen's shocking and confrontational painting, 'Dead Germans in a Trench' is typical of Orpen's emotional response to the sickening and ugly realities of war. Perhaps more than any other war artist, Orpen sought to render truthful images of his dreadful experiences. This painting of two dead Germans could just as well represent men of any nationality. Orpen was profoundly affected by the war, and it bred in him a strong distain towards politicians and war-mongers.

Sir William Newenham Montague Orpen was born in Stillorgan, co. Dublin (Southern Ireland) in 1878 and worked as a draughtsman and painter in the early 1900s. After war broke out, Orpen was drafted as an official War Artist alongside many other well-known painters of the day, including Augustus John and Sir John Lavery. His time on the Western Front in France was spent painting and drawing dead soldiers, prisoners of war and official portraits. The horrors of war had a strong impact on his work, and art critics noted a much more detached essence to his post-war output. He died in London, in 1931, aged 53.

Ruins at Reninghe (Flanders) by Georges Emile Lebacq. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Ruins at Reninghe (Flanders) by Georges Emile Lebacq. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

A Memory

'There was no sound at all, no crying in the village,
Nothing you would count as sound, that is, after the shells;
Only behind a wall the slow sobbing of women,
The creaking of a door, a lost dog - nothing else.
Silence which might be felt, no pity in the silence,
Horrible, soft like blood, down all the blood-stained ways;
In the middle of a street two corpses lie unburied,
And a bayoneted woman stares in the market-place.


From 'A Memory' by Margaret Sackville

Front in Yser (Flanders) by Georges Emile Lebacq. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
Front in Yser (Flanders) by Georges Emile Lebacq. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

The art of war-time landscape painting

Georges Emile Lebacq (1875-1950) was a Belgian painter who painted in an Impressionistic and Post-Impressionistic style. After hostilities commenced, he joined the general staff at La Panne as an official War Artist alongside fellow Belgian, Alfred Mostien.Lebacq produced many paintings during this period, two of which can be seen above. He also completed large numbers of very gloomy charcoals, showing the ruins and damaged landscape at the front of Yser.

George Benjamin Luks - Knitting for the soldiers. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons
George Benjamin Luks - Knitting for the soldiers. Image courtesy of Wiki Commons

Socks

"Shining pins that dart and click
In the fireside's sheltered peace
Check the thoughts that cluster thick -

20 plain and then decrease.

He was brave - well, so was I -
Keen and merry, but his lip
Quivered when he said good-bye -

Purl the seam-stitch, purl and slip,

Never used to living rough,
Lots of things he'd got to learn
Wonder if he's warm enough -

Knit 2, catch 2, knit 1, turn."

From 'Socks' by Jessie Pope

I've included the above painting even though it was not actually by an official war artist. George Luks was an American artist, a member of the Ashcan school of art, and this painting represents the women and families at home waiting for news of their men-folk who are away at war. In those days it was common to knit socks by hand, and here we see the wives, mothers and sisters of the soldiers, busily producing warm socks for their loved ones, many miles away. The snowy scene reminds us of the tough conditions the men-folk are likely to be enduring, and this is echoed in the next painting, shown below.


Mametz, Western Front by Frank Crozier (1919)

Mametz, Western Front: men, animals and supplies in snow covered valley (1919) by Frank Crozier (1883-1948), Australian official war artist.  Depicts a scene in the rear area of I Anzac Corps during the Battle of the Somme,  winter of 1916-17
Mametz, Western Front: men, animals and supplies in snow covered valley (1919) by Frank Crozier (1883-1948), Australian official war artist. Depicts a scene in the rear area of I Anzac Corps during the Battle of the Somme, winter of 1916-17

Winter Warfare

'Colonel Cold strode up the Line
(tabs of rime and spurs of ice);
stiffened all who met his glare:
horses, men, and lice
Visited a forward post,
left them burning, ear to foot;
fingers stuck to biting steel,
toes to frozen boot'

From 'Winter Warfare' by Edgell Rickword

Artist Frank Rossiter Crozier enlisted as a soldier with the Australian Imperial Force in March 1915. He served in the 22nd Battalion in Egypt and later at Gallipoli, where he was approached by journalist C.E.W. Bean to help illustrate the 'Anzac Book', a collection of short stories and illustrations for the troops. Bean, who had been given the role of official military historian, was impressed with Crozier's artistic abilities, and when official war artists were being commissioned by the Australian Government, Bean happily put Crozier's name forward.

Crozier served in France from 1917, but he was not made an official war artist until 1918. Whilst many of his fellow war artists were actually civilians who had been attached to the army and given honorary rank, Frank Crozier was already a serving soldier, and so his contributions were considered to be part of his military duties.

The painting above of soldiers in the snow shows vividly yet more of the adverse conditions these men fought under.

'Bringing up the guns' by Harold Septimus Power, 1917

Courtesy of Wiki Commons
Courtesy of Wiki Commons

War Horses in Action

This vivid depiction of the 101st Australian Battery moving up the guns at the Battle of Passchendaele shows a team of six horses, a rider on one of each pair, struggling through heavy mud as they attempt to pull the gun carriage laden with an 18 pounder gun. The ground is so soft, and the burden so heavy, that two foot soldiers are also hauling on ropes. The 1st Australian Imperial Force took part in the third Battle of Ypres, in Passchendaele, Belgium, and this painting illustrates some of the difficulties the Australian and British artillerymen faced on the battlefield.

Harold Septimus Power (1877 -1951) was a New Zealand born, Australian artist who studied art in Paris between 1905 and 1907. He was appointed as an official War Artist, attached to the Australian Imperial Force in 1917, and this excellent oil painting is one of a number of works he produced during this commission. Power is particularly noted for his skills in in depicting horses and other animals.

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Comments 35 comments

Paraglider profile image

Paraglider 5 years ago from Kyle, Scotland

Lest we forget...

This is a truly shocking collection of poems and paintings from the war that didn't end all wars. Leaders' willingness to sacrifice their own citizens for their own ends sadly seems never to be overcome.

I was familiar with al of the poems, but several of the paintings I'd never seen before, so thanks for putting this together. (p.s. 'coughing like hags' - there's no 'old').


diogenes profile image

diogenes 5 years ago from UK and Mexico

You've done it again, Amanda. I love the combination of verse, the paintings, and a small description of the artist and the details of the battle, etc. No one can understand war, yet people scream in denial and glorify it with the same breath. And young men ever go and get killed for old men's avarice. Great work! Bob


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Paraglider,

Thanks for spotting my slip there. 'Coughing like old hags' - woops!

When I was putting this together I was particularly struck by William Orpen's story. So many of the other artists concentrated their attention on the ruined landscape, whereas Orpen saw the soldiers and the ruined lives. The dreadful thing about war is the almost casual way that a few politicians can order up hell on earth, and never have to experience even a minute of it if they choose not to.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Bob,

I don't understand war at all. The young lads who kissed their sweethearts goodbye and set off for France all those years ago, could not have had even one tiny clue as to what they were letting themselves in for. The first World War poetry is absolutely heart-rending. What terrible suffering men inflict on each other.

Thanks for stopping by!


Twilight Lawns profile image

Twilight Lawns 5 years ago from Norbury-sur-Mer, Surrey, England. U.K.

Amanda, what a stunningly beautiful and harrowing hub. Almost a century away, and it still has impact. Beautiful and thoughtful selection of paintings, poetry and words.

Thank you.


lmmartin profile image

lmmartin 5 years ago from Alberta and Florida

What heart-wrenching depictions of the worst of man's inhumanity. Thank you for this reminder of our horrific past. Don't you wish we'd learned? Lynda


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Twilight Lawns, the First World War inspired some of the most hauntingly beautiful poetry in the English language, and the paintings are just as affecting. It's just too sad that all that suffering and hardship was in vain.

Thank you for stopping by and commenting.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Lynda, I agree with you. If only we had learned. Sadly blowing each other to smithereens continues to be the favoured method for resolving territorial disputes. Too sad.


suziecat7 profile image

suziecat7 5 years ago from Asheville, NC

Wonderful Hub. Thanks for sharing this.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Thanks for stopping by Suziecat.


amillar profile image

amillar 5 years ago from Scotland, UK

Hi Amanda,

When we I see these images and read such emotive poetry I feel lucky. My generation had it all handed to us, (and yet it seems to be slipping through our fingers).

Anyway, even for a philistine like me, I appreciated this hub very much, it’s a real tearjerker - and the video at the end topped it all off.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Amillar

I always feel tearful when I read these poems. They are so heartfelt and real. Even 90 years after they were written they still command our attention, and the paintings do likewise.

I'm sure you're not a philistine at all BTW, and the Green Fields of France sums it all up so well, especially the last verse.


Sally's Trove profile image

Sally's Trove 5 years ago from Southeastern Pennsylvania

This is a stunning presentation that evokes exactly what it should--sadness, grief, and awe of the horrendous consequences of war and the hubris that makes war possible. Sadly, we've still not learned the lessons. Thank you for creating this powerful piece, which brings a long-ago reality to life through painting and poetry.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Sally, how right you are. Humanity never seems to learn. It doesn't matter how horrendous war is, there will still be those who think that killing and maiming somehow solve problems.

Thank you for stopping by and commenting. It's been a while since I last saw you on here!


tonymac04 profile image

tonymac04 5 years ago from South Africa

This is an incredibly awesome, and very saddening Hub. The human cost of war always seems to me to far outweigh any strategic national gains. These paintings and poems really bring that cost home.

Owen's poem is so eloquent about that: "The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est / Pro patria mori."

Thank you so much for putting together so beautifully. It must have been quite a task, but well worth it!

Love and peace

Tony


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Tony

"Pro patria mori" was probably preferable to the terrible lives of suffering and torment that the severely wounded servicemen lived after that war. These days our servicemen at least have access to good medical care and pensions, but it wasn't always so.

Thank you for stopping by Tony. It's always good to see you here.


Peggy W profile image

Peggy W 5 years ago from Houston, Texas

Sally's Trove commented on my latest hub about a letter written in 1920 and mentioned your hub from that same timeframe. I had to come and take a look. My heart is now in my throat!

These paintings and poems are so moving and the video at the end topped it off. You did a fantastic job assembling all of this information. Rating this useful and up and will tweet this as well.

Can't we as a human race learn from the past or are we doomed to play these parts over and over again?


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Peggy, thank you for taking the time to read this. The writers and artists of the Great War left us a fantastic legacy of truly emotive poetry and art. If only politicians and war-mongers would take it on board, and stop sending young men and women to kill and be killed in foreign lands. The human race will never learn it seems.


Storytellersrus profile image

Storytellersrus 5 years ago from Stepping past clutter

Despite the grim subject matter, the paintings are quite stunning. And as always, a painting is worth a thousand words. Thank you for educating me with this gallery of work. My knowledge of WW1 comes from my favorite book, A Very Long Engagement.

Haven't heard from you for a long time. I am worried about Tony Mac, as well. I need to socialize a bit more this summer- I have fallen behind in my conversations and there are folk like you I miss. Hugs!


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Barb, sorry I haven't been around too much lately. Life just takes over! These days I only ever seem to flit in and out of HubPages to respond to comments, and to just leave an occassional comment on hubs or forums that catch my eye as I'm passing through. I hope to get some more time to write and to read, and to correspond, during the summer. Hope to catch up with you soon. xx


Storytellersrus profile image

Storytellersrus 5 years ago from Stepping past clutter

Hey Amanda, nice to see that you are busy! You have kids, that is not surprise! I have a new puppy and think of you as I hub about him, because once you told me dog stories were always fun to read! See, I remember you often! Have a great summer with your kids, sigh.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Thanks Barb, I hope you have a fun summer with the new puppy!


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 5 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

This is indeed an awesome article. Your use of art images, poetry and text really works.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Thanks for the compliment UnnamedHarald. I always find the First World War to be an extremely emotive subject, and I've tried hard to express a little of that here.


sasanka7 profile image

sasanka7 5 years ago from Calcutta, India

Very informative hub with relevant description and appropriate paintings. i like it much. It's and well planned article. Thanks for sharing.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 5 years ago from UK Author

Hi Sasanka, thank you for stopping by and commenting.


Vanderleelie profile image

Vanderleelie 4 years ago from New Brunswick, Canada

I like the way you have related the images of war paintings to selected poems. An excellent hub, with sobering, well-presented content.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 4 years ago from UK Author

Thankyou for stopping by and commenting, Vanderleelie.


chef-de-jour profile image

chef-de-jour 4 years ago from Wakefield, West Yorkshire,UK

Thank you for this work. You've opened my eyes a little with regards to the paintings, some of which I hadn't come across before. I've always thought it a bit odd how a painting about war can deceive the eye and mind - the colours, perspectives and textures are in a way so beautiful yet the reality they're based on so horrible.

Gassed is a good example. Perhaps a painting is more subtle than a photograph, makes you think a bit more?

The poems enhance the pictures and vice versa.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 4 years ago from UK Author

Hi Chef-de-jour, I agree with you that art can initially decive. We can easily get caught up in the beauty of line and tone, before actually taking in the subject matter. I find the same thing with the poetry. Some of the poems are so beautifully crafted that I almost forget that they're expressing a reaction to an ugly and tragic reality.

Thanks for stopping by and commenting.


Pollyanna Jones profile image

Pollyanna Jones 24 months ago from United Kingdom

Chilling and powerful. These paintings always leave me in quiet contemplation, they speak volumes of what these people went through. It's a far cry from the propaganda posters of the time. Truth, as seen by the artist. Great article.


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 24 months ago from UK Author

Thanks Pollyanna. This is a subject matter that never fails to move me. War is an old man's game played with young men's lives. And even today, with so much education, and information at hand, people choose to go on killing and waging war. A never-ending tragedy.


Kristen Howe profile image

Kristen Howe 19 months ago from Northeast Ohio

Amanda, this was another insightful hub on art history during the world war I. I would've loved to major in art history in college. Very informative and beautiful matching poetry with the details of the artist and painting. Voted up for awesome!


Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 19 months ago from UK Author

Hi Kristen, the first world war inspired amazing art and haunting poetry. We can learn so much from studying the art and literature of the period. Thank you for your kind comments.


Kristen Howe profile image

Kristen Howe 19 months ago from Northeast Ohio

Hi Amanda. My pleasure. I believe you're so right about how art depicted how life can be during that terrible time during the war.

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