Fracking (Hydraulic Fracturing). Is it really bad? What are the dangers?

What is fracking?

"Fracking" (short for hydraulic fracturing) is a very controversial process for extracting natural oil and gas from undergound shale rock layers. Gas which was once unreachable with older technologies can now be extracted using modern techniques.

On the face of it, fracking is quite a simple process. First, drilling into the rock layer takes place - this can be vertical drilling, but is more commonly horizontal. Then, a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside. The gas can then be brought to the surface. This high pressure mixture fractures the rock, allowing the gas to escape - hence the term "fracking".

Fracking nightmare

Fracking nightmare is a programme presented by Ian R Carne. Episodes can be seen on his YouTube channel. It is produced in association with UKColumn http://www.ukcolumn.org/
Fracking nightmare is a programme presented by Ian R Carne. Episodes can be seen on his YouTube channel. It is produced in association with UKColumn http://www.ukcolumn.org/ | Source

So why is fracking so controversial?

Energy companies say they are doing all they can to make sure fracking in done safely. Governments say that is brings enourmous benefits to the economy. However, environmentalists say that fracking is potentially an environmental disaster. Ian R Crane, an ex-oilfield executive, has become a leading opponant of fracking in the UK

So why is it so controversial?

There are three main problems which have been linked to fracking;

  • The sheer amount of water needed - so much so, that some have claimed that the process could make water shortages more common
  • The risk of pollution from the chemicals used
  • The risk of earthquakes - these have already been proven to be caused in some areas to the satisfaction of many experts.

A fourth problem, according to environmental campaigners, is that fracking is another process of recovering fossil fuels, which is diverting attention and investment away from renewable energy.

The sheer amount of water needed

Carbonbrief.org reports that

"One shale gas well might require anything from a few thousand to 20 million litres of water, according to the International Energy Agency. To put that in context, 20 million litres is equivalent to more than six hundred truckloads of water."

According to an article on the greenpeace website, concerns have been raised by Water UK, the UK environment agency and the UK Department of Energy and Climate change.

The risk of pollution from the chemicals used

There are many, many chemicals which can be used in the process.These chemicals are mixed and pumped at very high pressure into the ground, and could potentially get into the water supply. There is a spreadsheet available for download from here

http://www.frackingnightmare.com/downloads.php


And a list can be viewed online here

http://fracfocus.org/chemical-use/what-chemicals-are-used


Some of these chemicals have been linked to health problems, including cancer. The UK NHS website has an article about this here

http://www.nhs.uk/news/2013/12December/Pages/Study-tracks-health-effects-of-fracking-chemicals.aspx

The risk of Earthquakes

In 2011, newscientist.com reported that

In April and May this year, two small earthquakes struck the UK near the town of Blackpool. Suspicion immediately fell on hydraulic fracturing, known as fracking – a controversial process to extract natural gas by fracturing the surrounding rock. A report has now confirmed that fracking caused the earthquakes.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21120-how-fracking-caused-earthquakes-in-the-uk.html


In September 2013, nbcnews.com reported

"Wastewater from the controversial practice of fracking appears to be linked to all the earthquakes in a town in Ohio that had no known past quakes, research now reveals."

http://www.nbcnews.com/science/science-news/confirmed-fracking-practices-blame-ohio-earthquakes-f8C11073601

Review of the evidence

Many people feel that in Canada, the US and Australia, there is already a lot of evidence to show that high pressure fracking is causing contamination of the water, soil and air. A video has been released examining this subject called "The Truth Behind the Dash for Gas" a short extract of whch is below.

Energy companies say they are doing their best to minimise any problems.

So what are the facts? Do you have any first hand experience of fracking in your area, or do you know of anybody who has? If so, I'd appreciate your comments below so we can all increase our knowledge.

Have your say

Do you think fracking should be permitted in the UK?

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Dash for Gas - trailer

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2 comments

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My Esoteric 2 years ago from Keystone Heights, FL

I see nobody has commented, too bad, it is an important topic with both good points and bad ones. I don't know where I come down on the subject yet, especially after reading things like this; http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/06/20/345131...


Mark 1 2 years ago from UK Author

Thank you - yes, I agree, it's such an important topic. Thanks also for the link you posted. You might find the internet show "Fracking Nightmare" (available on YouTube) informative. I have no connection with the show, but get most of my information from there. It's a UK based show but shows much of what's already happened in other countries.

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