From Gondwanaland To Mzantsi: Untold Human Origins And African History Of African South Africans~African Historiography

Human Origins Can Be Traced To South Africa

Sediba Human: Australopithecus sediba is the most human-like australopithecine ever discovered and now Berger’s team have carried out further research on the same fossils. Fossil skull of the Australopithecus sediba child from the South African Malap
Sediba Human: Australopithecus sediba is the most human-like australopithecine ever discovered and now Berger’s team have carried out further research on the same fossils. Fossil skull of the Australopithecus sediba child from the South African Malap | Source

Antiquated Antiquity

"It is our duty to proceed from what is near to what is distant, from what is known to that which is less known, to gather the traditions from those who have reported them, to correct them as much as possible and to leave the rest as it is, in order to make our work help anyone who seek truth and love wisdom." (Abu'l-Rayhan Muhammade al-Biruni, A.D. 973-1050).

This Hub is an attempt and a composition of the History of Africans from South Africa as has never been written. The whole history of the African people of South Africa will require many volues to cover. But the writing of the history of African people of South Africa has just begun, and this Hub will cover as much base as possible to fill-in the yawning gap of missing data and continuity. But that does not mean that there should should be no beginning efforts to cover as much ground as possible. I have given myself the task of writing the history, and the reader should be made aware that at the point where I begin, , which is some 200,000+ years ago, I cannot realitstically cover that time period because of the paucity of data and other obstacles that are required to to cover such a huge timeline. I have also added come contemporary history towards the end of the Hub.

It is also a challenging task to write the 'whole' history of Africa as the origin of humanity and human history and civilization. In this Hub, I will try to narrow it to the history of South Africa, given the most revealed ancient cities that dot the whole landscape of Mzantsi(South Africa). Even though I have narrowed the history to that of South Africa, specifically, it is still a very tall order to write the History of African people in Mzantsi(South Africa), let alone the whole of Africa.

But, given the fact that Africans of South Africa have been colonized to the extend that I will discuss below in this Hub, it is also important to note that the duty of Every historian is to try their best to seek the truth and real history of their people, and write it out to the best of their abilities. This to me is just the case: I will compose and rewrite African history of South Africa to the best of my abilities, and I will begin at the the most remotest time period and timeline I can muster my research, and bring it into contemporary history of Africans in Mzantsi.

This means then I will have to try to go back into very remote antiquity, and build the history of Africans to their present-day Historical/Cultural, customary, traditional, linguistic, oral tradition, musical, social and other such related issues. For this part of the Hub we explore the Evolution of species as according to Darwin and other eminent scholars on this topic, and bring it to the present.

Sources For Remote Ancient African History

In the case of the remotest periods, where there can be no question of the paucity documentary sources and for which no oral traditions or anthropological data are available, archeology and paleobotanical methods come into their own. The pollen grains in particular soil can be isolated by dissolving the soil sample in acid, which removes the silica and limestone and the organic humus, but leaves the pollens intact. These are then stained to deduce from the density and nature of the pollens what type of vegetation covered the region and, by a study of the ground strata, to reconstitute the development of plant life or agricultural production through the agency of man or the climate. Diagnoses such as these have made it possible to trace back the history of the domestication of plants in Africa and their introduction, (N.I. Vavilov, 1951).

Remains of dogs, pigs, sheep and goats also offer a pointer to the domestication. The use of the horse, which can be regarded as being one of the 'driving forces' of history, is recorded in Egypt at the time of the Hyksos invasion (1600 B.C.). Horses were used in Libya and Nubia in the early years of the first millennium Before Christ, but only penetrated south of the Sahara in the 'Middle Ages', and at first only at the royal courts, as witnessed by Ibn Battuta's description of the court of the Emperor of Mali.

The Dromedary, which can be recognized in a rock painting in the Chadian Sahara dating from as early as the third century B.C., was first introduced into Egypt, where it was used for communication with the Red Sea. Roman troops probably took it to Magrhib, where it was used by the Berbers, who migrated southwards to escape the clutches of the Roman administration. As a result, the substantial African populations of the Saharan Oases were reduced to slavery or were driven even further south.

For the historian, therefore, any testimony, regardless of the science from which it is obtained, can become invaluable raw material; there is no distinction between prime sciences and auxiliary sciences. However, in spite of history's debt to the earth and life sciences, still more important contributions have been made by the human and social sciences, such as Egyptology, linguistics, oral trattion, economics and political science.

Utilization of combined sources makes it possible to unearth a new way of writing history from the subsoil of general methodology. This approach makes it possible to show some aspects of history which show certain places have been occupied in Africa for thousands of years without interruption.

Evolutionists and Africa

It seems that the earliest forms of life appeared on our planet about one and a half billion years ago. Apes and men have been traced back to a common ancestry, the first apes showing up about forty million years ago. Then around twenty five million years ago, man became differentiated from the common ape stem. The first True men made their presence known in the world only about two million years ago-a brief period of time, geologically speaking.

The popular opinion that Charles Darwin was the inventor of the doctrine of evolution is false. There were numerous evolutionists before Darwin; but with the publication of the "Origin Of Species" in 1859, Darwin made the theory of evolution intellectually respectable. After that date, evolutionism became part of the lore of modern science and hence had to to be reckoned with by all thinking men and women. The bearing of the theory of evolution on human origins was scarcely mentioned by Darwin in the concluding passage of the "The Origin Of species. "Much light," he said, "will be thrown on the origin of man and his history."

A Birds-Eyeview of The Origins of Gondwanaland.

According to Encyclopeadia:

"Gondwanaland, ancient landmass that consisted of the present continents of South America, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica, as well as the Indian subcontinent, Madagascar, and New Zealand. Also called Gondwana, Gondwanaland is believed to have been intact at least twice, once during much of the Paleozoic Era and again during the early part of the Mesozoic Era. Between these two periods all seven of the present-day continents formed a single landmass called Pangaea, which lasted from the Permian Period to the end of the Triassic Period. Gondwanaland began to break up into the separate modern continents about 185 million years ago during the Jurassic Period.

"The idea that the southern continents were at one time united into a supercontinent was first proposed in 1885 by Austrian geologist Eduard Suess. He noted that all four continents have similar glacial deposits and fossils corresponding to the end of the Carboniferous Period and the beginning of the Permian Period. However, these glacial deposits and fossils are absent from the northern continents." He named the ancient landmass Gondwanaland for a region in central India that displays the typical geological features of the Permian and Carboniferous periods. The name Gondwanaland is derived from Sanskrit words meaning the forest of the Gonds, a people living in India.

The situation of our Sun  in the Milky Way Spiral Galaxy
The situation of our Sun in the Milky Way Spiral Galaxy | Source
The Milky Way's Arms Are Splayed In response To A "Punch" From Another galaxy. When all that dark matter first smacked into the Milky Way, 80 percent to 90 percent of it was stripped off. That first impact triggered instabilities that were amplified,
The Milky Way's Arms Are Splayed In response To A "Punch" From Another galaxy. When all that dark matter first smacked into the Milky Way, 80 percent to 90 percent of it was stripped off. That first impact triggered instabilities that were amplified, | Source
This artist’s conception shows an “engine-driven” supernova explosion with accretion disk and high-velocity jets. For the first time, astronomers have found a supernova explosion with properties similar to a gamma-ray burst, but without seeing any ga
This artist’s conception shows an “engine-driven” supernova explosion with accretion disk and high-velocity jets. For the first time, astronomers have found a supernova explosion with properties similar to a gamma-ray burst, but without seeing any ga | Source

Stephen William Hawking

Looking Upwards Itneo The Universe, Galaxies and Stars for the Origin of Man

The Formation Of Our Solar system Within The Orb Of The Milky Way

According to Jackson:

"Man is a child of the Earth , and if we wold understand his origin and evolution, we must learn something about the history of the Planet upon which he dwells. Any theory as to how the world begun must, of necessity, contain a large element of speculation, since none of us was present to witness that important event. We all know, the earth is one of a number of planets spiraling around the sun as it floats through space.

"Now, the Sun is a star, and it is similar to many other stars which twinkle like jewels set in the dome of the night sky. The other stars are also blazing balls of fire, but they are too far away that they appear only to be little points of light. With an unaided eye, only a few thousand stars are visible, but the telescope and camera reveal them in such vast numbers that attempting to count them would be a sheer waste of time. The stars of the cosmos are as numerous as all the grains of the sand on all the seashores of the world. As these stars wander through space, many of them travel in groups, but the majority of them just journey along as solitary vagabonds.

"The cosmos is so vast that a star is like a ship on an empty sea. Imagine stars as ships on a great ocean, so far apart that one ship will rarely come within a million miles of another. With millions of stars wandering blindly through space for millions of years, it seems probable that occasionally two stars might come close to each other, or even actually meet in a head-on collision.

""Cosmologists have promulgated theories of the origin of the world. The late Sir James Jeans thought that billions of years ago, as our sun roamed aimlessly through space, it was approached by a larger wandering star; and that the gravitational pull of the passing star was so powerful as to raise gigantic tides on the sun. This gravitational stress was so great that fragments of the Sun were ejected into space, and after the roving star passed on, the detached fragments continued to circulate around the Sun. In time they cooled off and became planets, and among them was this old world of ours.

"This theory, though plausible, has in recent years been superseded by another promulgated by Prof. Raymond Lyttleton. Astronomers have found huge stars scattered throughout space that sometimes become unstable and explode like huge hydrogen bombs. These Stars Are Called Supernovae, and Lyttleton opines that one of these celestial giants was a binary partner of the Sun about five billion years ago. This star was destroyed by a Supernova explosion, and some of the debris of the great blowup was captured by the Sun. Eventually this matter differentiated into several planets of the solar system, of which our own world and [planet] is one.

"For thousands of years after separating from the Sun, the earth was a flaming sphere of gas, but the extreme cold of the interstellar space (-273 centigrade) gradually reduced it to a state of fluidity. Then came the Birth of the Moon. While the Earth was still in the fluid condition and rotating more rapidly than at present, a large blob developed, somewhat like the knob on a lemon, and this protuberance became detached and rounded itself into our neighbor satellite, the Moon."

Stephen William Hawkins AndLeonard Mlodinow

Early Earth And Moon's Fromatiion

How was the Moon created? There have been several origins proposed, but the current favorite in the scientific community is known as the giant impact hypothesis: the blasting out of a cloud of debris that collected into the Moon.
How was the Moon created? There have been several origins proposed, but the current favorite in the scientific community is known as the giant impact hypothesis: the blasting out of a cloud of debris that collected into the Moon. | Source
They assert that a massive protoplanet slammed into Earth just after it had formed, creating a ring of debris around the young planet. The Moon then formed later as the material in this disc clumped together. This picture shows the process in three s
They assert that a massive protoplanet slammed into Earth just after it had formed, creating a ring of debris around the young planet. The Moon then formed later as the material in this disc clumped together. This picture shows the process in three s | Source
This one is similar to Chaos and Order. Both show the formation of the Moon. The young Earth (left) is still surrounded by a ring of debris from which the Moon (right) has recently formed. The debris is the result of the Earth having been hit by a la
This one is similar to Chaos and Order. Both show the formation of the Moon. The young Earth (left) is still surrounded by a ring of debris from which the Moon (right) has recently formed. The debris is the result of the Earth having been hit by a la | Source
Animation of the alignment of the Earth and the Moon in space
Animation of the alignment of the Earth and the Moon in space | Source

Terence Dickinson: Hubble's Universe: Greatest Discoveries and Latest Images [Hardcover]

Origins of the Solar System, The Earth And It's Satellite, The Moon

By describing the birth of planets in the cosmos, It's a prelude to what I want to discuss about the origins of human beings in South Africa; also, below in this Hub, I will be discussing as to how the Africans of Mzantsi related and named and used/applied the the stars in all facets and aspects of their life since time immemorial. Just as the Dogon were able to name and identify and give cosmological substance to the the Sirius Star, so do the indigenous of Mzantsi have names and the roles the stars played in their earthly existence and life, and their understanding of the cosmos and their relationship to it. [Readers Can Read my hub titled "The Genesis of African Science and Technology" The Stars of the Deepest Origins-The Dogon's Planetary Cosmological Knowhow."

Given the paucity of a history such as I am attempting here on the Hub and publishing it on the Web, I will make note that it is important to note that in order for African history of South Africa to be authentic, it is going to have to cull fro many disciplines. At least, do a halfway decent research and writing the History of Africans in South Africa, it is a very hard task. I cannot write about the many ethnicities that dot the Mzantsi landscape, for they have enough on their shelves about their histories and then-some.

Approaching and broaching the historical narrative and historiography of South Africa, beginning with the 'now-known' universe and its stars, is to begin to trace the reality that man begun in and originated from the country today known as Mzantsi(South Africa). Although much has not been written about the Oral History, Custom and Traditions of the people of Mzantsi, below in this Hub, I will utilize Walter Ong to demonstrate that the way Africans related to the cosmological reality, was not something that could be found in their Oral traditions and history.

For this, I will later on ,below in this Hub, defer to Walter Ong to clarify my stance that Oral tradition of South Africa, today, still has to, and will be informing writing and consciuossness as we reconstruct our History and all that is relative and relevant to it. If the bones and the ancient tools cannot link for us the history of Africans and into the history of their land and themselves, we will then turn on to cultures, orality, dance, music, language and so forth to anchor and make it, the Oral Tradition: part of the whole narrative/story or history of Africans in South Africa.

If then we understand the make-up and origins of the universe, galaxies, stars, Dark Matter and Dark Energy, then we will proceed to discuss the origins of man, and will later give a much more concise discourse on the way the Africans of South Africa related to the stars in their cosmos along with their natural world.

One More Thing... The Formation of the Earth and the Solar System

For thousands of years after separating from the Sun, the Earth was a flaming sphere of gas, but the extreme cold of of the Interstellar space (-273 degrees centigrade) gradually reduced it to a state of liquidity. Then came the birth of the Moon. While the Earth was still in the fluid condition and rotating more rapidly than at present, a large blob developed somewhat like the knob on a lemon, and this protuberance became detached and rounded itself into our neighbor satellite, the Moon.

After more thousands of years of cooling, the earth began to wear a solid crust. The heavier elements sank into the interior, while the lighter ones floated to the survace. In those days and times, the earth was a white-hot sphere surrounded by a thick mantle of red-hot gasses: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. As the cooling process proceeded, oxygen and hydrogen combined, forming water, which hovered over the hot crust of the Earth as a blanket of steam.

With the passage of much time, the steam condensed into water, and settled down over the world as a boiling ocean-just a few ridges poking up through the primeval sea-and the water was fresh, for the salt in the sea was later washed off the land.

But let's not travel too far, from whence did the land come from? The original solid crust of the earth was 'probably' as smooth as the surface of the a billiard ball. Had it remained that way, the primordial ocean would have covered the entire surface of the globe. In other words, there would have been no dry land. But as the heavier elements of the interior of the earth lost the heat through volcanic activity, they contracted, and this caused the outer crust to fall in toward the interior, and to crumple up like the skin of the orange, and the ridges and impressions thus formed were the first mountains and valleys. The battle between land and sea began as soon as the world cooled enough to hold an ocean.The struggle has been a long one, but the land steadily gained on the water. Life arose in the sea, but the greatest episodes in the drama of life took place on the land.

This struggle on land was epitomized by the building of the greatest civilization of Man, ever. As this Hub demonstrates, this history how that Man has long dominated and taken over the land and recreated it in his image and likeness. This is very important to note because this was done by the indigenous of Mzantsi of today's contemporary South Africa, as it is presently seen now-the indigenous call it Mzantsi(Down south); others call it Azania, and this still is being contested and the people, in the latter and final part of their development of their history, will decide as to what to name their land they presently refer to as "Mzantsi"-as they had named the stars from antiquated antiquity

Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa edited by Richard W. Battarbee, Françoise Gasse, Catherine E. Stickley

The Earliest known Sphinx- The South African Sphinx
The Earliest known Sphinx- The South African Sphinx | Source
Adam's Pyramids as seen from the calender iste on the edge of the escarpment. They are about seven miles away from Baberton impact crator, which is about 3 billion years old and is the home of the oldest rock formations on Earth.
Adam's Pyramids as seen from the calender iste on the edge of the escarpment. They are about seven miles away from Baberton impact crator, which is about 3 billion years old and is the home of the oldest rock formations on Earth. | Source
A Golden Mean spiral perfectly links Adam's Calendar, the Stone Altar just north of it, and two pyramids in the calley
A Golden Mean spiral perfectly links Adam's Calendar, the Stone Altar just north of it, and two pyramids in the calley | Source

Migration and National Identity in South Africa, 1860-2010 Hardcover by Professor Audie Klotz

Africa South of the Sahara, Third Edition: A Geographical Interpretation (Texts in Regional Geography) [Paperback] PhD Robert Stock

The Struggle For the Definition of African History Of Mzantsi (South Africa)

"All Truth passes through three stages:

First, it is Ridiculed;

Second, it is violently opposed; and

Third, it is accepted as self evident.

The Birth And Formation Of Our Present Earth

We further learn from Jackson that:

"After more thousands of years of cooling, the earth began to wear a solid crust

So, what is happening now with the continents. As we speak, the continents are moving, they are always moving, how they move so slowly that you can't tell. Some of the continents move merely 1.5 inches a year, while the others move with lightning speed of 2.5 inches per year. It's about as fast as your fingernails grow. Maybe a little bit slower, (Scotese)". Still, over millions of years that minute movement will drive the continents together.

The big question becomes, what will happen, what will be the effect of these incredibly large masses running into each other. What few people know is that it's already began. Africa has been slowly colliding with Europe for millions of years. Italy, Greece and almost everything in the Mediterranean is part of (the African plate), and it has been colliding with Europe for the last 40 million years." (Scotese)

The Alps and the Pyrenees mountains have been pushed up, and has been causing earthquakes that occasionally strike Greek and Turkey. "The Mediterranean is the remnant of a much larger ocean that has closed over the last 100 million years, and it will continue to close. More and more of the plate is going to get crumpled and get pushed higher and higher up, like the Himalayas." Australia is also likely to merge with the Eurasian continent.

Australia is moving north, colliding with Southeast Asia. Soon, the left shoulder of Australia will get caught, and then Australia will rotate and collide against Borneo and south China, adding to Asia. Meanwhile, America will move further away from Africa and Europe as the Atlantic grows. In the case of the widening Atlantic, geologists think that a "subduction zone" will eventually form on either the east or west edges of the ocean. At a subduction zone, the ocean floor dives under the edge of a continent and down into the interior of the Earth. "The subduction zone turns out to be the most important part of the system if you want to understand what causes the plates to move( Scotese)."

If a subduction zone starts on one side of the Atlantic -- Scotese thinks it will be the west side -- it will start to slowly drag the sea floor into the mantle. If this happens, the ridge where the Atlantic sea floor spreads would eventually be pulled into the Earth. The widening would stop, and the Atlantic would begin to shrink. Tens of millions of years later, the Americas would come smashing into the merged Euro-African continent, pushing up a new ridge of Himalayan-like mountains along the boundary. At that point, most of the world's landmass would be joined into a super-continent called "Pangea Ultima." The collision might also trap an inland ocean (Scotese).

We begin to get a picture here of how the continents were conjoined and in one cluster during the and will ultimately come back to join up as we see it today to what Scotese above calls "Pangea Ultima". Be that as it may, if we begin to look at the formation of continents when it was known as Gondwanaland, this configuration is important in the whole discourse of this Hub. The joined continents had at their center The Southern most tip of Africa, Mzantsi (South Africa) wherein the oldest man made tools, structures and human bones are found. This has been added into this Hub below to give a much more broader scope of the depth and existence of this material culture and evidence.

The Innards Of The Civilization Of Mzantsi

It is also interesting to note that Tellinger and Heine postulate, within certain limits, correctly about the origins of 'architecture' form South Africa, but at the same time, refuses to acknowledge nor recognize that the land has long been peopled by Human beings-present-day Africans, as he notes that "man appeared around 260,000 years, which too, I dispute, but would like to add that was when a fully fledged culture was already ripe and in existence that comes to us today as the structures they have reproduced of the material culture of the the land.

What I am saying is that, Tellinger's point that Grimaldi Man migrating into Europe around 60-70,000 years ago left all the cave art painting is not really off-course, and he is right. It is how we interpret what they painted that it will also inform us as to what was their experiences as they marched out of Africa into Europe. Also, the stone civilization that is spread-out throughout Africa is in itself an important indictor that man, those who were indigenous to the land, never left, but their rock/stone buildings which are evident today throughout the landscape of South Africa-are a testament of their origins.

There are academicians, today in South Africa, like Amanda Esterhuysen, who contended that these structures have long been there, and they are doing research in Mpulanga, and negates the fact that these stones are 75,000 years old. She says that the 'type of science said by Tellinger and his companion is questionable. Yet, I do not see any research data being cited by Amanda out of her research to say and show that it is she is disputing, and what she means when she says these structures have long been known.. by who? What was about that knowledge that was important, and what has her research dated the structures to have been made, by who, why and when-for who?

Now, I have many bones to pick with such sloppy attacks, but nonetehless, I will take what works for the rebuilding of the history of the people of Mzantsi, and incorporate it into my main thesis that the origin of all man can be traced back to Mzantsi. The origins of Architecture can be traced back to the people and the land of Mzantsi. The origins of agriculture can be found and traced defiitely in the land of the Africans of Mzantsi[pictures for these provided down inside this Hub].

Some Historians have talked about the Zimbawe Structures as the outposts and means by which the Africans of Monomotapa, Mapungubwe and those of Mzantsi would use to herd and look after their cows from a distance. They were the first to build in stone and huge rock; They named stars(as will be discussed below, and build structures that aligned to them as shown in the "Adams Calendar) and other amazing feats of cities larger than has ever been imagined or known to man.

It is also now a known fact that these indigenous of Mzantsi painted their pictures with uncommon conscious or the the era and left it for us to understanding their evolution and migrating patterns, in a myriad caves throughout Africa. Tellinger states: "This has been overlooked by historians, and we believe that [the] stone structures which lie across Southern Africa are the earliest human structures ever made. We invited four or five academics to come and look at the site, but their typical dogmatic thinking, they said there was no way this was a human-built structure; they said it was just rocks."

It is also noted by Telinger and Heiner that these rocks can be dated as far back as 75,000 years ago(His video explains how he did the dating of these rocks). "The most conclusive is the geology report, which proves without doubt that the rocks were both moved from a few kilometers away and were worked with human hands. The monoliths are dolomite while he bedrock is black reef cordite, and there are clear grooves, which someone has obviously carved onto the rock. Tellinger reports that he found that these monoliths were placed into exact geometrical alignments and lined up exactly with North, south, east and west. Tellinger and his partner also fund that two of the central rocks work as a calendar, with a tall rock casting a shadow on a shorter, flat rock. The shadow moves across the rock in exactly one year.

Since these structure are man-made, it then follows that the present inhabitants of Mzantsi, in their 11(diverse groups/nations) are the originators of those structures, and that their present culture emanates and originated from that remote antiquity, albeit it has suffered the vicissitudes of colonialism, Imperialism and cultural wars against it, to date.

But, the Enki myth and story is a very serious stretch and denying the Oral history and tradtion of many of these structures that can be found in African folkorelore. The Sumerians were correct in stating, within their texts, that or making reference to the fact that southern Africa had a civilization as a "time before time", is in actual fact true and indisputable. But they did not bring any civilization to the Mzantsi I am talking about in this Hub.

Looking into African Origin Of History, Man, and all that we see today, is to be brought around the fact that the Apartheid regime, some people conveniently forget, had stonewalled, and obfuscated this history through many ways. Studying the colonization of South Africa, one must remember that the Afrikaners and the belligerent cousins, the British, took the best land away from the Africans of South africa.. Up to this day, they still control 87% of the land mass that is South Africa-most of these structure are found or lie hidden in this vast track of land the Whites appropriated for themselves..

Now, the question and some answers emerge as to why such information seems incredulous, unreal, some people resist it, others are simply ignorant, and the rest are made dumb and dogmatic by the Apartheid rule, and its efforts at hiding all that was rightly African, and never allowed anyone into their colonized farms, or colonized land. Now, with the advent and governance of the ANC-we begin to see the real truth emerge about the real history and culture of the people of Mzantsi(but this still is being defined and written by Whites who have their biases, and want to link their people[not the indigenous Africans] to this incredible but true history of humanity).

- It is a land where one finds the oldest statue of the Hawk Head o Horus, about 260,000 years old;

- Petroglyphs of winged disks with a cross;

- Two Pyramids aligned to the Adam's Calendar and the rise of the Orion

That is, these cultural material realities found in Mzantsi(South Africa) is forcing us to recreate the history of Africans in Mzantsi and to rewrite the whole Human history. This is the real problem and struggle for the definition of this history, which is still to be acknowledged and known by the indigenous and embrace it as theirs. This is one of the many reasons this Hub is being written, and through it, an attempt will be made to approach and broach the subject from a purely African Centered Perspective.

These staggering discoveries here in Mzantsi will mot be immediately and easily digested by the mainstream historical and archeological fraternity, as the reviews of this work has shown recently. What this history is doing is that it is affecting and effecting a complete paradigm shift in how we have been viewing and are now going to be viewing this history of the Africans of Mzantsi.

Tellinger states that:

"The main reason for this is that we have been taught that nothing of significance has ever come from southern Africa. That the powerful civilizations all emerged in Sumeria and Egypt and other places. We are told that until the settlement of the BANTU people from the north, which was supposed to have started sometime in the 12th century AD, this part of the world was filled by hunter gatherers and so-called Bushmen, who did not make any major contributions in technology or civilization."

This has been the push back I have pointing back to throughout the Hub that the history as told by the Boers is that we came from the north and not the original inhabitants of this land with such great history, beauty and wealth. From an African centered perspective, we have been and are of this land since the beginning of human time and origins. Our civilization, though seemingly lost' is really something we can rework, recompose and rewrite to suit our humanity, development and continuity here on earth.

I really do not buy into nor am persuaded one bit by the ENKI explanation of African civilization as has been discovered thus far. Because of the fact that a great city has been found where modern-day Johannesburg(Gauteng[Golden City]) is today, there was and is now in evidence, a city that was covering 20,000 square miles, with well over 100,000 stone ruins in it still today, and these were linked by ancient roads and places of worship, entertainment and so forth.

Talking about the gold and the ancient mines found throughout the whole country of South African, I have written extensively about this, with pictures, in my Hub titled, "History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices of the Africans of south Africa: Deconstructing Historical Amnesia." This hub is the continuation of the Hub: South african Culture, Custom and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence.The covering and resuscitation of a culture of a people, in reality, needs more volumes than I can provide. In any case, I am working on giving a clearer and much more true history, culture and languages of the Africans in south Africa, than the phony-baloney fake distortion and culturally dividing and confusing the African people whose culture still needs to be discussed and interrogated thoroughly and extensively and finally, be put into its proper African Centered historiographical perspective.

This hub is the continuation of the Hub: South african Culture, Custom and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence.The covering and resuscitation of a culture of a people, in reality, needs more volumes than I can provide. In any case, I am working on giving a clearer and much more true history, culture, etc. This is now being done in this present I am onto, and will jot-down all the relevant facts and draw from that our own conclusion and whatever pleases or interests us as important and relatable and relevant.

The Pyramids Of Mzantsi: "Time Before Time"

According to Tellinger, "When we think of pyramids, we immediately imagine the spectacular pyramids of Giza, or the Mayan pyramids, that are built from giant blocks of stone and take your breadth away each time we see them. But these are the exception to the rule. Most pyramids around the world do not look like that. Hundreds of pyramids around the world are reduced to piles of rubble that simply approximate the shapes of a pyramid. This does not mean that they are not pyramids and most of the pyramids in Egypt are of the lesser category.

"In 2008 we accidentally discovered two pyramids i the valley below Adam's Calendar. At first we could not believe our eyes and dismissed them as hills that simply look like pyramids. But curiosity got the better of us when we realized that virtually every point at the calendar is aligned or linked to the pyramids in some way. After all, the Egyptians build Sphinxes, Horus statues and pyramids. We had already discovered a sphinx and a Horus statue, here in South Africa, so why not the pyramids, right here in South Africa?"pictures of Pyramids of South africa posted below in the Hub].

These are interesting facts and truths. But it is not in linking them to the local indigenous culture that makes them false. False in the sense that what is discovered in South Africa, was created by some foreign God, is false. It is in the tradition and culture/orality of the African people that we should begin to articulate this history from, and names given to these material cultures can be garnered by studying the languages and oral traditions and cultures of the local people wherein these structures exist, do that maybe we can begin to fathom and flesh-out this Antiquated civilization of Mzantsi.

What is left now, knowing these structure exist, is to go back to the indigenous people of those areas and cull from them their 'oral','customary', etc., story and history of Africans from 'time before time'-Great Antiquated Antiquity. From understanding and knowing this history/oral /customary tradition which spawned a civilization still to be talked about for generations to come, will make us understand the history, Orality, Customs and so forth of the Africans of Mzantsi.

Contemporary South Africa (Contemporary States and Societies) [Paperback] Anthony Butler

Gondwana included most of the landmasses in today's Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar and the Australian continent, as well as the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, which have now moved entirely
Gondwana included most of the landmasses in today's Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar and the Australian continent, as well as the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, which have now moved entirely
For hundreds of millions of years, all the land of Earth was joined together in one large mass or super continent. Scientists call it Pangaea (meaning "all lands" in Greek) Then about 200 million years ago the land began to drift apart. It broke into
For hundreds of millions of years, all the land of Earth was joined together in one large mass or super continent. Scientists call it Pangaea (meaning "all lands" in Greek) Then about 200 million years ago the land began to drift apart. It broke into | Source
Pangea/Gondwanaland - For hundreds of millions of years, all the land of Earth was joined together in one large mass or super continent. Scientists call it Pangaea (meaning "all lands" in Greek) Then about 200 million years ago the land began to drif
Pangea/Gondwanaland - For hundreds of millions of years, all the land of Earth was joined together in one large mass or super continent. Scientists call it Pangaea (meaning "all lands" in Greek) Then about 200 million years ago the land began to drif
The Gondwanaland Supercontinent. The cratons comprising West Gondwana  shaded in light blue and those comprising East Gondwana are shaded in Yellow. Neoproterozoic orogenic belts crisscross the Supecontinent. Then are those In East African orogen
The Gondwanaland Supercontinent. The cratons comprising West Gondwana shaded in light blue and those comprising East Gondwana are shaded in Yellow. Neoproterozoic orogenic belts crisscross the Supecontinent. Then are those In East African orogen | Source

Origins: The Evolution of Continents, Oceans and Life Hardcover by Ron Redfern

Pangea Ultima - Future World

As continents Evolve, there's speculation that they might end up looking like the picture above dubbed Future World-or Pangea Ultima
As continents Evolve, there's speculation that they might end up looking like the picture above dubbed Future World-or Pangea Ultima | Source

The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet [Hardcover] Robert M. Hazen

On Gondwanaland and Mzantsi

My Take On The Tellinger Video Below

For hundreds of millions of years, all the land of Earth was joined together in one large mass or super continent. Scientists call it Pangaea (meaning "all lands" in Greek)

Then about 200 million years ago the land began to drift apart. It broke into two pieces, and scientists have called the continent in the north Laurasia and the continent in the south Gondwanaland. Gondwanaland included what we know as Antarctica, which was joined to South America, Africa, India, and Australia.

The top layer of the Earth's crust is made up of large sections called tectonic plates. Some are oceanic plates, located in the oceans, and some are continental plates carrying continents on top of them. The plates all move very very slowly and in different directions. Where they meet is called a boundary. At some boundaries the plates move apart and liquid rock seeps into the valley that results. It hardens and becomes new crust. At some boundaries two plates collide, and one is forced up, forming mountains. The other is forced down and part of it goes into the Earth's core and melts. At other boundaries, the two plates grind together as they pass in different directions, but neither is changed. Earthquakes occur along the boundary as the plates grind each other. (Planet Earth)

This process gave birth and the way the continents are organized today. The coming of man has been attempted to be traced by Darwin, whom we discuss below, and also, the evolution of man in South Africa today, was slowed down if not shut-down by the Apartheid rulers who were hell-bent on trying to hide the true history of the Africans to the Africans themselves. This will bell dealt with in this Hub, and will also attempt on correcting some untruths, obfuscation and falsifications that have brought to bear on this history and culture.

Below is the video by Michael Tellinger, which has some good points to it, but also it is a consistent rebuttal of the origins of the civilization of Mzantsi as being African, but about some people who moved from elsewhere to come and build the cities that are being discussed in this Hub. It is also disingenuous of these 'explorers' to tag the founders as not African, but some people who had come to do some gold mining in South Africa. This is the same tactic that has been imposed on Zimbabwe as to who built the structures.

According to these explorers, it could not have possibly been the Africans of South Africa, but some aliens from somewhere else, who civilization does not come even close to that which is being found in Mzatnsi, to be the ones that are responsible for originating the civilization of Mzantsi. The geneticist view does not cut it for me. I also acknowledge other means of teleporting and consulting with seances to interpret history, whilst ignoring the local indigenous culture/oral tradition/history and its indigenous people, is somewhat too much of a stretch for me, and an effort at obfuscation and falsification of the Story/History/Orality/Customs, Languages and sacred practices and rites of the indigenous peoples of Mzantsi(South Africa).

Probabilities and 'seems' like in interpreting history, which one hears from Tellinger, is dubious and very much convoluted and fictive. I do not buy into some of the assertion made by Tellinger about the red soil culture, and the genetic engineering of the people of the time, breeding humans, is much more weird than most people would what to believe. What is striking about his cloning of humans in the purported lost civilization are fantastic machination and imagination on steroids because this lis clear in that, throughout the talk, the Africans of South Africa are not even talked about, considered, nor their culture not attached or used in order to understand the ancient ruins and so forth.

The way Tellinger tells his "story", some of the facts like the size of the cities that were 10,000 square miles. Some researchers say that there are about 20,000 of these cities spread throughout southern Africa-others say 200,000- Tellinger pushes it even further to 1-million. The latest count of these certain that have identified has been 100,000 cities which could have easily been populated by 20-million people. This I can understand and accept, but the Annunaki theories, as partly supported by Credo Mutwa, who is cited in the book, is not enough to hinge on the material culture that has been unearthed in South Africa, and in the process ignore the indigenous and not even talk about them, to me, is not true and pure obfuscation.

The Biblical story of the flood, and the disappearance of this civilization, or the going away of the Annunaki(who no one knows of here in Mzantsi, it too, is too much of a stretch in trying to tie the ruins of Mzantsi to the foreigners who came from elsewhere to build and clone people there.) This is implausible, and also a way that helps delegitimize Africans of South Africa as the creators and founders of these ancient cities and all that we see now. Saying that Enki was the creator of beings and the civilization, is not true, because the Africans here in Mzantsi talk of "Mvelinqange" or "Moholomholo" who was their God and they related and talked to him whenever he came down from a mountain filled with stones.

Like I said above, the video below, is important because it introduces the reader/listener to a history which has heretofore never been talked about nor known, into perspective. What I do not buy about it, is the speculation and not the facts. The facts are there, but the fleshing of these facts is subject to bias and ignorance about the culture of the Africans of Mzantsi. These explorers use their own background and whatever they can conjure to try and explain this culture.

Listening carefully and fully to the video, it does shed some light about the ancient ruins, but it lacks the historical, oral and customary perspectives of the Africans, and these can be found amongst the people themselves. The Civilization of Monomotapa and Mapungwe are some of the civilization I have talked about and published; and now, with this Hub, I was just reversing the historical timeline "from the formations of the continents to the present-day Mzantsi"-that is the objective of this whole Hub.

Some recollection about Monomotapa:

"In 1440, the empire of Monomotapa was under the leadership of the fierce and awesome King Mutato, or "Mutato the Great." His vast empire had been developed by Vakarang immigrants who were invaders. The Monomotapa Empire covered what is known today as Rhodesia, Kalahara, Mozambique, and into Transvaal in South Africa.

King Mutato established effective political rule, and promoted eco- nomic development and prosperity.

The Monomotapa used iron technology and allied crafts, long before the Christian era. With over 4000 active mines, and gold being the lead- ing export commodity, ironwork was still highly regarded. The drive for excellence in everything produced was reflected in the artistic work throughout the empire.

The building of the temples and beautiful stone structures, rivaled the construction associated with the great pyramids in Egypt. The Monomotapa were great stonemasons and architects. According to records in stone, a highly developed civilization existed in South Africa, at the same time of the great Egyptian and Ethiopian era, in the North.

King Mutato mastered a plan to unite the Blacks throughout the entire Monomotapa Empire. Their enemies knew that if they could keep the Blacks fighting amongst themselves, they would be a divided people, lacking in power, and the enemy would have access to their wealth.

Mutato moved quickly to recruit, develop, and train armies, under the supervision of capable generals. Additional strategic leadership by Matope, Mutato's son, who came into power after Mutato's death, strengthened and unified Monomotapa. However, after Matope's death, Monomotapa swiftly declined, and the empire began to break up

A short about Mapungubwe:

Mapungubwe is a 1,000-year-old city located at the basin of the Limpopo River in South Africa. It reached its height during the 11th century and was the first in a number of trading states developed by the Bantu people who built their wealth through cattle herding.

Perched on a plateau 985 feet long and 164 feet high, Mapungubwe is surrounded by sandstone cliffs and can be reached only by rope. The people who lived there transported to the top 2,000 tons of soil for farming. They created intricate gold artifacts and pottery and traded goods as far away as India and China.

Since discovery of its ruins in the 1930s, Mapungubwe has been owned and excavated by the University of Pretoria. Because South Africa's apartheid system taught that South Africa was uninhabited until the white settlers arrived in the 17th century, it was considered an embarrassment for the South African government or to the conservative University to admit that they had discovered this ancient African city.

So this great treasure found at Mapungubwe has remained in the University's basement, hidden away from the public for the past seventy years. Historians and archaeologists now can tell us that Mapungubwe is one of hundreds of similar ancient towns in Southern Africa that were settled by black Africans more than 1,000 years ago. See my Hubs: "South African Culture, Customs And Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence." Also, a sequel to this Hub I wrote is called "History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices Of The Africans Of South Africa." This Hubs attempt to give an in-depth look into the civilization of the people of Mzantsi from Mapungubwe to present-day contemporary South africa(Mzantsi)

(South africa). The video below has some truism to it, but is also using a lot of distortion of the true history of South Africa which this Hub is onto.

It is also important to write much more in-depthly about the history of the Congo because it has been so neglected when we are talking about the civilization of Mzantsi. Prof. Clarke informs us thusly:

The Old Congo

"The people and nations of Central Africa have no records of their ancient and medieval history like the "Tarikh es Sudan" or the "Tarikh el Fettach" of the Western Sudan (West Africa). The early travelers to these areas are mostly unknown. In spite of the forest as an obstacle to the formation of empires comparable to those of the Western Sudan, notable kingdoms did rise in this part of Africa and some of them did achieve a high degree of civilization.

The Congo Valley became the gathering place of various branches of the people we know now as Bantu. When the history of Central Africa is finally written, it will be a history of invasions and migrations. According to one account, between two and three thousand years ago a group of tribes began to move out of the region south or southwest of Lake Chad.

Sometime during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the center of Africa became crowded with pastoral tribes who needed more land for their larger flocks and herds. This condition started another migration that lasted for more than a hundred years. Tribes with the prefix Ba to their names spread far to the west into the Congo basin and southward through the central plains. The Nechuana and Basuto were among these tribes. Tribes with the prefix Ama—great warriors like the Ama-Xosa and Ama-Zulu—passed down the eastern side.

In the meantime some of the more stable tribes in the Congo region were bringing notable kingdoms into being. The Kingdom of Loango extended from Cape Lopez (Libreville) to near the Congo; and the Congo Empire was mentioned by the Portuguese as early as the fourteenth century. The Chief of Loango, Mani-Congo, extended his kingdom as far as the Kasai and Upper Zambesi Rivers. This kingdom had been in existence for centuries when the Portuguese arrived in the fifteenth century. They spoke admiringly of its capital, Sette-Camo, which they called San Salvador. The Kingdom of Congo dates back to the fourteenth century. At the height of its power it extended over modern Angola, as far east as the Kasai and Upper Zambesi Rivers.

Further inland the Kingdom of Ansika was comprised of the people of the Bateke and Bayoka, whose artistic talents were very remarkable. Near the center of the Congo was the Bakuba Kingdom (or Bushongo), still noted for its unity, the excellence of its administration, its art, its craftsmanship and the beauty of its fabrics.

South of the Congo basin the whole Bechuana territory formed a vast state which actually ruled for a long time over the Basutos, the Zulus, the Hottentots and the Bushmen, including in a single empire the greater part of the black population of Southern and Central Africa. This was the era of Bushongo grandeur; the people we now know as Balubas.

Only the Bushongo culture kept its records and transmitted them almost intact to modern research. The Bakubas are an ancient people whose power and influence once extended over most of the Congo. Their history can be traced to the fifth century. For many centuries the Bakubas have had a highly organized social system, an impressive artistic tradition and a secular form of government that expressed the will of the people through a democratic political system. Today, as for many generations in the past, the court of a Bakuba chief is ruled by a protocol as rigid and complicated as that of Versailles under Louis XIV.

At the top of the Bakuba hierarchy is the royal court composed of six dignitaries responsible for cabinet-like matters such as military affairs, justice and administration. At one time there were in the royal entourage 143 other functionaries, including a master of the hunt, a master storyteller and a keeper of oral traditions. In the sixteenth century the Bakubas ruled over a great African empire. The memory of their glorious past is recalled in the tribe with historical exactitude. They can name the reigns of their kings for the past 235 years. The loyalty of the people to these rulers is expressed in a series of royal portrait-statues dating from the reign of Shamba Bolongongo, the greatest and best known of the Bakuba kings.

In the Bakuba system of government the king was above all a symbol, rather like the Mikado in the eyes of the Japanese. His ministers, the Kolomos, paid him great respect in public, even if they were his known enemies. In private they made no pretense of subservience. If the king wanted to see his ministers he had to go to their houses or meet them on neutral ground. The ordinary members of the tribe had representatives at the court on a political and professional basis. Some of these officials represented geographical areas, trades and professions. The weavers, the blacksmiths, the boat-builders, the net-makers, the musicians and the dancers all had their representatives at court. There was even a special representative of the fathers of twins. The representative of the sculptors was held in highest esteem. The Bakuba sculptors are considered to be the finest in Africa.

Shamba Bolongongo was a peaceful sovereign. He prohibited the use of the shongo, a throwing knife, the traditional weapon of the Bushongo. This wise African king used to say: "Kill neither man, woman nor child. Are they not the children of Chembe (God), and have they not the right to live?" Shamba likewise brought to his people some of the agreeable pastimes that alleviate the tediousness of life. The reign of Shamba Bolongongo was really the "Golden Age" of the Bushongo people of the Southern Congo. After abolishing the cruder aspects of African warfare, Shamba Bolongongo introduced raffia weaving and other arts of peace. According to the legends of the Bushongo people, their history as a state goes back fifteen centuries. Legends notwithstanding, their magnificent sculpture and other artistic accomplishments are unmistakable, the embodiment of a long and fruitful social experience reflecting the life of a people who have been associated with a higher form of culture for more than a thousand years.

Early in the twentieth century when the European writer, Emil Torday, was traveling through the Congo collecting material for his book On the Trail of the Bushongo, he found the Bakuba elders still singing the praises of Shamba Bolongonog. They also repeated the list of their kings, a list of one hundred twenty names, going back to the godlike king who founded their nation. From these Bakuba elders, Emil Torday learned of Bo Kama Bomanchala, the great king who reigned after Shamba Bolongongo. The elders recalled the most memorable event that had occurred during his reign. On March 30, 1680, there was a total eclipse of the sun, passing exactly over Bushongo.

Jose Fernandez, one of the first European explorers to visit Central Africa, went there in 1445. Any number of subsequent expeditions were carried out by such men as Diego Borges, Vincente Annes, Rebello de Araca, Francisco Baretto and Dom Christovao da Gama. The parts of Africa visited, explored and discovered by these men included the kingdom of the Congo, Timbuktu, the East Coast of Africa, Nubia, the Kingdom of Angola, Abyssinia and the Lake Tsana region.

Much of the history and civilization of Central Africa and East Africa was revealed by the study made by the Portuguese African explorer Duarte Lopez in his book History of the Kingdom of Congo. Duarte Lopez went to the Congo in 1578 and stayed for many years. From his study and description of the Congo we learn that the Kingdom of the Congo included the territory formerly known as the Congo, Angola and parts of the Cameroons.

According to Lopez, the kingdom of the Congo at the time measured 1,685 miles. The King, still reliving his past glory, styled himself Dom Alvarez, King of Congo, and of Abundo, and of Natama, and of Quizama, and of Angola, and of Angri, and of Cacongo, and of the seven Kingdoms of Congere Amolza, and of the Pangelungos, and the Lord of the River Zaire (Congo) and of the Anzigiros, and of Anziqvara, and of Doanga, etc. He also tells us that the Kingdom of Angola was at one time a vassal state of the Congo.

At the time of Lopez's twelve years stay in the country, the Kingdom of the Congo was divided into six provinces. The province of Bamba was the military stronghold of the kingdom, and was capable of putting 400,000 well-disciplined men in the field.

The rich gold mines at Sofala (now a port of Mozambique) attracted the Portuguese to the East Coast of Africa. They used intermarriage with the Africans as a means of gaining favor and pushing into the interior of Africa. In turn, the Africans gradually lost their anti-Christian hostilities and gave in to being converted to Christianity. And thus Christianity was introduced into the Congo before 1491. The Mani Sogno was the first Congo nobleman to embrace the Christian faith. The Moslems, coming into the Congo from the East Coast, prevailed upon the Africans to resist being converted to Christianity, telling them that Christianity was a subtle method used by the Portuguese to take over their country. This warning notwithstanding, Christianity continued to spread in the Congo.

In 1513, Henrique, son of Dom Affonso, then King of the Congo, was sent to Lisbon and to Rome to study theology. In 1520, Pope Leo X appointed Henrique Bishop of Utica and Vicar-apostolic of the Congo. Unfortunately, Henrique died before he could return to the Congo. He was Rome's first Central African bishop. The royal archives of Portugal still hold the records reflecting the ceremonial respect that was paid to this Christian son of an African king and queen.

In the years that followed, Portuguese evangelization of the Congo continued. The Holy See received ambassadors from and sent legates to the Congo. In 1561, Father Dom Goncalo da Silvera baptized the Emperor of the Court of Monomotapa.

The peaceful relations between the Africans and the Portuguese were eventually disrupted by the rising European lust for slaves and gold. It was from Angola and the Congo that the Portuguese New World was to derive its greatest source of slaves. In 1647, Salvador Correia of Brazil organized an expedition of fifteen ships for the purpose of reconquering Angola, which had been under Dutch rule for eight years. This event might be considered go be one of the earliest political interventions of the New World in the Affairs of the Old.

Portuguese domination founded on the dire necessities of the slave trade persisted in Angola. After a period of relative splendor, the Christian Kingdom of the Congo began to weaken and was practically destroyed by European fortune hunters, pseudo-missionaries and other kinds of free-booters. By 1688, the entire Congo region was in chaos. By the end of the seventeenth century European priests had declared open war on the non-Christian population of the Congo. They were attempting to dominate Congolese courts and had ordered the execution of Congolese ancestral priests and indigenous doctors. Now the Congolese Christians were pathetic pawns of the hands of unscrupulous European priests, soldiers, merchants and other renegade pretenders, mere parish priests from Europe were ordering Congolese kings from their thrones.

Soon treachery, robbery and executions compounded the chaos in the Congo. Violence became the order of the day as various assortments of European mercenaries vied for control of this rich area of Africa. In the ensuing struggle many of the Christian churches built by the Portuguese were destroyed. The Dutch, still feeling the humiliation of the decline of their influence in Angola, came into the Congo and systematically removed all traces of the once prevailing Portuguese power.

By 1820 Arab slave traders had penetrated the Congo from Zanzibar and through Tanganyika. Soon after their arrival their slave raids were decimating the population. The European rediscovery of the Congo and neighboring territories began in the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1858, two Englishmen, Burton and Spoke, discovered Lakes Tanganyka and Victoria, approaching them from the shores of the Indian Ocean. The Scotch Protestant missionary, Livingstone, explored the regions of the big lakes and in 1871, Livingstone and Stanley met on the shore of Lake Tanganyika. From 1874 to 1877, Henry Morton Stanley crossed Africa from east to west and 'discovered' the Congo River.

In the meantime, King Leopold II of Belgium focused his attention on Central Africa and in 1876 founded the Association International Africaine. In 1878, King Leopold commissioned Stanley to establish connection between the Congo River and the ocean in the non-navigable part of the river. From 1879 to 1885, a handful of Belgian officers sent by the King set up posts along the Congo River. They were followed by Catholic and Protestant missionaries.

King Leopold's undertakings gave rise to competition and greed. Other European nations had designs on the Congo. The King's diplomatic successes at the Berlin Conference of 1884 settled this matter. The members of the Conference marked out spheres of influence in Africa and determined boundaries that are still in existence. The Congo Free State came into being. The Belgian parliament agreed that Leopold should have "exclusive" personal ownership of the Congo. The United States was the first power to ratify the arrangement, largely through the efforts of General Henry S. Stanford, who was American minister to Brussels at the time.

And thus began the tragedy of Belgian rule in the Congo"

This history is important in that it gives us a glimpse of the life of the people of the Congo, who were not really not that much unaware of their neighbors in the south and Southeast of Southern Africa, and many of the Portuguese sailors, who kept records of these people during these times, they alluded to these civilizations, and particularly that of Monomotapa which stretched from Angola to Maputo; from Angola to the Western and eastern Cape, that in order to give some credence to the civilizations of Mzantsi, we will need also to be cognizant of those civilizations we can identify in order to give some historical continuity and truth to the fact that the civilization of Mzantsi was the largest and biggest ever, by man. This whole Hub is an effort to rewrite, recreate, compose and present this history as has never before done-from an African perspective.

Lost Cities of Africa Paperback by Basil Davidson

200,000 Year Old Temple of the Annunaki Gods

Artistic and digital impressionistic Art of the Adams Apple connected to the Orion Belt
Artistic and digital impressionistic Art of the Adams Apple connected to the Orion Belt | Source
Stone Structure with a diameter of 25 to 150 meters, which contains a number of smaller circle stone structures,
Stone Structure with a diameter of 25 to 150 meters, which contains a number of smaller circle stone structures, | Source

Vanishing Cultures of South Africa Hardcover by Peter Magubane

Africa in History [Paperback] Basil Davidson

The Civilizations of Southern Africa(South Africa In Particular)

"A Tarnished Past Which Was The Shining Example of Man's Civilization

Thus, in studying the history of Mzantsi as the origin of Man and the world we now live in, is that the chart of African History, so lately bare and empty and misleading maps once were, begins to glow with illuminating detail. Bearded Monsters and "men whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders" begin to disappear; and humanity in all its smallness and its greatness, begin to emerge. And it begins to be seen, if fleetingly and partially as yet, that the writing of African history is not only possible and useful, but will be as well a work of rediscovery - the rediscovery of African "Humanity".

The African, many have thought, is a man without a past. Black Africa - Africa south of the Sahara desert - is in this view a continent where men by their own efforts have never raised themselves much above the level of the beasts. "No ingenious manufactures among them, no arts, no sciences," commented David Hume. "No approach to civilization of his White fellow creatures whom he imitates as a monkey do, and Governor of Nigeria could write that "for countless centuries, while all the pageant of history swept by, the African remained unmoved - in primitive savagery."

Even in 1958, Sir Arthur Kirby, Commissioner for British East Africa in London, could tell the Torquay Branch Overseas League that "in the last sixty years - little more than a lifetime of some people in this room - East Africa has developed from a completely primitive 'country'(!?), in many ways more backward than the Stone Age. ...

"Africans, on this view, had never evolved civilizations of their own. If they possessed a history, it could be scarcely worth telling. And this belief that Africans had lived in universal chaos or stagnation until the coming of Europeans seemed not only to find its justification in a thousand tales of savage misery and benighted ignorance; it was also, of course, exceedingly convenient in hight Colonial/Imperial times. For it could be argued(and it was; indeed, it still is) that these peoples, history-less, were naturally inferior or else they were children who had still to grow up"; in either case, they were manifestly in need of government by others who had grown up." (Davidson)

This is why this Hub is being written. Such snide and very biased and 'dumbing down' comments about Africans have been made in the past, and still are made today and Africans are often reminded how much of 'children' they are, and that the Europeans had to come all the way form backward Europe to come and civilize and christianize Africans who could not save themselves if left alone in their barbaric state.

One need read the Hub i have already published here on HubPages called "The History And The Age of The Moors In Spain: How The Moors Civilized Europe - The History Of Africa," wherein I show how, before the coming of the Moors, Europeans were so backward and lived in houses without a window, and who thought it was taboo to wash, were living in the Darkest of the Ages in human history, and yet they would be the ones today who tell Africans that they have no history, and have created no civilization worth noting, that, in this Hub, I begin to deconstruct and debunk these malicious falsities to the extent that it will help African history have its walk in the Sun in World history, and be recognized as the real story of the origin of humanity and what we see today as modern civilization.

So that, "this view of African achievement, or lack of achievement," is now with increasing knowledge seen to rest on no more solid a foundation in truth that earlier belief about Niger's flowing westward. Geographical discovery has proved that the Niger flows to the eastward. Historical discovery is now proving that the development and growth of society and civilization in Africa really cotradict this stereotype of "centuries-long stagnation." The world is changing its mind about the past of Africa."(Davidson)

This Hub is breaking down the achievement and showcasing the importance, relevance and truth about the 'real and true' history of Africans of Africa, and particularly those of South Africa(Mzantsi) which, up to this far, falsities were the order and logic of the day-that Africa has not contributed anything towards history and civilization of Man. This Hub negates and pushes back at such lies, and it makes a bold statement that this could not be far from the truth, Instead, the opposite is true. Now we have proof and data to show that, in fact, man and civilization originated in Mzantsi(South Africa, whose civilization can be traced back to 200,000 B.C). This will be included in this historical narrative below-with photos to show the material culture of the Africans-and some has been shown above.

According to our standard understanding of history in the region, the landscape in question was sparsely populated by nomadic peoples during the time these walled structures, numbering in the millions, were built. Where was the workforce to make all these walls - each constructed well enough to have survived the ravages of time?

Among the ruins, the authors - who have clearly researched their subject with extensive privately-funded fieldwork - have discovered many anomalous stones and artifacts which, in their opinion, set the dates of the monuments far back into antiquity. There must have been, they argue quite reasonably, a well-resourced civilisation behind the construction of these ancient walls. The patterns the walling forge across the landscape of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana and southern Mozambique are remarkable, especially seen from the air. The authors ascribe the denser collections of stone-works to extensive ancient cities, but given the lack of entrances to many of the more circular structures this is far from self-evident.

"They ponder many possibilities - some of them highly speculative - about the uses of the ruins and the channels that run between many of them. We are asked to consider such exotic ideas as free energy, acoustic/sound energy, an industrial-scale gold extraction technique, and even the ability to levitate. It is clear that gold was mined in South Africa tens of thousands of years ago, and that this might have been, even then, an important source of trade. It could be reasonably argued that such an industry could have funded the building of such extensive monuments across hundreds of thousands of square kilometres of land.

"But such an acceptance of this overturns much of ancient history, and our normal working assumptions about early civilisations. Perhaps, one might argue, that explains the woeful neglect of these ancient African ruins? Perhaps the neglect stems from old-style European-centred arrogance that has never quite gone away; that ancient civilisation must have started with the Greeks and Romans, pushed back eventually to the Egyptians and, with some weariness by Euro-centric academia.

"Is it time for that same academia to consider that the cradle of civilisation went back still further in time and distance, to southern Africa? After all, that's where our human race emerged from in the first place, and modern humans have been roaming about for about 200,000 years - creating a great deal of opportunity for a civilisation extending back well into the last Ice Age. I think this seems likely, and I think the authors have done South Africa and its surrounding lands a great service in bringing this historical origins possibility to the world's attention.

"However, I have a different explanation to offer for these structures, not considered in the book. The reader's attention is drawn to the similarity between the patterns the walls create, as seen from above, and ancient rock petroglyphs also found in southern Africa. The aerial photos remind me of the Nazca lines in Peru, although the patterns and their mode of construction are very different. They also remind me of the modern phenomenon of crop circles here in Britain, created by artists intent on creating controversy when the circles are viewed from the air.

"I think the extensive stone-walled patterns were designed to be seen from above. They served no other practical purpose when they were constructed, although they may have been made use of by later nomadic peoples. Initially, though, I think they were simply religious in nature, creating a tapestry of artwork to be seen by the gods from the sky.

"Many of the patterns look like flowers, and the walls leading up to them, that so mysteriously stop in dead ends, look like flower stems. Is it possible that the ancient peoples who made these extensive structures were creating a countrywide depiction of a garden, to be appreciated only from above? To enter the territory of speculation enjoyed by the authors, might this garden not be that of Eden? That would tie in with the concept of civilisation emerging in South Africa/Zimbabwe first, centred upon the extraction of gold and, hence, wealth, power and the wielding of extensive human resources.

As Richard Dawkins would argue, "religion has a way of sapping huge resources completely unnecessarily. Powerful religious figures in all societies draw resources to create their temples, often in alarming juxtaposition to the living conditions of the people they actually serve. And religious people themselves are often happy to provide much of their time and resources to serve their religion, with no seeming benefit to them in return, beyond a tenuous promise of heaven in the afterlife."(Tellinger)

In a nutshell, Africans have been doing what other people all over the world, having control of their societies, spirituality, culture, history, oral tradition and history, language and the whole bit. We can simply regurgitate our history, but are using it to begin to form African unity, without being ignorant, but knowledgeable and confident about the data that we, as people of African descent, are using to recompose and upgrade the truth about African history, culture, customs, sacred rites and practices, languages, music, dance, and traditional dress.

There is a civilization that was formed here in Mzantsi before it was even fashionable to think of it as so. The people who have exposed such information, like Tellinger, are doing a great service by bringing an awareness about this history, but nonetheless, are also doing a disservice by interpreting what they found here in Mzantsi as being of foreign origin. This reeks of the untruths told about the so-called Zimbabwe ruins. It is therefore our duty as African people/historians to tell our story/history without asking permission from anyone for us to do so.

The Circling patterns found in South africa are akin to the way african people build their homesteads, and this time, they were using bricks or stones
The Circling patterns found in South africa are akin to the way african people build their homesteads, and this time, they were using bricks or stones | Source

A Day in the Life of Africa Hardcover by David Elliot Cohen

History of South Africa since September 1795 (Cambridge Library Collection - African Studies) (Volume 3) Paperback by George McCall Theal

Reclamation and Restitution Of African South African History

It may have been a million years ago
The Light was kindled in the Old Dark Land
With which the illumined Scrolls are all aglow,
That Egypt gave us her mummied hand:
This was the secret of that subtle smile
Inscrutable upon the Sphinx's face,
Now told from sea to sea, from isle to isle;
The revelation of the Old Dark Race;
Theirs was the wisdom of the Bee and Bird,
Ant, Tortoise, Beaver, working human-wise;
The ancient darkness spake with Egypt's Word;
Hers was the primal message of the skies:
The Heavens are telling nightly of her glory,
And for all time Earth echoes her great story.

Truth is all-potent with its silent power
If only whispered, never heard aloud,
But working secretly, almost unseen,
Save in some excommunicated book;
'Tis as the lightning with its errand done
Before you hear the thunder.

The First Peoples

A scientific expose that will shatter our knowledge of ancient human history. Scholars have told us that the first civilisation on Earth emerged in a land called Sumer some 6000 years ago. New archaeological and scientific discoveries made by Michael Tellinger, Johan Heine and a team of leading scientists, show that the Sumerians and even the Egyptians inherited all their knowledge from an earlier civilisation that lived at the southern tip of Africa(Mzantsi) more than 200,000 years ago mining gold. These were also the people who carved the first Horus bird, the first Sphinx, built the first pyramids and built an accurate stone calendar right in the heart of it all. Adams Calendar is the flagship among millions of circular stone ruins, ancient roads, agricultural terraces and thousands of ancient mines, left behind by a vanished civilisation which we now call the FIRST PEOPLE. They carved detailed images into the hardest rock, worshipped the sun, and are the first to carve an image of the Egyptian Ankh -- key of life and universal knowledge, 200,000 years before the Egyptians came to light. (Tellnger)

We learn from Tellinger/Heine on this unknown and neglected aspect of archeology that:

"Once one has pored over the myriad photographs, aerial images and satellite photos of these mysterious stone walls, and realised the extent of their coverage across broad swathes of southern Africa, one is left flabbergasted at mainstream archaeology's apparent neglect of these ancient ruins. Taken individually, each circular monument might be dismissed as a sheep pen (the Khoi people were shepherds 2000 years ago), and each terrace as man's early attempt to manipulate the landscape for horticultural gain[and spiritual gain, too]. But these are not isolated structures. Instead, they are diffused right across the landscape of southern Africa[particularly in Mzantsi], half-buried and mostly forgotten.

"Not only that, but the design of the dry stone walling of the circular enclosures provides us with further questions. The majority have no entrances, even when a 'road' encased within parallel stone walls runs right up to them.

"There is simply no explanation why a large stone structure with a diameter of 25 to 150 meters, which contains a number of smaller circular stone structures, would be constructed without any entrances. But it gets even more weird - many of the internal stones circles also have entrances and simply look like a cluster of grapes inside an outer wall."

Or is it because we have not yet fully understood the structures because we do not even acnowledge the present indigenous inhabitants as being there since the beginning of man. So much so that we do not even look at the structures of their present building, nor understand the fact that they[Africans] are the ones who instructed the "Boers" how and what to plant, which cows were for milk or meat, and how to navigate their lives around the temperate weather that they, the Africans, have been living in since time immemorial?

That seems not to negate the possibility that they are structures initially designed to be lived in (the walling providing a base upon which to construct, say, a wooden framework to make a covered hut-or one made of stone as its outer walls). The fact that there are cities, though in ruins, that have been discovered and are dated back to remote antiquity, in of itself says a lot about the life and civilization that had existed there.

By studying the area using aerial maps, Tellinger determined there were three great cities, some 60 x 60 miles each, one of which included Great Zimbabwe. Among the ruins, the first pyramids can be found, and details carved into some of the rocks include the Ankh symbol-- thousands of years before the Egyptian civilization used it. This is material culture that is existing.

Early African Peoples

The history of the earliest peoples of south Africa is really based on archeological evidence for the emergence of humanity and traces the long period of settlement by hunters and gathers who relied mainly on stone for their tools and buildings. This is followed by and end is up with the introduction of farming, and Iron technology. This precolonial past is conventionally known as the "Stone Age". Because there are few written accounts, Archeology is one of the many important sources of information for human activities

So that, it is also important to note that the Stone Age people thought and spoke and acted like the present-day Africans of today's contemporary Mzantsi(South Africa). Their ingenious innovations, intelligence and creativity paved a way for the present modern day South Africa and the world-at-large. There were those that did not use the stone age technology, but evolved, as in the KhoiSan, who along the the Twi [: the former ended using a Bow and Arrow, and the latter was left with the technique of building bridges.

It should be remembered that many species evolved, like proto-humans, apes, monkeys and other human look-alikes. In the case of South Africa, there were "Giants"(Madimo/Amazimzim)- and there is material witness as to their existence posted below-the Giant human-length and size footprint). The problem that the Archeologists point out to is that "Oral History and Tradition" do little to give information about this time period, but to date, they have not done a comprehensive research on it.

History As Propaganda in South Africa and on Zimbabwe

We are informed in the following manner by Martin Hall:

"Southern Africa is a region of extremes and contradictions. Its history is no exception: the way South African and Zimbabwean history has been taught during the colonial period and even today remains a source of controversy.

The southern African landscape is one richly layered with the culture of its people. It is the home of the oldest continual tradition of painting in the world; the broken and scattered remains of pottery from hundreds of ancient farming villages -- the oldest going back two thousand years; the stone walls of innumerable settlements scattered across the vast grasslands of the interior, including the towering, dry stone walls of Great Zimbabwe that were home to many hundreds of people almost a millennium ago; and now a World Heritage Site. It may also even be the part of the world to which modern humans everywhere owe their origins.

To drive north from Cape Town in South Africa to Harare, the capital of modern-day Zimbabwe, is to travel through a history book. Yet when the first Dutch settlers splashed ashore at the Cape in 1652 they saw a land they believed to be empty of civilization. And when, a little over two centuries later, the settlers forded the Limpopo River and climbed the highlands on the other side, they saw in Great Zimbabwe evidence for the Queen of Sheba's lost city of the Old Testament -- an outpost of northern civilization in a sea of southern "barbarism."

In 1948, the National Party came to power in South Africa and formalized years of racial discrimination in the web of legislation that became notorious as apartheid. Children were taught in school that, save for the primitive "Bushmen," southern Africa had been empty before Europeans had arrived, and that black Africans had only entered the subcontinent from the north at the same time that the Dutch had arrived in the far south. In an epic battle between civilization, superstition and dark violence, Christianity had prevailed over the indigenous culture-they maintained.

A similar denial of history was offered in Rhodesia now Zimbabwe, was known proir to its independence in 1980. Africans, it was said, were incapable of building in stone or of fashioning fine gold. The Bible was used to offer proof that the gold brought in homage to Solomon came from the south, and where else than from the long-used mines that the white pioneers had found in abundance. Anyone arguing otherwise was accused of being unpatriotic or, worse, in secret conspiracy with black terrorists intent on overthrowing an ordered colonial society.

Today, with literally tons of evidence of African civilizations that stretched back centuries before Europeans even knew where the subcontinent was, it is difficult to give credence to this colonial version of history. One wonders how these fictitious versions of history could have taken root. Partly, it served the political and economical motives of white settlers to believe that the land of southern Africa was empty and the colonial enterprise was high-minded. But the denial of Africa's true history was also due to the pervasive effects of widespread assumptions about the "dark continent."

A century ago, Henry Rider Haggard, a minor colonial official and unsuccessful ostrich farmer, made his name and fortune through King Solomon's Mines, She and other novels. Each story played to the romance of Africa as a timeless continent of wild game, fiercely beautiful scenery and simple people with no history. In Haggard's view, Africa was little more than the foil for Europe's history, and the idea of cities a thousand years old would have been incredible.

Today, the history books are being rewritten. Great Zimbabwe is a national symbol of black pride and accomplishment, known to every Zimbabwean. And although few South Africans know much about the past of their country before colonial settlement, this is changing as the far-reaching tenets of apartheid are dismantled. But the world's more general assumptions about Africa -- the contemporary connection with the popular writers of the 19th century -- are still pervasive. The tourism and leisure industries thrive on fables that are unchanged from Rider Haggard's day, and Hollywood's Lion King still rules over a timeless landscape, empty of history.

But beneath the veneer of airport novels, architects' dreams and impresarios' fantasies is a solid mass of convincing evidence for a rather different history. About a thousand years ago, villagers along the banks of the Limpopo began to trade down the river, exchanging animal skins, ivory and other exotic items for glass beads, which were as valuable to them as was gold in the economies of the medieval north. Their partners in this barter were itinerant traders who made their way south along Africa's Indian Ocean coastline, setting up temporary camps close to river estuaries.

Soon, some of these Limpopo villages became wealthy, growing rapidly in population as they attracted people from the surrounding countryside like magnets. And, within the villages, some became more wealthy than others, gaining power and prominence in their communities. As in many other parts of the world, this elite claimed its status through architecture, setting some houses above others, and using the possibilities of the landscape to best advantage. Some places became far more important than others -- cities in a landscape of villages. Among them was Mapungubwe, which thrived in the 12th century A.D.

The design of Mapungubwe makes the best use of a dramatic landscape. The city is centered on a steep-sided, flat-topped hill that towers above the valley. The wealthy lived on the top of the hill, signifying their claim to status both by this physical elevation, and also through the goldwork and trade beads that adorned their bodies in life and in death. Prosperity rested on the work of skilled craftsmen, who fashioned ivory and bone for trade, smelted and smithed iron, finely decorated hand-built pots and worked gold. Today, this heritage is best represented in the small, exquisite gold foil rhinoceros, surely one of South Africa's national treasures.

Within a century, Mapungubwe was in decline. A number of theories have been put forth to explain this -- environmental decline through overgrazing by the massive herds of cattle that supported a population in excess of 100,000 people, or bubonic plague that spread inland from the coastal trading settlements. But the most likely explanation is that Mapungubwe was eclipsed by the rise of a new economic power to the north of the Limpopo-or can be seen as a link of the movement of the building of Africa before the coming of Europeans in the Southern Africa landscape and plains.

Great Zimbabwe is one of many settlements that had at their center dry stone walls with distinctive designs and characteristic decoration. For the most part, these were not the walls of houses, but were rather intended to emphasize the importance of those who lived near them -- the same symbolic logic as Mapungubwe's hilltop. The distribution of these stone buildings - which extended from the Kalahari Desert in the west to the Indian Ocean lowlands in the east -- suggests that they were regional centers in a complex social and economic network. Great Zimbabwe was the largest of them, sufficiently more substantial to mark it as the capital of a complex state that rested on the gold trade.

Great Zimbabwe and its hinterland prospered for three centuries. The memory of this prosperity was sufficiently fresh in people's memories for the Portuguese to collect rumors of it when they invaded the Mozambican coastline at the very beginning of the 16th century. But the Portuguese were intent on plunder and on finding the Bible's lost cities, legendary for their wealth. Before long, Africa's history was shrouded by the myths and justifications of colonialism. But fortunately, the very weight of Africa's past has kept it alive. Mapungubwe's foil rhinoceros was hidden away for decades, but now tells its own tale of sophisticated ancient African wealth and craftsmanship and high civilization.

Great Zimbabwe was plundered by expedition after expedition, desperately burrowing for proof the Queen of Sheba once wandered around the walls. Instead, undeniable evidence for centuries-old black civilizations was discovered, now validated by an irrefutable series of radiocarbon dates. The cities of the south are lost no longer."

In this case, below we trace a more concrete theory as to the role that is played by Oral Tradition,Culture and History .

Orality And Oral Tradition/History of Africans of Mzantsi

Writing - Commitment Of The Word To space

There is an assertion made by many scholars that 'oral' traditions and history of Africans of South Africa are not adequate enough to tell us something about their remote antiquity. This is false and misleading and very erroneous. Before we demonstrate the importance and validity of the oral history and tradition of Africans of Mzantsi(South Africa), we will put the nature and reality of orality into its proper perspective as per Walter Ong who informs us thusly:

"Wherever human beings exist they have a language, and in every instance a language that exists basically as spoken and heard, in the world of sound(Siertsema, 1955). Despite the richness of gesture, elaborated sign languages are substitutes for speech and dependent on oral speech systems, even when used the congenitally deaf (Kroeber; Mallery; Stokoe - 1972).

"Indeed, language is so overwhelmingly oral that of all the many thousands of languages - possibly tens of thousandds - spoken in the course of human history only around 106 have been committed to writing to a degree sufficient to have produced literature, and most have never been written at all. Of the some 3000 languages spoken that exist today, only some 78 have literature (Edmonson - 1971).

"There is as yet no way to calculate how many languages have disappeared or been transmuted into other languages before writing came along. Even now, hundreds of languages in active use are never written at all: no one has worked out an effective ways to write them. The basic orality of language is permanent.

"We are not here concerned with so-called computer 'languages', which resemble human languages (English, Sanskrit, Malayalam, Mandarin Chinese, Twi or Shoshone, Zulu, etc.), in some ways but are forever totally unlike human languages in that they do not grow out of the unconscious but directly out of conscisousnes. Computer language rules('grammar') are stated first and thereafter used. The 'rules' of grammar in natural human languages are used first and can be abstracted from usage and stated explicitly in words only with difficulty and never completely.

"Writing, commitment of the word to space", enlarges the potentiality of language almost beyond measure, restructures thought, and in the process converts certain dialects into "grapholects" (Haugen - 1966). A 'grapholect' is a transdialectical language formed by deep commitment to weiting. Writing fives a grapholect a power far exceeding that of any purely oral dialect. The grapholect known as standard English has accessible for use a recorded vocabulary of at least a million and a half words, of which not only the present meanings but also hundreds of thousands of past meanings are known. A simply oral dialect will commonly have resources of only a few thousand words, and its users will have virtually no knowledge of the real semantic history of any of these words.

"But, in all the wonderful worlds that writing opens, the spoken word still resides and lives." Written texts all have to be related somehow, directly or indirectly, to the world of sound, the natural habitat of language, to yield their meanings. "reading" a text means converting it to sound, aloud or in the imagination, syllable-by-syllable in slow reading sketchily in the rapid reading common to high-technology cultures.

"Writing can never dispense with orality. Adapting a terms used for slightly different purposes by Jurij Lotman-1977, we can style writing a 'secondary modeling system', dependent on a prior system primary system, spoken language. 'Oral expression can exist and mostly has existed without any writing at all, writing never without orality'."

It is important for me to make some notes and observations on the last paragraph above. Up to this far,if one were to read most of the history of Africans written by local and foreign archeologist, linguists, anthropologist, that the African people's oral history and tradition do not provide any clues about the the past of African people. This is distortion, obfuscation and falsification of the oral tradition and history of a people. This is written, and as we have learnt from Ong above, that writing, in its present form, and from its origins, cannot exist without without oral history and tradition.

Now that we have learned about the fact that "Orality or Oral Expression, has existed and can exist without writing for it has come long before writing, then the spurious arguments made about the inadequacy of African South African Oral, that it cannot help us trace and give some continuity of the history of South, that it falls short in many instances, well, this does not stand up to the 'smell test'. On it ssurface and even much ore deeper meaning of its grapholect-writing that the oral history and tradition of Africans is not capable of giving us a sense and the history of Africans is South Africa is disingenous and flat out lies and a serious cultural onslaught against the language systems of Africans of Mzantsi. Ong further informs us that:

"Yet, despite the oral roots of all verbalization, the scientific and literary study of language and literature has for centuries, until quite recent years, shied away from orality. Texts have clamored for attention so peremptorily that oral creation have tended to be regarded generally as variants of written productions or, if not this, as beneath serious scholarly attention. Only relatively recently have we become impatient with our obtuseness here. (Finnegan-1977)

"Language study in all but recent decades has focused on written texts rather than on orality for a readily assignable reason: the relationship of study itself to writing. All thought, including that in primary oral cultures, is to some degree analytic: it breaks its materials into various components. But abstractly sequential, classificatory, explanatory examination of phenomena or of stated truths is impossible without writing and reading. 'Human beings in primary oral cultures, those untouched by writing in ay form, learn a great deal and possess and practice great wisdom, but they do not 'study'. [The use of oral tradition, language and way of communication is itself studying without reading a book, but applying and practicing a culture, custom, etc].

"They learn by apprenticeship - hunting with experienced hunters, for example - by discipleship, which is a kind of apprenticeship, by listening, by repeating what they hear, by mastering proverbs and ways of combining and recombining them, by assimilating other formulary materials, by participation in a kind of corporate retrospection - not by study in the strict sense..

"When study in the strict sense of extended sequential analysis becomes possible with the interiorization of writing, one of the first things that literates often study is language itself and its uses. Speech is inseparable from our consciousness and it has fascinated human beings, elicited serious reflection about itself, from the very early stages of consciousness, long before writing came into existence. Provers/[Aphorisms] from all over the world are rich with observations about this overwhelmingly human phenomenon of speech in its native oral form, about its powers, its beauties,its danges. The same fascination with oral speech continues unabated for centuries after writing comes into use. Aphorisms are the stuff of what the cultures, customs and oral tradition of Africans in South africa is choc-full of.

Orature: The Written And The Oral

We learn from Chinweizu that:

"Our conception of literature is perhaps a little broader than is conventionally allowed. In our view, literature must include all the genres of publicy communicated written matter of a society. Thus, in addition to prose and fiction, poetry and drama, we consider essays, biographies, addresses and orations a vital part of literature. Now, it should be borne in mind that poems, plays, stories, essays, speeches, etc., do exist in two modes-the 'written and the oral'. Bearing this fact in mind, we find it useful to follow Pio Zirimu and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's seminal example of using the term "Orature" to denote poems, plays, stories, etc., in oral form, and in reserving the term "literature" for the same things in their written form.

"Because obloquy has been routinely heaped upon African 'orature' by Eurocentric critics of African literature, we have, in discussing African literature, found it necessary to examine at some length the qualities of African "orature".

"Furthermore, African orature is important to this enterprise of decolonizing african literature[and oral history and tradition], for the important reason that it is the incontestable reservoir of values, sensibilities, esthetics, and achievements of traditional African thought and imagination outside the plastic arts. Thus, it must serve as the ultimate foundation, guidepost, and point of departure from a modern liberated African literature, and conception of Orality and literature, in the process."

Oral History and Oral Tradition

If we are going to view African oral history and tradition through the eyes of our Master and former masters, it is because we are still acknowledging the fact that Europeans still dominate us, and it should remain so, with some adjustments here and there; or they may perceive a need for a rest, but fail to see its implictions for literary and [oral] criticism]. Yet, it is the root from which modern African literature, orality, history and culture must draw sustenance.

Thus, writing from the beginning did not reduce orality but enhanced it, making it possible to organize the 'principles' or constituents or oratory into scientific 'art', a sequentially ordered body of explanation that showed how and why oratory achieved and could be made to achieve its various specific effects.

"But the speeches - or any other oral performances - that were studied as part of rhetoric could hardly be speeches as these were being orally delivered. After the speech was delivered, nothing of it remained to work over. What you used for 'study' had to be the next of speeches that ha been written down -commonly after delivery and often long after (in antiquity it was not common practice for any but disgracefully incompetent orators to speak from text prepared verbatim in advance. In this way, even orally composed speeches were studied not as speeches but as written texts.

"Moreover, besides transcription of oral performances such as orations, writing eventually produced strictly written compositions, designed for assimilation directly from the written surface. Such written compositions came into being as texts only, even though many of them were commonly listened to rather than silently read, from Livy's history to Dante's Comedia and beyond(Nelson 1976-7).

"But the relentless dominance of textuality in the scholarly ind is shown by the fact that to this day no concepts have yet been formed for effectively, let alone gracefully, conceiving of oral art as such without reference, conscious or unconscious, to writing. This is so even though the oral art forms which developed during the tens of thousands of years before writing obviously had no connection with writing at all.

"We have the term 'literature'. which essentially means 'writings' (Latin Literatura, from litera, letter of the alphabet), to cover a given body of written materials - English literature, children's literature - but comparably satisfactory term or concept to prefer to a purely oral heritage, such as the traditional oral stories, proverbs, prayers, formulaic expressions, or the oral productions of, say, the Lakota Sioux in North America or the Mande in West Africa[The Nguni Bakone of Mzantsi, too].

"Today, primary oral culture in the functioning on writing and print, because by state that the orality of a culture, totally untouched by any knowledge of writing or print, is what I call "primary" culture. It is 'prmary' by contrast with the 'secondary orality' of present-day high-technology culture, in which a new orality is sustained by telephone(cell phones, Skype, etc), radio, television, and other electronic devices that depend for their existence and functioning on writing and print.

"Today, primary oral culture in the strict sense hardly exists, since every culture knows of writing and has some experience of its effects. Still, to varying degrees many cultures and subcultures, even in high-technology ambiance, preserve much of the mind-set of primary orality."

So that, in reclaiming and recomposing our History, culture, customs,traditions, music, oral history and the whole bit, we will have to also consulted heavily or defer to our African Oral Custom and Oral History and Tradition in order to cull our history as it was in antiquity, because some of our oral culture, history, tradition and languages, still exist and survive for us to interrogate them thoroughly to make our writing even more clearer and authentic.

Early Man

A transparent cranial reconstruction showing dental pattern, upper left, a modified reconstruction of the juvenile skull, center, and the actual fossil cranium from A. sediba. The fossils of Australopithecus sediba are between 1.95 and 1.78 million y
A transparent cranial reconstruction showing dental pattern, upper left, a modified reconstruction of the juvenile skull, center, and the actual fossil cranium from A. sediba. The fossils of Australopithecus sediba are between 1.95 and 1.78 million y | Source
Paleontologists agree that the new fossils, discovered by Lee Berger of the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, are of great significance. But they do not necessarily agree with Dr. Berger’s contention, published Thursday in five articles in
Paleontologists agree that the new fossils, discovered by Lee Berger of the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, are of great significance. But they do not necessarily agree with Dr. Berger’s contention, published Thursday in five articles in | Source

Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology [Paperback] Cheikh Anta Diop

Origins of Man Can Be Traced Back To Africa

Mother Africa And The Birth Of Man

In 1871 Darwin's "Descent Of Man" was published, and in this book impressive evidence was adduced, tending to show that man and the anthropoid apes could be traced back to a common ancestor, Most of Darwin's contemporaries judged the continent of Asia to be most likely the birthplace of humanity, but Darwin held that Africa had the authentic claim to the title title of being the birthplace and Cradle of Mankind. "We are naturally led to enquire," he asserted, "where was the birthplace of Man. ... In each great region of the world the living mammals are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. It is therefore, unquestionably that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and the chimpanzee, and as these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is without doubt that our progenitors lived on the african continent than elsewhere." (55, p. 520)

It is worth noting here that the origins of man could be traced to Asia were challenged by Dr. Albert Churchward, and medical doctor and anthropologist/archeologist, who asserted that "The earliest members of the human race appeared in the interior of of the African continent about two million years ago. Churchward pointed out that "then from the the region of the great lakes, they spread over the entire continent." Groups of these early men wandered down the Nile Valley, settled in Egypt, and then later dispersed themselves to all parts of the globe.

The Prehistory of South Africa: The Earliest Hominids

The first Australopithecine fossil, a juvenile, was found in a lime-cemented breccia at Taung, in the North of the Cape Province of South Africa. The first adult individual was discovered in 1936, again in old cave deposits, this time in the Krugersdorp region of the (Old transvaal) Since then, a large number of Australopithecines have been recovered in Southern and East Africa. Apart from these regions, the only other fossil ascribed to the Australopithecines comes from Korotoro in the Lake Chad Basin. However, this specimen is now considered to more recent. In fact, most of the Australopithecine found so far have been from the South African caves and the Rift Valley sites , on account of the favorable conditions existing there for the preservation of fossil bones.

A large number of of radio metric datings have been obtained in East Africa as a result of the existence of volcanic sediment, but the fossil in Southern Africa can be dated relatively by the paleontological and geomorphological comaprisons. Latest assessment based on the studies of pigs, elephants and hyenas suggest that the earliest Transvaal fossils associated with them are about 2.5 million years old at the least. The cave breccias, at Makapan limeworks and the Sterkfontein type site, contain a few mammalian forms in common with those of the dated East African Assemblages.

The earliest South african Australipethicines were mostly of gracile build, with a cranial capacity of 450-500 cm-cube. In the later cave sites at Swartkrans and Kromdraai(Mzantsi-South Africa), the predominant form is much more robust (Australipethicus Robustus)). It was generally thought that the earlier forms were all gracile and the later ones robustus, but recent anthropometric studies show that the two forms may have been contemporaneous and have existed side by side in the same geographical areas, as in the case of the Makapan site in South Africa. According to some authors,the differentiation of the two species from a common ancestry took place as early as 5 million years ago. It is most probable that an early Homo form, such as that of the East Africa Homo habilis, existed in Southern Africa sometime between 1.7 and 2 million years ago, although its fossil remains have yet to be found.

Human Evolution: Darwin and the Origin of Species, as evidence of Evolution
Human Evolution: Darwin and the Origin of Species, as evidence of Evolution | Source

Origins: Human Evolution Revealed ~ Hardcover – by Douglas Palmer

The Africans of Mzantsi predate Homo Sapiens

Antique History

The Fauresmith lithic industry of South Africa has been described as transitional between the Earlier and Middle Stone Age. However, radiometric ages for this industry are inadequate. Here we present a minimum OSL age of 464 - 47 kyr and a combined U-series–ESR age of 542þ140 kyr for an in situ - 107

Fauresmith assemblage, and three OSL ages for overlying Middle and Later Stone Age strata, from the site of Kathu Pan 1 (Northern Cape Province, South Africa). These ages are discussed in relation to the available lithostratigraphy, faunal and lithic assemblages from this site. The results indicate that the Kathu Pan 1 Fauresmith assemblage predates transitional industries from other parts of Africa e.g. Sangoan, as well as the end of the Acheulean in southern Africa. The presence of blades, in the dated Fauresmith assemblages from Kathu Pan 1 generally considered a feature of modern human behaviour (McBrearty and Brooks, 2000, The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior, J. Human Evolution 39, 453–563),- 'provides evidence supporting the position that blade production in southern Africa predated the Middle Stone Age and the advent of modern Homo sapiens.'

Although a large number of Australopithecine hominid fossils have been found in the South African caves, it may or not be that was their actual place of residence. but it may well be because of the life-style of the Man of the day. Careful study of the Swartkrans site has shown, in fact, that the most significant action was hunted by large carnivores, using the caves as their den. (Because, there is proof that there were also giants who are rarely spoken of, but there is an actual giant foot imprint that can be found in South Africa) Moreover, no tools have been found in the cave breccia at the Makapan and Sterkfontein sites at which these fossils were discovered.

If the hominid living in caves idea is rejected, but the caves seems to have served as larders for some large carnivores, to which the hominids themselves sometimes fell victim, there have been some tools dating to about 1.5 million years that are found not far from the caves that the Australopithecines lived and in their caves at Swartkrans and Sterkfontein and at Kromdraai). However, bone fragments of a more recent hominid species, Homo Sapiens, have been found in the same Swartkrans deposit and this form is more likely to that associated with the tools .Even so, this does not preclude the possibility that the Australopithecines were capable of making tools in order to obtain Flakes for cutting purposes, Furthermore, hunting presumably required efficient organization and communication among the participants and this, in time, led to the development of language.

Benjamin Lee Whorf informs us that:

"... The relationship between human language and human thinking is how language indeed can shape our innermost thoughts. ...We are thus introduced to a new principle of relativity, which holds that all observers are not led by the same physical evidence to the same picture of the universe, unless their linguistic backgrounds are similar, or can in some way be calibrated.

"Indo-European languages can be roughly calibrated-English, French, German, Russian, Latin, Greek, and the rest; but when it come to Chinese, Maya, and Hopi, calibration, is structurally difficult if not impossible. Speakers of Chinese dissect nature and the universe differently from Western Speakers. A still different dissection is made by various groups of American Indians, Africans, and the Speakers of many other tongues."

Whorf, using linguistics as a tool for the analysis of meaning has made an important contribution to semnatics. No careful student of communication/history and meaning can afford to neglect him. One may add that no philosophical scientist or scientific philosopher can afford to neglect or overlook him. "Linguistics," he boldly proclaimed, "is fundamental to the theory of thinking, and in the last analysis, to all human sciences." He is right,of course, because every considerable advance in science, such as Quantum Theory, involves a crisis in communication. The discoverers have to explain first to themselves, and then to the scientific community and world, what has been found.

I find the two hypothesis mentioned by Whorf relevant the the whole body of work in this Hub, the fact that"

- That all levels the levels of thinking are dependent on language

- that the structure of language one habitually uses influences the manner in which one understands his environment. The picture of the universe shifts from tongue to tongue.

My point is that, although I might use English to write this hub for a common understanding for those interested in such topics, I still come from and believe that the Oral History, Tradition and usage of the African people has a lot to tell the world about the universe they perceive and live in. That is why I deep on reiterating and highlighting the fact that all can write about the Africa archeological, anthropological phenomena of this country, but disregarding the indigenous , their culture, history, tradition, orality, languages and the whole bit is not telling the true and somewhat wholesome story/history/culture/tradition of the Africans of Mzantsi. That will be part of what will be talked about in this Hub.

If the African people of Mzantsi predate homo sapiens, they are therefore the first to have a spoken language from antiquity, to the same present language that are spoken by the 11 peoples of the Nguni/Bakone nation of Mzantsi.

Swartkrans Cave (Gauteng, South Africa), located ~40 km northwest of Johannesburg, in Gauteng Province, South Africa, is one of the world’s most important paleoanthropological sites.(1) the recognition that many of the hominids were collected in the
Swartkrans Cave (Gauteng, South Africa), located ~40 km northwest of Johannesburg, in Gauteng Province, South Africa, is one of the world’s most important paleoanthropological sites.(1) the recognition that many of the hominids were collected in the

Black Africa: The Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State Paperback by Cheikh Anta Diop

Pre-Historic Stone Tools At the Oldowan Industrial Complex

Oldowan Complex

It should be borne in mind that, besides stone, a number of other materials, such as wood, bark, horn and bone, which were used as part of the tools of the time. The earliest stone industries in Southern Africa produced several distinctive types of tool, including choppers, polyhedral stones, scrappers, flakes,and so on. Compared with the East African artifacts, these tools display attributes that are closer to the more advanced from the Oldowan complex than the earlier form, and it is now generally accepted that the South african sites date from some 1.5 million years ago. Two hominid lines can be distinguished by that time: that of the robust Australopithecine and that of the more recent Homo. It is still being researched which of he two was responsible for the industries-but there are tools to help understand the material culture of this time period.

The Acheulian Industrial Complex

The earliest South African assemblages belonging to the Acheulian industrial complex come from tow sites located at the junction of the Vaal and its tributary, the Klip, near Vereeniging, South africa. The tools are often abraded and are therefore not in their original context. A whole range of tools is represented: handaxes, cleavers, polyhedral stones, pebble tools, scrapers and flake tools. Occasional finds of other early-looking assemblages have been made in different parts of Southern Africa, such as the Cape Province and Livingstone in Zambia, but it is still difficult to put a date to them. In Southern Africa, Homo Erectus was and is still responsible for for these Acheulian industries, along with the Australipethicus, who, as we have pointed above, lived and shared different territories, but at the same time, within South Africa.

The favored living places in the Acheulian times were always close to water, such as dambos, where game was in the habit of gathering and where water was always available. A site such as this exists at Kabwe(Broken Hill), adjacent to the celebrated Kopje that produced the skull remains of Homo Rhodesiensis. At Cornelia, it is possible that animals hamy have been driven into the much in these dambos, and then butchered, In the dry Daroo bush of northern Cape Province and Botswana, the Acheulian population settled around pans and shallow lake sites that abounded in the region at that time.

Yet, another habitat favored by Acheulian Man - the shoreline - is shown by the large site found at Cape Hangklip, False Bay,in consolidated dune sands overlying the beach. At this site, the diet consisted of marine animals and Fish. Spring localities were also occupied, such as Amanzi site in the present-day winter rainfall belt, south of the Great Escarpment near Port Elizabeth(South Africa) On this site, tools were found that had been discarded, and trampled underfoot by elephants and other game, which had also come there to water.

Lastly, Caves were sometimes occupied by Acheulian Man in southern Africa.These included Cave of Hearths at Makapan in northern "Transvaal, where the remains have yielded a human jaw fragment from a juvenile have affinities with Homo rhodesiensis. This cave has also produced a number of tools of both early and late Acheulian forms.

The later Acheulian in south Africa extends from about 700,000 to 200,000 years before the Christian era. This made it possible to shed light more light o the considerable complexity of the Acheulian industries , which had handaxes and cleavers, it also had choppers and smaller tools of the Developed Oldownan pattern, added to this were choppers, picks and more heavy-duty implements are added to the vast range of tools There is also an infinite variety in the types of habitat and resources of these hunters of the later acheulian. This point will be dealt with much in-depth to discuss the unknown civilization of Mzantsi that can be dated as far back as 200,000 years ago(with pictures to give it a much more meaningful South African African historical structure and reality.

It is the given time period, the last date of 200,000 B.C. that will be looked at as deeply and much broader as possibile in this Hub

Handaxe made of banded ironstone. This Handzxe was found embedded in an exposd stratigraphic sequence in a sinkhole at Kathu Pan in the Northern Cape, South africa. The production of these artifacts (Large cutting tools, LCTs) can be seen as the exp
Handaxe made of banded ironstone. This Handzxe was found embedded in an exposd stratigraphic sequence in a sinkhole at Kathu Pan in the Northern Cape, South africa. The production of these artifacts (Large cutting tools, LCTs) can be seen as the exp | Source

The Final Stages of the Acheulian and Fauresmith Assemblages

Certain Assemblages have long been known to exist on the high interior plateau. The are characterized by generally small-sized and well made handaxes, a wide range of flake tools, core-scrapers, and a small number of cleavers. The raw material used was lydianite (undurated shale) in the regions where that rock abounds, but elsewhere, quartzite was more commonly used.

In this assemblage, a method of core preparation known as the disc-core technique, yielding several small flakes, is well represented; on the other hand, the Levallois technique, yielding one larger flake to each preparation of the core, was hard to come by(maybe will be found at a later date). These industries have been termed Fauresmith, (which will be re-named in the Future to suite the Africans of Mzantsi-but will do for now), after the site in the Orange River region where these almond-shaped handaxes were first found on the surface. These are dated to be from 115,000 to 80,000 years B.C.

In the regions with heavier rainfall and more closed vegetation, the late Acheulian was replaced not by the Fauresmith, but by industrial entities with a high proportion of picks, picks, core-axes, choppers and core-scrappers. This complex, which is known as the Sangoan, is found in Zambia, Zimbabwe, parts of South-East Africa and in the coastal regions of Natal. These assemblages are mostly undated, but at Kalambo Falls it has been possible to date the local material culture of the Sangoan to between 46,000 and 14,000 B.C. The slight difficulty of correlation of these Sangoan-type industries is compounded by ecological and other factors, but the correlation between these heavy tool-kits and the heavy rainfal, thicker vegetation areas is clear and undeniable.

In the Fauresmith and sangoan, therefore, we can detect the beginnings of regional specialization in tool-kits reflecting adaptive patterns in the grasslands different from those in the woodlands and forests.

Identifying regional variability in Middle Stone Age bone technology: The case of Sibudu Cave - KwaZulu Natal, South africa

Regional variation in the African: The Middle Stone Age of Africa: Biogeographical opportunities and technological strategies in later human evolution
Regional variation in the African: The Middle Stone Age of Africa: Biogeographical opportunities and technological strategies in later human evolution | Source
Sibudu Cave is a sandstone cliff cave in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is an important Middle Stone Age site.. In it evidence has been found of some of the earliest modern human technology including the earliest bone arrow, needle, and use
Sibudu Cave is a sandstone cliff cave in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is an important Middle Stone Age site.. In it evidence has been found of some of the earliest modern human technology including the earliest bone arrow, needle, and use | Source
Cores from MES11 surface: a) preferential Levallois, b) convergent/point Levallois, c) Nubian Type 1.
Cores from MES11 surface: a) preferential Levallois, b) convergent/point Levallois, c) Nubian Type 1. | Source
Fig. 2. Bone artefacts from final MSA (n. 1) and Post-Howiesons Poort layers (n. 2–6) at Sibudu Cave.
Fig. 2. Bone artefacts from final MSA (n. 1) and Post-Howiesons Poort layers (n. 2–6) at Sibudu Cave. | Source
Retouched blanks from MES11: a, g) points, b) notch, c) endscraper, d) truncated piece, e) borer, f) sidescraper.
Retouched blanks from MES11: a, g) points, b) notch, c) endscraper, d) truncated piece, e) borer, f) sidescraper. | Source
 Manufacture and use-wear traces on pins and awls from Sibudu Cave.
Manufacture and use-wear traces on pins and awls from Sibudu Cave. | Source
 Notched bone fragments from Post-Howiesons Poort (a–b), Howiesons Poort (c), and Pre-Still Bay (d) layers at Sibudu Cave compared to cut-marked rib fragments (e–f).
Notched bone fragments from Post-Howiesons Poort (a–b), Howiesons Poort (c), and Pre-Still Bay (d) layers at Sibudu Cave compared to cut-marked rib fragments (e–f). | Source
Traces of modification and use recorded on bone tools from post-Howiesons Poort (a), and Howiesons Poort (b–c) layers interpreted as pressure flakers, compared to those produced experimentally in this task (d–h) to retouch lithics (i).
Traces of modification and use recorded on bone tools from post-Howiesons Poort (a), and Howiesons Poort (b–c) layers interpreted as pressure flakers, compared to those produced experimentally in this task (d–h) to retouch lithics (i). | Source

The First Africans: African Archaeology from the Earliest Toolmakers to Most Recent Foragers (Cambridge World Archaeology) [Paperback] Lawrence Barham

Sibudu Cave: Mzantsi's Original Evolution

Sibudu Cave is a cave in a sandstone cliff in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is an important Middle Stone Age site occupied, with some gaps, from 77,000 years ago to 38,000 years ago. In it, evidence has been found of some of the earliest examples of modern human technology (although the earliest known spears date back 400,000 years), including the earliest bone arrow (61,000 years old), the earliest needle (61,000 years old), the earliest use of heat-treated mixed compound gluing (72,000 years ago) and the earliest example of the use of bedding (77,000 years ago). The use of glues and bedding are of particular interest, because the complexity of their creation and processing has been presented as evidence of continuity between early human cognition and that of modern humans.


The cave is a rock shelter, located roughly 40 km (25 mi) north of the city of Durban and about 15 km (9 mi) inland, near the town of Tongaat. It is in a steep, forested cliff facing WSW that overlooks the Tongati River in an area that is presently a sugar cane plantation. The cave was formed by erosional downcutting of the Tongati River, which now lies 10 m (33 ft) below the cave. The cavern floor is 55 m (180 ft) long, and about 18 m (59 ft) in width. It has a large collection of Middle Stone Age deposits that are well preserved organically and accurately dated using optically stimulated luminescence.

The first excavations following its discovery in 1983 were carried out by Aron Mazel of the Natal Museum (unpublished work). Lyn Wadley of the University of the Witwatersrand started renewed excavations in September 1998.


The occupations at Sibudu are divided into pre-Still Bay, Still Bay (72,000-71,000 BP), Howiesons Poort (before 61,000 BP), post-Howiesons Poort (58,500 BP) and late (47,700 BP) and final Middle Stone Age phases (38,600 BP). There were occupation gaps of around 10,000 years between the post-Howiesons Poort and the late Middle Stone Age stage, and the late and final Middle Stone periods. There was no Late Stone Age occupation, though there was a 1,000 BP Iron Age occupation.

Evidence suggests these were dry periods and the cave was only occupied during wet climatic conditions.


The pre-Still Bay occupation had a lithic flake-based industry and made few tools. The Still Bay, in addition to such flakes, made bifacial tools and points. Trace use analysis on the tips of the points finds evidence of compound adhesives on their bases where they would once have been hafted to shafts.

Various examples of early human technology have been found:

  • A bone point, a possible arrowhead that pushes back the origin of bow and bone arrow technology by at least 20,000 years beyond the previous earliest example, to 61,000 BP.;
  • The earliest known bone needle, dated to 61,000 BP, with wear similar to that found in bone needles used to puncture animal hide.;
  • The earliest example of a compound glue (plant gum and red ochre), used for hafting stone points into wood handles to create spears—-dated no later than 71,000 BP.; and
  • Shell beads, though of a more recent date than those found at Blombos cave (71,000 BP for the Sibudu beads, versus 75,000 BP for those at Blombos).
  • The earliest example of the use of bedding, dating back to around 77,000 years ago, 50,000 years earlier than records elsewhere. The plant bedding consisted of sedge and other monocotyledons topped with aromatic leaves containing insecticidal and larvicidal chemicals. The leaves were all from Cryptocarya woodii Engl. which, when crushed, are aromatic and contain traces of α-pyrones, cryptofolione, and goniothalamin, chemicals that have insecticidal and larvicidal properties against, for example, mosquitoes. Cryptocarya species are still used extensively as traditional medicines.

Howiesons Poort occupation manufactured blade tools. These blades are shaped like the segment of an orange, with a sharp cutting edge on the straight lateral and an intentionally blunted and curved back. These were attached to shafts or handles by means of ochre and plant adhesive or alternatively fat mixed with plant material. Segments were often made with a cutting edge along their entire length, which requires that they be attached to their hafts without twine and so calls for particularly strong adhesive glue.

Points were used in the period after the Howiesons Poort for hunting weapons, such as the tips of spears. Use–trace analysis suggests that many of these points were hafted with ochre-loaded adhesives.

Cognitive archeology

The replication of shafted tool manufacture using only methods and materials available at Sibudu has enabled the identification of the complexity of the thought processes that it required. The stone spear was embedded in the wood using a compound adhesive made up of plant gum, red ochre and, to aid the workability, possibly a small amount of beeswax, coarse particles or fat. This preliminary mixture had to have the right ingredient proportions and then, before shafting, undergo a controlled heat treatment stage. This heating had to avoid boiling or dehydrating the mixture too much, otherwise it would weaken the resulting mastic. Also the maker had to reduce its acidity. By experimentally recreating the creation of this adhesive, researchers concluded that the Middle Stone Age (MSA) humans at Sibudu would have required the multilevel mental operations and abstract thought of modern people to do this.

Artisans living in the MSA must have been able to think in abstract terms about properties of plant gums and natural iron products, even though they lacked empirical means for gauging them. Qualities of gum, such as wet, sticky, and viscous, were mentally abstracted, and these meanings counterpoised against ochre properties, such as dry, loose, and dehydrating. Simultaneously, the artisan had to think about the correct position for placing stone inserts on the shafts. ... Although fully modern behavior is presently recognizable relatively late in the MSA, the circumstantial evidence provided here implies that people who made compound adhesives in the MSA shared at least some advanced behaviors with their modern successors.

In a commentary upon this research it has been suggested that instead of focusing upon language, with activities that tax reasoning ability and are also visible archaeologically, such as shafting, archaeologists are in a better position to contribute to an understanding of the evolution of the modern mind.

Some of these hafted points might have been launched from bows. While "most attributes such as micro-residue distribution patterns and micro-wear will develop similarly on points used to tip spears, darts or arrows" and "explicit tests for distinctions between thrown spears and projected arrows have not yet been conducted" the researchers find "contextual support" for the use of these points on arrows: a broad range of animals were hunted, with an emphasis on taxa that prefer closed forested niches, including fast moving, terrestrial and arboreal animals. This is an argument for the use of traps, perhaps including snares. If snares were used, the use of cords and knots which would also have been adequate for the production of bows is implied. The employment of snares would also demonstrate a practical understanding of the latent energy stored in bent branches, the main principle of bow construction.

The use of Cryptocarya leaves in bedding indicates that early use of herbal medicines may have awarded selective advantages to humans, and the use of such plants implies a new dimension to the behavior of early humans at this time.

Interrupted technological development

Artifacts such as piecing needles, arrows, shell beads at Sibudu and elsewhere occur in a pattern whereby innovations are not further and progressively developed but arise and then disappear. For instance, the shell beads occur in the Still Bay layers but are absent from the Howiesons Poort ones, in Sibudu and elsewhere. This challenges the idea that the early development of technology by early humans was a process of accumulation of improvements. In discussing the findings of artifacts at Sibudu researchers have commented that they can hardly be used to support the ‘‘classic’’ out of Africa scenario, which predicts increasing complexity and accretion of innovations during the MSA, determined by biological change. Instead, they appear, disappear and re-appear in a way that best fits a scenario in which historical contingencies and environmental rather than cognitive changes are seen as main drivers.

The idea that environmental change was responsible for this pattern has been questioned, and instead it has been suggested the driving factors were changes in the social networks related to changes in population density.

A trove of sophisticated stone tools recently dug up from a South African cliff suggests early modern humans developed complex cognitive ability anywhere from 6,000 to 10,000 years earlier than many scientists believe. Crucially, the discovery indica
A trove of sophisticated stone tools recently dug up from a South African cliff suggests early modern humans developed complex cognitive ability anywhere from 6,000 to 10,000 years earlier than many scientists believe. Crucially, the discovery indica
These hafted points might have been launched from bows. While "most attributes such as micro-residue distribution patterns and micro-wear will develop similarly on points used to tip spears, darts or arrows" and "explicit tests for distinctions betwe
These hafted points might have been launched from bows. While "most attributes such as micro-residue distribution patterns and micro-wear will develop similarly on points used to tip spears, darts or arrows" and "explicit tests for distinctions betwe
Quartz backed artefacts from the Howiesons Poort context at Sibudu analysed during this study.
Quartz backed artefacts from the Howiesons Poort context at Sibudu analysed during this study.
The latest study shows that microliths at the South African site existed 71,000 years ago, and that they persisted for another 11,000 years, indicating the transmission of technology down the generations, and the existence of superior mental skills a
The latest study shows that microliths at the South African site existed 71,000 years ago, and that they persisted for another 11,000 years, indicating the transmission of technology down the generations, and the existence of superior mental skills a

The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa Hardcover by Ronald Singer & John Wymer

The Midddle Stone Age: Cultural Continuity and Transmission

Some time between 100,000 and 80,000 years ago, the sea level began to drop from its previous highstand of 5-15 meters. Shortly after this time, Man began to occupy some productive and favorite localities on the recently abandoned beaches and in caves. At the same time, the semi-arid climate that became established over part of the equatorial region greatly and restricted the forest, which was gradually replaced by grassland and woodland offering a more favorable habitat for Man and game animals.

The underlying techniques of this time were the Lavallois and the disc-core methods for manufacturing flakes and making them light-weight tools by direct percussion. In South Africa, the regional industries, the regional industries of the period can be grouped, on the basis of their technology, into three major units

  • Group I is characterized by large prepared flakes made by the Lavallois method and long blades struck by direct percussion. Only a few sparse assemblages of this type are, and these are undated. Some assemblages are contemporaneous with those of Group I. For instance, at Florisbad, at a site dated 48,000 years B.C., and industry of flakes, scrapers, polyhedrals, anvils and grindstones in dolerite has been discovered. This same layer has also yielded.the grip end of a curved wooden throwing stick and a fragment of a human cranium.
  • Group II consists of a large number of assemblages from both caves and surface sites, general dating between 40,000 and 20,000 years B.C. These industries were characterized by the use of two flaking techniques, the Levallois and the so-called disc-core, both of which were used to to produce triangular Flakes and an increasingly large number of blades, chiefly from quartzite and lydianite. These tools are found in the winter rainfall areas south of the great escarpment, in South West Africa, and in the Orange Free State and Transvaal region.
  • Group III ranges in age from 35,000 to 15,000 years B.C. It is distinguished by a much larger number of extensively retouched artifacts. In general, the tools have smaller dimensions and show a refinement in the retouching that is not found in the earlier groups.
  • In addition to these groups, a fourth group (Group IV), known as the Magosian or "second Intermediate Complex", has been identified. This combines an evolved and often diminutive expression of the disc-core and Levallois technique with the manufacture of delicate, often ribbon-like, blades struck from cores by means of a bone, horn or hardwood tool. The raw materials selected were often crypto-cystalline rocks. These "Group IV" industries do not not date back to ore than 15,000-20,000 years B.C. and are found in Zimbabwe, Zambia,the Eastern Orange Free State, the southern Cape Province and parts of Namibia.

Fewer features are known from the Middle Stone Age sites than from those of the Acheulian. The cave Hearths at Makapan provides evidence as to how fireplaces and housing shelters were distributed. Several stone foundations pointing to the existence of wind-breaks have been discovered at the Orangea I site. In Swaziland, hematite for use as pigment appears to have been first extracted as early as 28,000 years ago, B.C. Anvils and former hearth-floors have also been found in the Middle Stone Age horizons at Kalambo Falls and have been dated to about 27,000 years B.C. At all these sites, the variety of animal remains would appear to suggest that there had been distinct improvement in hunting techniques.

The Late Stone Age

In Southern Africa, the conventional picture of the Late Stone Age is one of industries producing very small sized 'microlithic' tools, usually referred to as Wilton after the cave sites in the Western Cape Province. At some of the sites in the subcontinent, however, what has come to be known as pre-Wilton industries have been recognized.

These made their appearance about 20,000 B.C. and represent a radical change in stone tool technology. The prepared core techniques of the Middle Stone Age are replaced by occurrences with informal cores and irregular flakes struck from them. The only consistency formal tools are large scrapers, together with several small forms of flake convex scraper. specimens of all these are known from sites at the south coast, and from the Orange Free State, Transvaal, Namibia, where these findings are associated with the dismembering of three elephants.

These pre-Wilton industries are associated with the hunting of large ungulate fauna, such as the Hartebeeste, Wildebeeste, blue antelope and quagga. In addition, the existence of a large number of marine animals in the faunal remains indicates that the rise of the sea level during this period had made it possible to engage to engage in the direct harvesting of food resources from the sea,

The microlithic tradition is associated with the development of more efficient forms of composite tools, the most significant being the "Bow-and-Arrow".

Many late Stone Age sites are known and there is reason to believe that there was a significant increase in population during this period. This seems to be borne out y the expansion of hunting and the new techniques involved: caves and shelters came to be increasingly occupied, local resources were exploited more intensively, and hunting became more important and more specialized. The pattern of exploitation was probably not very different from that of the present-day Kalahari-San and other hunter-groups living in the arid regions.

There must was ample opportunity for these hunters to indulge their intellectual interests, some of which are manifest in the magnificent rock art of the Drakensberg mountains(South Africa), Zimbabwe and Namibia. Although much of the art may not be more than 2000-3000 years old, it provides a well-documented record of these hunters life-styles.

The record provided by prehistoric studies in South Africa show the high interior plateau lands to have played a leading part in the evolution of Man the tool-maker. The increasing ingenuity and efficiency with the succeeding hominid populations developed and combined adaptations and innovations demonstrate the great antiquity and continuity of many cultural traits that still persist, today, amongst the Nguni/Bakone of South Africa today.

Having given a brief synopsis above on the prehistory of South Africa, I was merely following on Diop's advice below wherein he states:

"It is therefore necessary to apply a multiplicity of theoretical approaches in order to gain insight into the internal dimensions of social and gender relations. It would be necessary to apply social process, conflict and dissent theories, in order to gain a much fuller picture of societies and cultures, not just a given and unchanging organic concept of so-called formal systems. Men and women are rational animals, who are able to form political and conflicting interest groups on the basis of sex, age, class, etc., differences or similarities."

So that, in the final analysis, if we begin to take a much more closer look at the Customs, Cultures, Traditions, Sacred Rites and Practices, Languages, music , dance and traditional clothing of the Africans of South Africa, it becomes much more easier to see the patterns of cultural, historical and linguistic continuity form the Pre-stone-ag era to the contemporary ones that we see today in the Country Africans of South Africa call "Mzantsi."

Africans in America: America's Journey Through Slavery Hardcover by Patricia Smith; Charles Johnson

Unknown HIstory Of Africans Of South Africa

The Teachings of Ptahhotep: The Oldest Book in the World ~ Paperback - by Hilliard III Asa G. (Editor) , Larry Williams (Editor) –

African History Is World Historiography

In this part of the Hub, we are informed by Dr. Clarke that:

"African History is part of World history. It is a very old part and it s a very important part. There is no way to understand world History without an understanding of African History. Considering the old approach to African History and the distortion and confusion that resulted from these approaches, a new approach to African History must begin with a new frame of reference. what exactly are we talking about?

"We must be bold enough to reject such terms as "Black africa" which presupposes that there is a legitimate "White Africa." we must reject the term Negro" and all that it implies. This word, like the concept of race and racism, grew out of the European slave trade and the colonial system that followed. It is not an African word and it has no legitimate application to African people. For more details on this matter, I recommend you read the book "The Word Negro-It Origin and Evil Use", by Richard B. Moore. In a speech on The Significance of African History," the Caribbean-American writer, Richard B. Moore has observed:

"The significance of African History is shown, though not overtly, in the very effort to deny anything worthy of the name of History to Africa and the African peoples. This widespread, and well nigh successful endeavor, maintained through some five centuries, to erase African History from the general record, is a fact which of itself should be quite conclusive to thinking and open minds. For it is logical and apparent that no such undertaking would ever have been carried on, and at such length, in order to obscure and bury what is of little or no significance.

"The Prime significance of African History becomes still more manifest when it is realized that this deliberate denial of African History arose out of the European expansion and invasion of Africa which began in the middle of the fifteenth century. The compulsion was thereby felt to attempt to justify such colonialist conquest, domination, enslavement and plunder. Hence, this brash denial of history and culture to Africa, and indeed even to human qualities and capacity for "civilization" to the indigenous peoples of Africa."

Clarke continues to add on and elaborate thusly:

"Mr. Moore is saying, in essence, that African History must be looked at anew and seen in its relationship to World History. First, the distortions must be admited. The hard fact is that most of what we now call world History is only the history of the first and second rise of Europe. The Europeans are not yet willing to acknowledge that the world did not wait in darkness for them to bring the light, and that the history of Africa was already old when Europe was born.

"Until quiet recently, it was rather generally assumed, even among well-educated persons in the west, that the continent of Africa was a great expanse of land, mostly jungle, inhabited by savages and fierce beasts. It was not thought of as an area where great civilizations could have existed or where the great kings of these civilizations could have ruled in the might and wisdom over vast empires.

"It is true that there some notions current about the cultural achievements of Egypt, but Egypt was conceived of as a European land rather than as a country of Africa. Even if a look at an atlas of globe showed Egypt to be in Africa, the popular thought immediately was in the Sahara a formidable barrier and a convenient division of Africa into two parts: one (north of the Sahara) was inhabited by European-like people of high culture and noble history; the other (south of the Sahara) was inhabited by dark-skinned people who had no culture, and were incapable of having done anything in their ark and distant that could be dignified by the designation of "history." such ideas, of course, are far from the truth, and it is not difficult to understand why they persisted, and still persist, in one form or another in the popular mind."

It is part of the effort of this Hub to debunk and deconstruct these lies about Africans and begin to state and rewrite whatever semblance or kernel or truth that can be garnered out the in the world.

Circular Stone Settlements Constructed Early African South African People First People/Early Man

There are dozens of examples of shrines scattered throughout Mmpumalanga, which were built by the first peoples-First Human Beings...
There are dozens of examples of shrines scattered throughout Mmpumalanga, which were built by the first peoples-First Human Beings... | Source

Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery [Paperback] Na'im Akbar

Identifying Africans: Naming Ourselves And Environment

African History En vogue:

The Origin Of The Zodiac; The Opinions of Count Volney

Should it be asked at what epoch this system [the zodiacal symbolism],took its birth, we shall answer on the testimony of the monuments of astronomy itself, that its principles appear with certainty to have been established about 17,000 years ago. And if it be asked to what people it is to be attributed, we shall answer that the same monuments, supported by unanimous traditions, attribute it to the first clans(African People) of Egypt; and "when Reason finds in that country all the circumstances which could lead to such a system; when it finds there a central point of the sphere of the ancients, a salubrious climate, a great, but manageable river, a soil fertile without art or labor, inundated without morbid exhalations , and placed between two seas which communicate with the richest countries, it conceives that the inhabitant of the Nile, addicted to agriculture, from the nature of his soil, to geometry from the annual necessity of measuring his lands, to commerce from the facility of communication, to astronomy from the state of his sky, always open to observation, must have been the first to pass from the savage to the social state; and consequently to attain the physical and moral sciences necessary to civilized life.
It was then, on the borders of Upper Egypt Nile, among a people of African descent-men and women, that was organized the complicated system of the worship of the stars, considered in relation to the productions of the earth and the labors of agriculture' and this first worship characterized by their adoration under their own forms and natural attributes, was a simple proceeding of the human mind. ...

As Soon as this agricultural people began to observe the stars with attention, they found it necessary to individualize or group them; and to assign them each a proper name. ... First , the heavenly bodies, similar in form, offered no distinguishing characteristics by which to denominate them; and secondly, the language in its infancy and poverty had no expressions for so many new and metaphysical ideas.

Necessity, the usual stimulus of genius, surmounted everything. Having remarked that in annual revolution, the renewal and periodical appearance of terrestrial productions were constantly associated with the rising and setting of certain stars, and to their position as relative to the Sun, ... the mind by a natural operation connected in thought the terrestrial and celestial objects, which were connected in fact; and applying to them a common sign, it gave to the stars and their groups, the names of the terrestrial objects to which they answered..

Thus, the Ethiopian of Thebes named the stars of inundation or Aquarius, those stars under which the Nile began to overflow; stars of the 'lion, those under which that animal, driven from the desert thirst, appeared on the baks of the Nile; stars of the lamb, stars of the two kids, those under which these precious animals were brought forth...

Thus, the same Ethiopian having observed that the return of the inundation always corresponded with the rising of a beautiful star which appeared towards the source of the Nile, and seemed to warn the husbandman against the coming waters, he compared this action to that of the animal who, by his barking, give notice of danger, and he called this star "Dog", the barker (Sirius). In the same manner he named the Stars of the crab, those where the Sun, having arrived at the tropic treated by a slow retrograde motion-like the crab or cancer.

He named stars of the wild goat or Capricorn, those where the Sun, having reached the highest point in his annuary tract ... imitates the goat, who delights to climb to the summit of the rocks. He named the stars of the balance, or Libra, those where the days and nights being equal, seemed in equilibrium, like that instrument; and stars of the Scorpion, those where certain periodical winds bring vapors, burning like the venom of the Scorpion.

In the same manner he called by the name of rings and serpents and the figured traces of the orbits of the stars and the planets, and such was the general mode of naming all the stars and even planets, taken by groups of as individuals, according to their relations with husbandry and terrestrial objects, and according to the analogies which each nation found between them and the objects of its particular soul and climate."

African Historical Synthetical Synergy

Now, Count Volney has touched upon some very important issue in his excerpt above. I am thinking as an African, I accept his laying out the origin of Star-gazing, naming and mapping. The way he describes it as it manifested itself in Egypt, is true to form and African ways of live: cultures, customs, tradition, history, knowledge gathering, naming the earth and the environments they lived in and existed from and in-as is the case in the story of the Dogon(I have published a Hub on their Star Gazing Science), and the Africans in Africa, and specifically, those of Mzatnsi. This will be discussed below.The very ways through which Volney goes into entrenching into the historiography of the Africans of Egypt, had already been the practice of the Africans of Mzantsi.

When we here in Mzantsi say that humanity originated from here, we mean it in many ways. But this should also be said in terms of where we came from and how we got here. That will be an entirely separate article. In this one, then, it is a fact that there has now been discovered material artifacts, material culture that nobody knew about, that is why we get the information from Volney about the Origin of the Zodiac from an Egyptian historical account. I do not have a problem as to how he links these origins, but I take a different tack from the account of the fact it originated here in Mzantsi(South Africa.

It is now being revealed that in South Africa, that there was a culture and civilization that predates Egypt by hundreds of thousands of years.

Today, in South Africa has been found Pre-Stone age civilizations. There are, so far as it stands now, inexplicable elements of a large numbers of ruins and settlements; the sheer size of the area they cover; the hundreds of kilometers of ancient roads; thousands of large stone monoliths and statues aligned to many celestial and geographic elements; thousands of kilometers of agricultural terraces; and very large size of the population required to build all these structure.

From the accounts of Joao de Barros it is more feasible that the mysterious inscriptions at the Great Zimbabwe was not the work of the new African settlers from the north, who most likely just occupied the structure, but an earlier southern African civilization, who were well evolved in the art of building stone, and more importantly, people who had the knowledge of writing.

It is also important to study the present-day and past cultural, customary, traditional linguistic, sacred rites and practices, music and dance of the present indigenous people of South Africa. This is a no brainer.. In order for us to understand the past, the present needs to be interrogated, too, as well as the past, to make sense in the present future we are in- to shape the future further and make it much better.

The Africans of South Africa have embedded within their cultures, custom, traditions the cosmos as part of our living culture. This is used to check seasons, for planting and harvesting and doing a myriad other duties within the commune and community; Stars have been named and used for direction and to foretell events and anticipate the good and bad of life.. The herdboys would talk about them and the type of weather that is coming, and this learned by the fire when sitting next to the elders and they listening-in. So that, the events that affected the day-to-day lives of the Africans in South Africa have been accounted for whenever they are practicing their lived culture; they name their children and other things according to the stars' names, nature, animals etc., their behavior(stars) and their repetitive evolution during certain seasons and so forth, are part and parcel of the lived experiences of the Africans of Mzantsi.

My point is that, what Volney has accounted for above from the Egyptians and Ethiopians, has been what was going on here in south Africa in those disappeared civilizations, that today, the semblance of that can be seen and found amongst the Africans of South Africa. In order for us to talk about the past South African African civilizations, we should be erudite about the nature, form, manifestation, functioning, role, of all our cultural reality along with customs, traditions, and the whole bit.

African Clutrual practices and manifestations are not just a fiction of life has has thus been characterized. They are as old as the continents were before their separation, then known by geologist to be Gondwanaland. If one were to look at the map of the when it was said to have been conjoined in some fashion until Plate Tectonics kicked-in and moved the continents to as we see them, it is important to look at the Position of Africa, and particularly that of Mzantsi(South Africa. It is at the center of everything, that is why it is place where the oldest pre-Stone Age material and artifacts are found from.

Therefore, we know that the civilization of Africa stretched from South Africa all the way to the Congo-it is that time period that is being contested. It is that position we are trying to fill up. That is why I come also from the historical, cultural, customary, traditional and so forth point of view to trace and give credence the history that is within these cultures that can be observed today, to those of the disappeared civilization that has been carbon-dated to beyond 200,000 B.C., of which I contend it is more than that, and it is still the same like the semblance of the culture we see today in South Africa, practiced and lived by the indigenous Africans.

This is important and need to be fleshed-out much further and deeper.

Africans Of South Africa Cosmic View

All Ancient civilizations were one with the Stars. They observed them, worshipped them, tracked their movements, depicted them in art and rock engravings, and carved the images of celestial beings on stone. Their knowledge of the cosmos was astounding. The Maya civilization created precise calendars, which can measure time and cosmic events for millions of years into the past and the future. They knew about the 26,000-year precessional wobble of the planet(as Did the Dogon With sirius). The Mayas also knew about the constellation of Scorpio and Sagittarius point to the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way.

It was only in the latter part of the 20th century when scientists began to realize that these ancient people had a much more advanced knowledge of the cosmos than we have, and more scientists are joining this group of believers, daily...Frequently linked stars with earth life are Sirius, the Pleiades and Orion's Belt.Orion did play a major part in the alignments and construction of the Giza Pyramids, the Chinese Pyramids, the Mayan Pyramids and the Great Zimbabwe, it is Sirius that has caused many surprises

It is also the key star in the construction of the Great Pyramid, while the Egyptian Sothic calendar is based on the same star. the second of the two southern shafts of the Great Pyramids points to Orion. It is believed that these shafts represent the ascension of the Pharaoh's soul to the source of life, which was believed to be Orion and Sirius. This is just the tip of the iceberg regarding the vast ancient knowledge of the cosmos.

The cosmos and its mystique is deeply entrenched in the Ancient African tradition. Credo Mutwa relates that there are various 'star clans' in Africa that carry the Great Star's knowledge, and these people in South Africa today are known as the Ndebele who, in their traditional Oral history carry the ancient knowledge of the "Mbube" Star of the Orion - The far-walking Constellation or "Umhambi" this, as we have learned from Volney above, stars had everything to do with African people's day-to-day lives, as when they are walking long distance from one place to another, this star would be their guide in all aspects of their journey and terrain-or act a reminder of an event or birth and the like, in their families and communities..

The Adams Calendar, according to some writers, has shown that these ancient civilizations in the south were in touch with the stars long before anyone else. Some authors state that whole their first calculations showed Adam's Calendar has been aligned with the rise of Orion's Belt on the Spring Equinox some 75,000 years ago, he latest calculations point to a date well over 200,000 years B.C.

Once we start to analyze the millions of stone ruins of south Africa, it becomes clear and evident that the ancient builders had a very sound grasp and knowledge of the cosmos. One of the most compelling features of many of the larger stone ruins is that they are aligned with the cardinal points of earth, solstices, equinoxes and with Sirius, Orion and other key stars. These ruins expose the ancient skills of the first architect, and they can be found in South Africa, carbon-dated, most of them, to 200,000+ B.C.(See link below)

As I have started by saying, the other most important thing, if we can fully configure all this theoretical and other information, is to begin to tie it together to the Cultural, Historical , Customary Oral/Historical traditions Sacred Rites and Practices, Music, Dance, Cultural garb, and the whole bit, and suture it into the gaps that will result from putting a structure of the History of Africans Of South Africa into context.. I concede the importance of Egyptian civilization as prime amongst the pantheons of civilizations in the world, I am merely adding that it was a continuation of already long established civilizations In South Africa, that it is at the Congo where it was the edges of the Civilization of Monomotapa, the Civilization of Mapungubwe, the Now being talked about[in this Hub], the remote civilization of Mzantsi(South africa). Ours is to coordinate, synthesize and synergize the narrative and the material to project the African centeredness of all this remote and antiquated history, customs and traditions, culture and its narrative, 'Eruditely'.

The Ethiopians are thought of as African being exclusively African African people, and yet, in ancient times the thinking about this matter was different. Budge gives us some insight about it as he writes the following: "It seems certain that classical historians and geographers called the whole region from India to Egypt, both countries inclusive, by the name of Ethiopia, and in consequence they regarded all the dark-skinned and Black(African) peoples who inhabited it as Ethiopians. Mention is made of Eastern and Western Ethiopians, and it is probable that the Easterners were Asiatics and the Westerners Africans. I am not making an attempt to describe the history of that large portion of the earth's surface which the Greeks called Ethiopia, but only that comparatively small section of it which is today named, both by large numbers of Orientals and by Europeans generally, Abyssinia, and also the country of Kush, which is also known as Nubia. ...

"The identification of Kush and Abyssinia under the name of Ethiopia made by the translators of the Ethiopic version of the bible in the 5th (or 6th) century, has for many centuries been accepted by the Abyssinians. And to this day, the Abyssinian, in reciting Psalm LXVIII (V. 31), says "Ethiopia shall make her hands reach unto God." In dealing with this subject, I have concluded that the Ethiopians, whose manners and customs have been so fully described by Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo, Pliny and others, were not Abyssinians at all, but natives of the Upper Nubia and the Island of Meroe, and it was the African people who inhabited the hot, moist lands which extended from southern Abyssinia to the Equator.. ...

The hieroglyphic inscriptions of the VI, XII and XVIII Dynasties prove that caravans travelled from Egypt to the countries round about the Blue Nile, and to regions much further to the south, but there is no mention in them of any country which can be identified with Abyssinia proper. In fact, the Egyptians inscriptions do not yield any information about the 'real' Abyssinia, or its peoples, and even the Nubia and Meroitic inscriptions throw very little light upon the history of the period in which they were written. From the cuneiform inscriptions we an also find no information about Abyssinia, though both the Assyrians and Hebrews knew of the existence of the country of Kush, and that it lay to the south of Egypt." It is time to allay any doubts as to the identity of the Ethiopians-they were of African descent. Herodotus cleared this conundrum, and lay bare the fact that the Ethiopians were African-noone has has thus far claimed otherwise.

The Book Thief Paperback by Markus Zusak

The Vast Expanse of ruined city near Rustenburg, South africa. this is one of the lost cities that were identified, covering about 10,000 km square - larger than modern Johannesburg or Los Angeles. All the stones were brought from elsewhere
The Vast Expanse of ruined city near Rustenburg, South africa. this is one of the lost cities that were identified, covering about 10,000 km square - larger than modern Johannesburg or Los Angeles. All the stones were brought from elsewhere

Origins Of Agriculture and Africa As Its Craddle

This weapon of exploitation has its own history, we are informed by Basil Davidson, "Developing new uses in new situation(the justification for enslaving African people, when it was no longer permissible to enslave white people.

"This weapon of exploitation has its own history, developing new uses in new situations, as many of us know or remember or even now may still experience. But this has been a history, nonetheless, which began to come to an end in the middle and later years of the twentieth century."

Here we are dealing with that aspect of African history whereby it had ben asserted over the years that Africa has no history, we pick it up from Davidson who informs us thusly:

"There are many anthologies of African exploration. They are anthologies of the European discovery of Africa, conceived as companion books to a study of Africa which has regarded that subject as no more than an extension to the study of Europe or the New World. Their attitude is therefore strictly European in standpoint, and their value lies less in any light they may throw on African Life, than in the movement they reveal of European penetration and conquest.

"Thus, the best modern anthology of West African exploration begins with the year 1600, and its introduction is entitled "The Opening Of West Africa." Yet much of West Africa had been "opened" to the outside world-or to a significant part of it-many hundreds of years earlier, and these earlier years are not without important records of their own. To make this point is not to belittle the learned editors of that particular selection, for they could certainly have made it for themselves.

"As it was, they were concerned with producing an anthology which reflected the colonial situation and met its peculiar requirements. One of these requirements was that no serious consideration of Africa could properly start before the beginning of European (but more especially, English and French) exploration: to go back earlier would be to plunge into a fruitless mythology.

"The late Sir Reginald Coupland, writing some sixty years years ago of British penetration into the Zambezi valley, put the point quite clearly when he affirmed that up to the middle of the nineteenth century "the main body of the Africans" had no history, but had "stayed, for untold centuries, sunk in barbarism ... [so that] the heart of Africa was scarcely beating." African history could be no fit subject for scholarly investigation because no such history existed: and hence anthologies would necessarily begin with the arrival of Europe on the scene..

"Now, this approach has been overtaken by a wider understanding. the last thirty or forty years have promoted an entirely different attitude to the Africa past. They have displaced what may be called the "colonial stereotype"-that all in Africa was social chaos or stagnation before the time of the European conquest-by a view of the subject altogether to the contrary.

"These years have raised the study of African history from a mere act of eccentricity, perverse, foolish or regrettably harmful, to a scholarly discipline pursued by institutes of learning in many non-African as well as African countries. A great and growing number of scholars of many nations have accepted the study of Africa's past is not only possible, but also useful, and even indispensable, to any understanding of the general condition of humanity, whether in Africa or not.

"Until lately, as we have seen, this large advance had failed to make a landfall on Africa and its peoples. What Melville Herskovits called the "myth of the "negro" past" in his pioneering work of that name-the belief which taught that the Black(African) man is "a man without a past"-continued to hold sway, rationalizing "discrimination in everyday contact between White and "Negroes," as Herskovits wrote, and "influencing the shaping of policy where "Negroes" are concerned."

Africans were not thought to have entered the grand circuit of world development. Having no history of their own, they were manifestly 'children who failed to grow up." Being 'retarded children," they necessarily forfeited any claim to equality of treatment with other men. Possessing no such claim, they must be taken in hand by superior peoples and shown the path they should tread.

The Stone Age In Brief

Today the position is otherwise. The past of the "Negro" past has begun to join a number of others of its kind. An intelligent view of human change and progress in Africa must no reach back to the most remote antiquity.

The ancestors of humankind came of stocks related to the ancestors of apes. but when and where did the lines divide? Ehret informs us in this way below:

"An Island in East Africa's Lake Victoria had offered an initial answer(not the only answer). In a geological bed which is dated to about twenty-five million years ago, Dr. Louis Leakey discovered the fossilized fragments of a creature which lived on the ground but walked erect. Even if Proconsul, as Leakey names this creature, was not a man, it was quit probably an ancestor of man. Scanty evidence, indeed" but it so happens that many other such fossils have been found in East Africa(South Africa too). Another of Leakey's finds, Zinjanthropus, lived in Tanzania, about two million years ago; and he or she, if Leakey's attributions re correct, was a kind of human, for he or she made crude stone tools."

After that the story of humanity's first faltering movement in the direction of civilization becomes a little less obscure, and merges into what is known as the Old Stone Age, a period of enormous length during which various human types appeared and disappeared, failed or survived, found slightly better ways of living, and eventually, by natural selection through unnumbered generations, gave birth to our own ancestors, some 50,000 years ago. By about 12,000 years ago all earlier human types had disappeared.

After the Old Stone Age had persisted for many hundred thousand years there came the crucial invention of agriculture, a gradual but nonetheless definite process of experiment and technical gain. This decisive social "revolution" was neither a sudden nor a soon-competed thing. It followed many centuries of primitive and part time farming-the collecting and sowing of seeds and tubers-and grew into what may properly be called agriculture at different times in different places. Where were these times and places? The twin disciplines of archeology and linguistics-the study of material evidence from the past of the evolution of languages-have shed a large light upon the answer to this question. (Ehret)

The Origins Of African Agriculture

The Origins of Cultivation has been recounted for a long time by European authors from a purely European Standpoint. In their view, it all started in the Near East, in Mesopotamia to be precise. Since the Second World War, however, although the important role played by the 'Fertile Crescent" in the Neolithic revolution is still acknowledged, much light has been shed on the crop inventions of both North and South America, the early development of a cradle of agriculture in tropical South-East Asia, and the African contribution to the history of the word's agriculture. In the earlier times, Russian agronomist N.I Vavilov, told of the existence in Africa of centers where cultivated plants could have originated, and one of his assistants, A. Kuptsov, later demonstrated that such cradles of agriculture had, in fact, existed. But in the end, colonial prejudice prevented that idea from gaining credence and acceptance.

The origins and developments of agricultural techniques and of cultivated plants are directly related to the natural conditions prevailing in a particular region, such as the soils, the climate, the water resources and the original vegetation. However, the development of agriculture and of animal husbandry also depends on the factors that go to make up the cultures and civilizations of different peoples, so that their agricultural and stock-raising practices may vary considerably, even though the environments in which they live may be identical.

That is why population movements are of such importance in the dissemination and adoption of new behavior patterns and hitherto unknown techniques, and indeed of original conceptions about relationships with nature, the use of space, and so on. Thus, at a time when Europe was barely emerging from the Paleolithic, agriculture and stock-raising were already flourishing in the Near East, whence technological innovations and their attendant ideologies radiated northwards across the Mediterranean and were instrumental in triggering off the European Neolithic revolution. Africa too, as affected by these flows of commodities and men, and by the ideas they brought with them.However, it must not be thought that all this was accomplished in a flash.

It was a long and drawn-out process in which Man passed from the appropriation stage of gathering and hunting to the production stage involving cultivation and stock-breeding via such intermediate phases as the taming of wild animals and the cultivation of plants by trial and error. During the process, Man was gradually freed of the uncertainty and risk inherent in his/her failure to control the natural elements. Even so, the conditioning influence of the environment was never entirely absent, especially during the prehistorical period.

In Africa, for instance, the existence of symmetrical climatic and ecological belts on either side of the Equator create a set a set of zonal patterns, which tended to influence agricultural development. Some of the zones, such as the Sahara, the Equatorial rain forest, The Tanzanian steppe and the Kalahari desert, formed barriers to north-south population movements, although none of these barriers was ever completely impenetrable. Other zones, such as the open grasslands and Savannah's of the tropical regions, represented spaces that were conducive to the spread of new ideas.

Besides latitude, altitude and geographical relief were also instrumental in demarcating specific ecological zones. some of these ones were frankly uninviting, whereas others were more attractive: for example, the highlands fringing the rift Valley, which formed a corridor facilitating a variety of population movements across the equator, or the mountain heartland of Ethiopia.

Therefore, in an overall sense, Africa can be regarded as consisting of a rather inhospitable core of equatorial forest, hemmed in by a vast swath of Savannah-land and Steppe to the north east and south. Still further north and south, there are two arid belts, the Sahara in the north and the much narrower Kalahari in the south.

Finally, at the two extremities of the continent, Mediterranean-type environments prevail. The deserts were not always arid as they are now, ant they too may have had cradles of agriculture or animal husbandry at one time. At the outset, the forest provided Man with an ideal environment for food-gathering and hunting, affording the rather sparse population a means of subsistence without undue effort or anxiety.

This elementary way of life led by the hunting-gathering peoples also existed in the arid environments, as can still be seen today from Khoi-San civilization of the the Kalahari. In the arid environments, as can still be seen today, food sources are less varied and more restricted, and are confined, for example, to areas around the occasional waterholes

Cultivated Plants Originated By Africans

Vavilov identified eight regions where cultivated plants first emerged. Only one of these, the Abyssinian center, was situated on the African landmass, although another center, , the Mediterranean, bordered the Near Eastern center, with which it had close affinities.

Vavilov's method gave considerable impetus to research into the origins of agriculture, in that he showed that "it was necessary to distinguish between centers of primary mutation, where a particular plant might occur in a wide variety of forms, but where the dominant characteristics continue to be observed, and centers of secondary mutation, where many recessive characteristic still exist", he noted

A cradle of agriculture can be said to exist in instances where those two centers are found in very close association, since this means that Man has engaged in the extremely long-drawn out task of selecting and transformation reflected in the successive characteristics of the different plant varieties. Even then, it should be noted that the area where a particular plants domesticated may be geographically remote from the botanical plant of origin of the wild parent, which may have been disseminated by population movements.

The research conducted by Porters has made it possible to fill out the picture as regards centers of agriculture in Africa by demonstrating that, in addition to the Abyssinian center and the African portion of the Mediterranean center, there was also a West African center and the East African center, the last mentioned being possibly an extension of the Abyssinian center. [Before I post the "Cradles of Development", I would like to add this fact about the Origins and history of the name Abyssinia:

  • The Ethiopians are thought of as African being exclusively African African people, and yet, in ancient the think about this matter was different. Budge gives us some insight about it as he writes the following: "It seems certain that classical historians and geographers called the whole region from India to Egypt, both countries inclusive, by the name of Ethiopia, and in consequence they regarded all the dark-skinned and Black(African) peoples who inhabited it as Ethiopians. Mention is made of Eastern and Western Ethiopians, and it is probable that the Easterners were Asiatics and the Westerners Africans. I am not making an attempt to describe the history of that large portion of the earth's surface which the Greeks called Ethiopia, but only that comparatively small section of it which is today named, both by large numbers of Orientals and by Europeans generally, Abyssinia, and also the country of Kush, which is also known as Nubia. ... The identification of Kush and Abyssinia under the name of Ethiopia made by the translators of the Ethiopic version of the bible in the 5th (or 6th) century, has for many centuries been accepted by the Abyssinians. And to this day, the Abyssinian, in reciting Psalm LXVIII (V. 31), says "Ethiopia shall make her hands reach unto God." In dealing with this subject, I have concluded that the Ethiopians, whose manners and customs have been so fully described by Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo, Pliny and others, were not Abyssinians at all, but natives of the Upper Nubia and the Island of Meroe, and it was the African people who inhabited the hot, moist lands which extended from southern Abyssinia to the Equator.. ... The hieroglyphic inscriptions of the VI, XII and XVIII Dynasties prove that caravans travelled from Egypt to the countries round about the Blue Nile, and to regions much further to the south, but there is no mention in them of any country which can be identified with Abyssinia proper. In fact, the Egyptians inscriptions do not yield any information about the 'real' Abyssinia, or its peoples, and even the Nubia and Meroitic inscriptions throw very little light upon the history of the period in which they were written. From the cuneiform inscriptions we an also find no information about Abyssinia, though both the Assyrians and Hebrews knew of the existence of the country of Kush, and that it lay to the south of Egypt."

So that, the Cradles of agricultural Development in Africa can accordingly be summarized as Follows:

1. The Afro-Mediterranean cradle, stretching fro Egypt to Morocco, which acted as a channel for exchanges with Near Eastern Cradle. This was the starting-point for cereals such as wheat and barley, for leguminous plants with edible seeds such as lentils, for olive trees and so on.

2. The Nile-Abyssinian cradle, which had wheat, barley and leguminous plants, as well as sorghum and cultivated species peculiar to the region, such as the coffee shrub (Coffee Arabica L.) and the Abyssinian banana tree.

3. The West African cradle, with its original plants such as sorghum, penicilliary and finger millet, fonio (Digitaria excilis Stapf.) , rice and tubers, its leguminous plants such as the Shea tree (Elaeis guineensis), and its stimulants such as the Kola nut.

4. The Central Arian cradle, which appears to be the prolongation of the former and has fewer cereals, but more tubers and more leguminous plants such as the earthpea or groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea Tho.).

The East African cradle, spreading as far west as Angola, with sorghum, several varieties of millet, and sesame.

Round this core, a center of agriculture corresponding to the Savanna regions grew up and specialized in the cultivation of cereals. Farther away, the peripheral, Afro-Mediterranean and Nile Abyssinian cradles were those most in communication with the world outside Africa, and it was via Egypt and Ethiopia that the swing-plough made its way into part of the cereal-producing center of agriculture

It was in this same area that the mass cultivation of sorghum and rice - as opposed the cultivation of individual plants current in the center of horticulture - gradually made it possible for settlements to be established on the forest fringes. This hastened the process whereby they were turned into Savannah, although in a reverse process, there was often some adaptation to the forest environment in that tubers and other plants, which had originally been gathered for subsistence purposes, were also cultivated.

Even so, the typical crop in this Savannah environment is cereal sorghum, a specifically African creation, the different varieties of which have independent points of origin in both the eastern and western parts of the continent and in the Horn of Africa. One of these sorghums is distributed over a vast area extending as far as Iran and India. There is no doubt that the some of the sorghum varieties domesticated in Africa were subsequently disseminated to other regions of the world.

However, the originality of agriculture lies primarily in the cultivation of rice developed from the indigenous varieties found in the West African cradle. In Classical times, Strabo had referred to the cultivation of rice in Africa and in the fourteenth century of the Christian Era, Ibn Battuta mentioned that rice was grown on the banks of the NIger River. It was long believed that the rice was of Asian origin (Oryza sativa R.), but it eventually came to be acknowledged that it was a specifically African variety (Oryza glaberrima Steudel).

African rice is, in fact, a good illustration of the conditions that, according to Vavilov, have to exist for a cradle of agriculture to be identified: a very extensive territory for the wild parent plant; maximum variation with the preponderance of dominant characteristics in the middle delta of the Niger, therefore, cultivated varieties of African rice spread into West Africa as far as the Guinea coast. Asian rice varieties were only introduced into Africa from the eighth century onwards, and did not reach the coast of West Africa until the sixteenth century A.D. Knowing our Agricultural production regions and the history thereof,is one of the many ways of learning and empowering Africans and solidifying their information base and perspectives.

Natural Environments And The Origins of African Agriculture
Natural Environments And The Origins of African Agriculture

Rise of the South African Reich Paperback by Brian Bunting

Mzantsi's (South Africa's) Oldest Agricultural Terraces

The historical piece above was written when the Terraces of South Africa were not even talked about given the secrecy and tight security that existed during the Rule of the Apartheid Boers(and their partners). The pice above which culled from Vavilov and Porter, both have some kernel's of truth. Now, at this juncture, we have to tie in and highlight some important aspects about the Terraces of South Africa which have heretofore not been talked about nor known.

Telliger states that: "It was reported by summers in the '70s and others before him, that the ancient agricultural terraces in the then Rhodesia(Zimbabwe, today), cover about 190,000 square kilometeters. This may at first sounds a little outrageous, but when you start to explore the ruins across the border in South Africa, you realize that the ancient terraces continue in this part of the world, covering many more thousands of square kilometers

"The meticulous construction of these terraces all lined with rock walls is staggering. Millions of large and small stones were used to construct terraces of different sizes. Many are built on very steep mountain slopes and the height of some terraces exceeds 3-5 meters.

"All of the terraces are strategically placed around a water source on the mountain. some of the gullies show scattered rock in a concentrated area around the stream which could be the possible remains of a dam that would have stored the water, which was then also used for other purposes.

Many of the terraces are sloped in such a way that would allow water to move slowly with gravity, gradually from one level to the next. And there is no only one kind of terrace. We have clearly identified terraces that were used for grazing domesticated animals, and other terraces for cultivating crops.

"In his book Time Detectives, Brian Fagan describes how botanists-archeologists or archeo-botanists excavated similar agricultural terraces in Peru and Egypt to analyze the ancient crops of the lands. Their discoveries were staggering, showing that the earliest crops in Egypt were planted as far back as 18,000 years ago and South America was not far behind. Sadly, such research on the ancient terraces in South Africa has not been performed, but initial archeological analysis of some of these ancient terraces indicates they could be older than 5,000 years.

"Once again, we need to remind ourselves, that if this is in fact the "Cradle of humankind',and if this is where the first humans developed and began to grasp the concepts of art and survival, is it not possible that they could have grasped the art of cultivation long before the rest of the world? The sheer size of the "Lost Civilization and dates ascribed to these civilization suggest that these are in fact the oldest and the first agricultural terraces on Earth - but much work still needs to be done."

"in 2003, archeologists with the "Amapa Institute and Technological research" uncovered the impressive ruins of an ancient stone monolith observatory site at Macapa, near Brazil's border with French Guyana. This came as qute a shock to archeologists as they did not expect such acitivities by ancient "tribes" in that part of the world. Marian Petry Cabral, of the Amapa Institute said that "only a society with a complex culture could have built such a monument," These ruins are estimated to be 2000 year old at a guess, but are probably much older. Large settlements that cover over 1,000 square kilometers, surrounded by terraces and roads, similar to the one in South Africa, have been discovered deeper in the jungles of Brazil. It seems there were ancient civilizations all over the world that are now causing archeologists and historians to reconsider the activities of ancient man on Planet Earth. But Africa remains the First."

So that the first piece I talked about the origins of agriculture, needs to be revised, and this is still ongoing work in South Africa, and updates will be issued on this particular historical.archeological/botanical/mineral history (might be discussed a bit below). At this juncture in recreating and rewriting of the History of Mzantsi, we find that most of the things that make humans be today started over there. The only thing that is bothersome, thus far, i the extant and extend to which the Cultures, Customs, Traditions, Sacred Rites And Practices, Oral Tradition and History, Languages, music , Dance, Traditional garb and food and have been left out of the historical accounts. It is as if the disappearance of the newly discovered civilization, was the end of those people, and that the present Africans of South Africa are not the very same people whose civilizations have disappeared. They are the original people's of South Africa, and have been there for millenniums

Terraces Today

I have included this part of the research as a footnote to the terrace photos of South I have put as the first three of the pictures on Terraces. I used the rest of the pictures/photos which depict and show the terraces as to how they might have looked hundreds of thousands of years ago in South. It is not only enough to see the ruins and deterioration of the structures alike the Terrace, but it is also helpful to the reader to be able to have a general idea as to what it is I am talking about,

Stones from structures and terraces roll down the mountain. To the untrained eye it simply looks like  natural stones rolling down form the mountain top.
Stones from structures and terraces roll down the mountain. To the untrained eye it simply looks like natural stones rolling down form the mountain top. | Source
Once one views the picture or were there looking at the actual terrace, you will begin to recognize the signs, an you will see ancient terraces everywhere...
Once one views the picture or were there looking at the actual terrace, you will begin to recognize the signs, an you will see ancient terraces everywhere... | Source
Tellinger: A View of the Ancient Terraces and the complexity of teir structure-aaist a steep slope
Tellinger: A View of the Ancient Terraces and the complexity of teir structure-aaist a steep slope | Source
Concerted efforts to standardise documentation and evaluation of SWC Worldwide, there are numerous positive experiences derived technologies and approaches are needed and fully justified, especially in from investments in soil and water conservation
Concerted efforts to standardise documentation and evaluation of SWC Worldwide, there are numerous positive experiences derived technologies and approaches are needed and fully justified, especially in from investments in soil and water conservation
Local knowledge is vital in designing effective and appropriate solutions. It is vital to give local land users a forum to share their  knowledge with other farmers and specialists
Local knowledge is vital in designing effective and appropriate solutions. It is vital to give local land users a forum to share their knowledge with other farmers and specialists
Steep Hilltop terracing as might have looked in the Terraces found in south Africa today
Steep Hilltop terracing as might have looked in the Terraces found in south Africa today
Modern Day Terracing
Modern Day Terracing
As is the case with technologies, there are no `one-size fits Some drivers of conservation at times have little to do with all' solutions to approaches. But there are common reasons, especially economic factors: also, people's knowledge & creativity
As is the case with technologies, there are no `one-size fits Some drivers of conservation at times have little to do with all' solutions to approaches. But there are common reasons, especially economic factors: also, people's knowledge & creativity

The Origin of Humankind: Unearthing Our Family Tree (Science Masters) [Kindle Edition] Richard E. Leakey

No Civilization would Have Been Possible without African Culture

African Social History

Revising A Bit Of European History

The picture we get today of Africa in past ages from the history taught in our schools is that Africans were savages and that, although Europeans invaded their lands and made slaves of them, they assert that they were in a way conferring a great a great favor on them; since they brought to them the blessings of Christian civilization.

How False this picture is we shall see , as we have have already touched upon it, we might elaborate a bit as about how this colonization brought about the destruction of African Culture. One of the few modern scientists who tried to tell the truth about the African past was the German Anthropologist, Prof. Leo Frobenius. Unfortunately his works, for the most part, have not been translated into English. This is what Leo was saying in his book, "Historie de la Civilization Africaine", in trying to convey a lesson to the misinformed of modern Europe and America:

"What was revealed by the navigators of the fifteenth to the seventeenth century furnishes proof that "Negro" Africa, which extended south of the desert zone of the Sahara, was in full efflorescence which the European conquistadors annihilated as far as they progressed. For the new country of America needed slaves, and Africa had them to offer, hundreds, thousands whole cargos of slaves

"However, the slave trade was never an affair which meant a perfectly easy conscience, and it exacted a justification; hence, one made European invention which has consequently prevailed in Europe until the beginning of this century of the "Negro" as a half-animal, an article of merchandize- was en vogue ... The idea of the barbarous 'Negro'" is a European invention which has consequently prevailed in Europe until the beginning of and presently the reality of this century."

If we are going to be tracing our history of man that was living during or past the state of Gondwanaland, to early man and his tools, habit and industries, we also need to put more focus on the social history of the people who are the indigenous of South Africa. This is a broad and deep topic which I will try to skim over. But before I do that, we now know that Frazer wrote works whose shock effects came from the fact that it collapsed traditional conceptions of progressive history, revealing that the past that what modern humanity thought it had left behind, still shadowed its contemporary existence and was, indeed, more pervasive in modern consciousness than the discoveries of science made over the last four hundred years

Frazer's presentation of the history of humanity negated both the eighteenth-century Enlightenment and the nineteenth-century social Darwinist conceptions of continuous progressive improvement towards ever-higher levels of rationality; for Frazer, the history of humanity was a tale of repeated and terrible error out of which, with little certainty, had come to the fragile conceptions of scientific truth on which modern civilization was based, conceptions constantly threatened by the return of the mistaken forms of understanding - both magical and religious - on which primitive society was based

It is this negation of progressive history, the awareness of the fact that even the 'light' of modern science is rooted in the 'dark' truths of the primitive and this made Frazer the one person who can be regarded as the prophet of modern consciousness. At the same time, he presented this dark history of humanity in a prose as lucid and as ordered as any eighteenth century Enlightened thinker could have asked for. According to Frazer, the Enlightenment search for truth is enacted in the clarity and regularity of his sonorous prose; but the post-Enlightenment awareness that truth may be no more than an illusion of our own making is the burden of the history that he has to recount.

The balance between the two made between the delivery of both the closing statement one historical epoch and the opening statement of the next: a grand Victorian narrative of the rise of civilization from savagery reveals, at the same time, that savagery is the stronger and more permanent condition, and that the beneficent truth of the Christian religion are themselves but the spiritual after-echo of all-too-physical savage rituals. Frazer's ultimate achievements was the blending of a style which reflected enlightenment optimism about the powers of reason with a content which undermine and challenged that optimism, producing thinking that hovers constantly between sympathetic identification which the early stages of the journey towards civilization and appalled horror at the irrational beliefs, and even more irrational actions, of primitive humanity.

The very people who are calling Africans barbarians, are reminded by T.S. Elliot that for "modern writer the maxim, "return to the sources" is a good one, because they should be aware of all the metamorphosis of poetry that illustrate the stratifications of history that cover savagery" that in the piece above, we note that Elliot was following and acknowledging what Frazer who said that 'underlying the modern world, like a series of archeological strata, were a variety of of savage ones, and that modern civilization was a thin layer through which it was easy to reach down those savage origins."

What I a saying about Frazer in this part is that he was able to crystalize the modern Civilization" and espoused by European that it is really a thinly veiled backwards and very savage mindset and psyche, that in the final analysis, it being presented as a Modern Civilization' and is a fiction and farce that the needs to be raised and discussed as we begin to rebuild the History of Africans in Africa, and specifically in South Africa. Also, one would postulate that the fear of becoming barbaric by the Europeans, created a need for them to offset that by uplifting themselves as masters over savages

Adding to construction above, When Frazer envisaged the modern world as 'cracked and seamed, sapped and mined with rents and fissures and yawning crevasses', opening on that primitive belief in magic which 'is very much what it was thousands of years ago in Egypt and India' and remains the environment of the 'ignorant and superstitious classes of modern Europe, making a spectacle of Yeats "Mythic Method" which makes sense of the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is the bane of contemporary European history.

Finally, we need to look at the history of Europeans in the 17th and and 18th to the late sixties, because by so doing, we can come around the fact that it was only Africa which was backward and needed Europe to come and 'bless them with the christian dogma and practice. Reading up on Frazer, we begin to learn about the consequences of fascism and brings to our awareness that it comes from the symbolic locus for the terrors both of Europe in maintaining itself and its Imperialist manifestations. The fact remains it was just more so backward and was surviving on a thin veneer and layer of modernity, as observed by Frazer above.

African Indigenous Socialization

What I have done below is to post Dr. Amos Wilson's video/lecture which ties into the fact that we are sold the notion that we are backward than other human being, and Wilson goes into the nitty gtritty of how and why they(European Oppressors) are doing all this to Africans. But I will first cull from and defer to Asa Hilliard on this subject:

"One of the greatest obstacles to our clear vision and healthy growth as African people is the lack of unity. This is no accident as the MAAFA separated Africans from traditional spiritual value, family, culture, and land; forcing a total disconnect with a healthy African foundation. Africans were tortured and killed for practicing traditional religion, speaking traditional languages using African names and more.

"By the time Africans had gained a semblance of freedom to to reclaim traditional practices, anti African propaganda machines had already succeeded in enforcing a mental disengagement between Africans and everything African. The lingering result has been mental and social confusion which has prevented Africans from being themselves. The result has also been that Africans are unable to unite and work to achieve true freedom. This lack of unity is in direct rejection of indigenous African principles."

It is true what Asa is saying above, and this practice has had a devastating effect on the indigenous of South Africa. What the piece above is saying, is what Wilson breaks down in the video below: how affected African people are by the colonization processes, and that one needs to begin to know and act up on these effects and affects. During Apartheid South Africa, a concentration Camp mindset was instituted and implemented by the Apartheidizers, both physically and psychologically. This too has to be identified and dealt with.

Just the bit that Frazer is talking about that I have pointed to above, shows how bogus the White supremacist myth is. It is a sham because when we look at the Europe of the day, there is no way they can justify bringing christianity and civilizing Africans, when they killed, razed their(African peoples') cities and enslaved the whole continent and all over the the globe-so that picking up the cudgel to begin to rewrite the History of Africans of South Africa from Gondwanaland to Mzantsi(South Africa), is one way of writing the true story of a people. It is in writing this mammoth historical tome that one has to pick and choose the right timelines and themes, and be as close to truth as possible, that this makes the Hub a challenge and a learning/teaching experience/moment.

So that, when one begins to talk about the socialization of Africans in Mzantsi, we now go into a very obscure and difficult area because of Apartheidization, imposed ignorance, and disinterest in the the customs, cultures, traditions, dances, languages, oral history and tradition, music and dance of the Africans of South Africa, and how through them, a better understanding or historical and self-presentation of African people themselves will not be possible.

I have written Hubs on all these issues I raised above. One can only go and read the Hub I titled: "South African Music & Dance's Struggle Against Culture Wars: A view Of The Music and Dance of Africans of South Africa;" another one which dealt with culture and customs I have already written is called: "Restoration Of African South African Historical Consciousness: Culture, customs, Traditions & Practices." From the latter Hub, I will cite the opening quote I used there to begin writing the Hub:

"Black African culture set for the whole world an example of extraordinary vitality and vigor. All vitalist conceptions, religious as well as philosophic, I am convinced, came from that source. The civilization of ancient Egypt would not have been possible without the great example of Black African culture, and in all likelihood, it was nothing but the sublimation thereof."(Diop)

Diop has just summed up the gist of this Hub with his last sentence on the aphorism above. That is why when one begins to talk about the Indigenous socialization, one must recognize that there is such a thing and it is part and above all, the defining reality of the African people of South Africa. Many people know about Ubuntu/Botho of the Africans of South Africa. But with the cultures, customs, traditions of Mzantsi, there is more to it than just one word, but a plethora of diverse and variegated culture modes and modus operandi and the whole bit! that it forms or is part of.

What Asa Hilliard is saying below is a contemporary reality today in Mzantsi:

"There is no need to struggle to change the minds of those who make a personal choice to function as an individual and not a a member of an ethnic family; with the obligations that family membership entails. But we do need to be clear about who chooses to be in the family and who prefers to be an individual or just "happens to be Black." Understanding this distinction will clarify the kinds of expectations or challenges which must be posed by certain peole. It will help us to know who will be an advocate for African liberation versus who will be an opportunistic individual.

"In spite of centuries of attempts at ethnic cleansing and miseducation, there are ancient independent systems of indigenous African socialization that are still in operation today, on the continent and in the Diaspora. These systems are not familiar to most of us anymore. Some socialization retentions are watered down versions of what we once had, while some have changed little since ancient times. These retentions provide opportunities to observe and learn about some of the indigenous socialization practices."

What Asa is saying above, is very important and key to this Hub. I have already touched a bit about the importance of African South African culture, customs, traditions, etc above and gave a couple of references one can consult; below then, I will caricature the how Nguni/Bakone Socialize with each other in a cultural, customary mode and modal.

This is possible for if one were to listen and read Asa very careful, one will realize that possibility when Asa wrote:

"Some African socialization retentions have been modified, and can be recognized only by well-prepared observers. Examples of African cultural retentions abound. Africans in Suriname, located on the North coast of South America, have managed to maintain traditional Africa culture; even more so than many contemporary Africans in Ghana. They are able to maintain these traditions after almost four hundred years of physical separation from from Ghana" (Counter & Evans, 1981)

Differentiated African Cultures: African Cultural Experiences Globally

Traditionally, varied rituals address every occasion in African Traditional Life. The rituals provide individuals with an opportunity to stand before the community for naming ceremonies, enstoolment ceremonies, initiation rites, harvest festivals and other times to link and collectively give thanks to God, the Ancestors, and Nature. These rituals, and the purposes for them are common in Africa and the Diaspora. They provide an opportunity to promote community unity, to outline purpose and expectations, to reinforce the positive aspects of the culture, and to acknowledge the power of the Creator/Ancestors. Ceremonial pratices help communities to affirm community ties and values and continuity.

African Socialization Experience Redux:

Regardless of years of separation from Africa and constant pressure to ignore all things African, Africans in the United States of America have manage to maintain african cultural retentions. One example of this is the strong community commitment to and participation in child-care and socialization in rural areas and in strong urban communities that persisted for years. Even when there was little money, these African communities were consciously and subconsciously committed to quality child development.

A few of these practices include the use of folktales as a means of teaching about community mores, encouraging youth participation in all community activities, childbirth techniques, post childbirth rituals, natural healing practices and more. The diverse retentions could be found in many rural communities, such as Bay City, Texas, but they could also be found in pockets of urban communities those within Harlem, New york. former residence of such areas have many compelling stories to tell of how they were raised by African communities.

In many cases, the socializers did not know they were merely passing on valuable age old traditions. Nevertheless, the cultural bases in these communities are deteriorating because of neglect by community leaders. We must reverse this trend and take the opportunity to study and use cultural survival to shape the design of contemporary versions of African community socialization

Dr. Amos Wilson - Self Acceptance and Self Transformation

God Against The Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism and Polytheism Paperback by Jonathan Kirsch

The Concept Of Monotheism- Maat

Asa informs us further that "The character of traditional African education reflects thousands of years of development. It is unique in terms of its purpose, its methods, its content, and its outcomes. An example of a traditional African view of the world is the idea that we live in a cosmos that is alive. It is created by the devine. Human beings are a part of the Divine cosmos, and we are aspects of the Divine; the "Hidden Creator"(see my Hub titled: "Egyptian God, Amon(Amen) The Invisible Creative Power - Hidden From view: Akhnaton, Moses and the Origins of Monotheism.")

We are not alien to any part of the world. The core belief in Kemetic socialization is that the Divine is manifest as M.A.A.T., (a Kemetic or "Egyptian" term for ideas that have widespread presence in common world-views and value-views), meaning that the cosmos has order, balance, harmony, and reciprocity. At the behavioral level, there is truth, justice, and righteousness, which fit with the prior aspects. The creator is the ultimate bearer of these divine principles. This is connected to human in that, humans, through their behavior, should strive to be "like god." (the Reader can look up my hub on this topic titled: "Egypt (Kemet): The Egyptian Book Of The Dead - The Negative Confessions-Part 1 and 2' The Origins of the Egyptian Gods.")

MAAT behavior then, is governened by the inseparable principle of 'truth,' 'justice,' righteousness,' 'order,' 'harmony,' 'balance,' and 'reciprocity.' Any African socialization process a its aims, methods, contents, and outcomes, must be embedded in MAAT. There is no other system in the world that outlines such high values.

As African people, we occupy an environment that is physical, social, cultural, and above all, spiritual. While our survival need must be met, African educators are admonished to 'build for eternity' not merely for the temporal. Our exploiters see us merely as hard labor for their schemes as they scramble to attain the power to manipulate and control people and resources.

"We must not be misguided nor distracted by the argument that, using African traditions in "the modern or postmodern world" is useless, misguided, trivial, and irrelevant. Technology is a part of Africa's heritage, and even under conditions of slavery, colonization, segregation, and white supremacy ideology, Africans have been at the forefront of science an technology in nuclear energy research, information technology, engineering, etc. There is no conflict between high technology and African traditions(Joseph, 2000). The difference is that it must be balanced with the traditional values which emphasize that technology must compliment nature, not destroy it.

Whenever one is interrogating and investigating Africans, it cannot exist with the culture of African people in Africa and the Diapsora. Our task is to make sure that all is brought above ground for all to see and understand.

Matatu: Conference Notes - OUPAC 2013
Matatu: Conference Notes - OUPAC 2013 | Source

Culture Shock! South Africa (Culture Shock! A Survival Guide to Customs & Etiquette) Paperback by Dee Rissik

South African Art Now Hardcover by Sue Williamson

The Indigenous Socialization of the Africans Of Mzantsi (South africa)

The Ways of The Basotho people of Mzantsi

Above I have been trying to establish the human origins of mumanity from the country of Mzantsi (South Africa), and have yet to talk about about the acutal History, Culture, Customs, Traditions, Oral Traditions and history, Scared Rites Practices, languages, music, dance an traditional garb. As for the Languages, Music, Cultal and Modern African dance and traditional Clothes, the readers can look up the Hubs I have written on thse topic and titled: "African Music Is High Culture: The Power of Song In the Struggle For Survival;" and, "History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices Of the africans of South Africa: Deconstructing Hisotrical Amnesia;' also, "South African Music & Dance's Struggle Against Culture Wars: A view Of the Music Ad Dance Of Africans Of South Africa;" and lastly, "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence.

The last Hub on the .."Dysfucntional Existence of Africans in South Africa" is important to read as I write this part of the Hub here about the cultural socialization of the Africans of South Africa, I will use the same Surce as I have done on the last cited Hub above, and will just give it a bit more diferentiated parts of this cultural socialization process of the Africans of South Africa. I will still use the Basotho people, and it is important to know that othe other 9(Niine) peoples, the Nguni/Bakone, have a variation of the same culture I am about to talk about-of the Basotho and the rest of the other peoples of Mzantsi.

One can see this point I am making by reading the the Hub I titiled: "Restoration Of African South African Historical Cosnciousness: Culture, Customs, Traditions & Practices," Which was an examination of the Pondo People(Xhosa) people of South Africa. In the Hub, one can find a lot of commonalities and samness of the African Culture and customs, etc, and the way they built their homesteads, and this Hub in particular, and this will be very important in tying up the architectural building and style that was used by the Africans of the "lost Civilization of South Africa. By breaking down the Basotho peoples history, culture, customs and the whole bit, this will begin to give the broader a sense of what the culture and customs of South Africa are About, and how they do matter and are relevant to their cultural practices, customs, etc., of the "Lost Civilizations of South Africa."

Basotho Of Mzantsi: Their culture, Customs,Traditions

Some of the things that I have touched on above was the Cosmology of the African peoples, their and their founding of Agriculture, cultivation and obesrving also using the weather and the stars to vary and carry-out out these industries, functions, production andwork, also, made them do their their naming of the months of the year to perpetuate and give their people cultural and historical continuity. At this juncture, we take a brief look at the Basotho and their Calendar:

Selemo Le Digkgwedi (Seasons and Months)

The Season(Selemo) for the Basotho Starts in Phato(August). they base this season as a time when they start tilling and ploughing the soil and begin to feed their cows the fresh green grass, amidst the warming climate and temperature trends They are even cognizant that it is also the time of dust bowls , of which the winds are not cold nor chilly. And the Basotho say that the Cold has retreated to the Big Oceans and nearby waters during this time of the season of "Phato'-August).

1. Phato A' Makoatle, Pula-madiba - August:

If we remember Count Volney's telling us about how the egyptian named their Stars that tied in to their daily experienced phenomena, we see the same thing with the Basotho(and the rest of the Africans of Mzantsi), that this month is described in terms o their past life experiences and attach those meanings to the Season and the oral narrative that explains it in this way:

"The Basotho say that this is the month of of the young boy, and their counsel that he should not cry and hasten to go and herd the sheep and cattle, because May(Motsehanong) and Phupjane(June) and Phupu(July) are still coming- (and it is the height of Winter in those three months-my addition). The Basotho go on to say that this is the time when the Chill and the cold have gone back to the Waters(as explained above), and around July, the Cold winter abates a bit, and it is the time when the warmth of pre-springs begins to creep-in.

This is also the time when the Basotho cull and cut the wool from their sheep and other other domesticated animals, including the wild ones that have been domesticated. This month is called by the Basotho "Pula Madiba" because of the Dust Blowing over the land, and it is also the time to start to plough and till the soil, and the cows are fed green and fresh grass to increase the milk and fatten them up.

2. Lwetse(Loetse)-[September] Le Yona ke Pulula [It too is like Dust-filled as August]

The Basotho regard this as the second month of the season They call it "resetlakatlaka"- The most turbulent, weather-wise and temperature oscillates; they also see it as a month they call "Sentsha Mafi"- (That is the one month the milk of the cows increases, because that is when the cows have a lot of milk in their udders(Ho Sisa-in Sotho)). And it is called Lwetse(Loetse) becassue it is much warmer than Phato(August).

3. Mphalane 'A Leshoma, Tswetswana(Tsetsoana) [October]

This month and time of the season is when there is dust from planting Corn'Sorghum and Maize mealies.

At this time, the Basotho have abundance of cow milk; also, that is when the see the new-borncalf at this time.

4. Pudungwana(Pulungoana) [November]

It is during this month that the People of the Basotho point out to the newly born kid(goats) and lambs, and other animals' young-one; This is when they begin to hear the bird known as "Setllonono" begins to cry in a certain manner, and this makes most people begin to say that it is already Tshitwe(Tsitoe)

5. Tshitwe (Tsitoe) [December]

Tshitwe(Tsitoe) is the name of a small insect which cries and sounds like saying "Tshitwe-e(Tsitoe-e! Tshitwe-e(Tsitoe-e)", and it cries like this, the Basotho observe, it well hidden in green and beautiful grass which is quite pleasing. During this month, the Basotho know that the production of milk from the cows is going to lessen, and they end up saying this is affected by "Tshitwe(Tsitoe)"The beauty of summer is at its height during this month and season. The local people go about bare-chested and their clothes hanging on their shoulders. It is that month of the year when White people say it is the end of their year, and they're beginning the New Year in January.

6. Pherekgong, Tata-Molebo, Kwela-Kwela(Koela-Koela) [January]

The month of the 'tendril plants') "Kgwedi ya Maphephe kapa Tatamolebo or in English its the "(Tendril-a curling system by which the climbing plats fasten themselves for support), which are the strings used by those in the fields to chase away the birds. Those who chase the birds away from the fields the build for themselves a place where they can escape the rain and sun: natural elements, whilst performing their duties.

"Pherekgong"[January], according to the Basotho is called "Pelokgolo"(Big Heart), becasue it was at the time when the pumpkins grow huge and beautiful, and thieves even become tempted to still some of it. It is because of the pumpkin and its tendrils that it is Pherekgong is called Tatamolebo. Koela'koela are the protruding thickened stalks on top of the center of the pumpkin, which the Basotho came around when the corn maize begins having some produce of their own.

"Pherekgong"[January] is likened to Tsitoe(Tshitwe-December), and the Basotho like it because they see it as a beautiful month, and the plants are in full bloom and very pretty, and it is the time when the first mealies are taken off their stems, and they say that this mielies grew during the times of the witches, and they are wrapped in a blanket not be seen; even the stalks are hidden in this manner from the witches; the Basotho see this month as one of good luck; they also recognize it as the beginning of the year for the White people.

Hlakola (Hlakola Modula) [February]

This is the time named according to the season when the mealies have ripened, and the stalks begin to appear. This is High Summer, according to the Basotho-this is the time of the height of ripening of plants and the beginning, not yet though, of the appearance of the end of abundance; it is the time when the birds are mostly nasty and give the bird chasers' a very hard time, when they furiously eat up the corn; since this is the height of Sumer, the Basotho consider it one of the most beautiful seasons and time and the best time of the Summer.

Hlakubele (Tlhakubele" [March]

The stalks of the millie Corn are now showing up more prominently, grown out of the Plant, the have budded, filled up and grown, and have outgrown their initial secure growing areas, and they are beautiful for the eye to watch. In Hlakubele, the young say "The corn has ripened, and they are red; and the grown-ups say: "The are still raw, or are half-way done, because at that time of the season, their color is like that of the chest of the bird that gives the bird chasers a rough time, eating the corn. Nature and nurture were part and parcel of the Nguni'Bakone dealing with, managing and controlling/naming their environment.

Mmesa ('Mesa) - [April]

This is the time of the season that fires are begin to be made because it is the days when the cold sets in in the days of this "Mmesa"(April). This is then the time of the appearance of the Star the Basotho call "Moranang" (It is the fourth Star of the of the fourth month in the early Winter stages in South Africa)This is followed immediately by the Star the Basotho call "Naka"(Selemela se se tona) [The Big Late Summer Star]. The was the month when the initiates in the circumcision schools are released from their enclaves to go back to their homes.

Motsehanong (Motshehanonyana) [May]

This is the second month of the breaking of the year. The beginning of the drought of all that is green begins. The corn in the field baffles the birds in trying to eat it because they are dry from the drought. The birds loose their joyful spirit which was in abundance throughout the summer season which is about to end or is ending; the birds no more chirp and lose their music. Their beautiful feathers, and their length, fall to the ground and they loose them, like the hoofs of the Springbok.

Birds like The Stalk(mokotatsie), Lefokotsane (Swallow), Nkholi, Tlakatshwana le Mahlakangwato, begin to migrate away where they had comfort and security. These birds will never be seen in Lesotho the whole winter season.

Motshehanonyana: The month of joy and the one that gets rid of the birds. It is the month that these birds can die, ad it ends their joy and their enemy, since it ends the abundance they are accustomed to. It is the month that can end the life of all the animals, plants and birds. Tis month even affects human beings, especially the poor, and it chases away the warmth of the Sun. It is the month when the coughing grips the population because of the bitter cold winter.

It is also the month called "Meqhoba-ngwetsi", meaning this is the time when most cows are slaughtered for their skins to make blankets. It is also the month when the meat from the slaughtered cows lasts longer and does not rot because of the cold. This is the time to harvest the food made by the month of Tshitwe(December)

Phupjane (June)

This is the month which is the middle of the winter season, which is a really hard and bad time for both man and animals. The trees and the grass, all the plants, it is lik they just died, but they are not really dead, they are simply looking with their plant-eye for the season when they can live and revive themselves again. They just lay fallow and low(it's like the Basotho say,"Di robaditse Mmutla", because when the Hare(Mmutla) is sleeping, it has its eyes wide open and staring - so the plants are said to have the same behavior, looking dead, yet alive for the right season to come along, and then they bloom, blossom and grow, again.

When one looks at all the plants, all those that have been planted and those that grow wild, they really look dead and spent-out, and dead-looking. The spark and spright all looks dead, but they still have life in them. ;and when the time and day of their season comes around, they sprout and grow up, that even a baby sees them.

Phuphu (July)

Even their names, nearly similar, they denote and connote the time when the plants are [pregnant], and this can see clearly in warm countries, but not in this mountains of Lesotho. Both these last tow months are the the coldest month of the season. When the whole country during this time it is not beautiful of great to look at. This is the month when even the complexion of the people is ashen and very much unpalatable. It is the height of Winter, and Phuphu is the last month(12 month) of the year for the Basotho (twelve month of the year on the Calendar of the Basotho.

This is in a nutshell one aspect of African culture of South Africa discussed above, specifically dealing with the months of the year, when they begin, and end, and what are the effect and activities of each season for the Basotho. This is important to know, because this is only one face of the culture of the Basotho. So that, when we speak of "Botho/Ubuntu", we must also know these customary, traditional and historical/cultural data in order to have a sense of this Philosophy.

The Sky And The Stars

The Sky And The Stars
The Sky And The Stars | Source

Edge of the Universe: A Voyage to the Cosmic Horizon and Beyond [Hardcover] Paul Halpern

Under The African Sky And Stars-Preview..

The sky and the stars

Having discussed and described how the Africans in South Africa use the season to live and build their live around it, it will be proper to look at how they look at how they relate to the stars and cosmos below

A wide-spread African concept is that the sky is a solid dome, perhaps made of blue rock, resting on the Earth, upon which the Sun moves.

The traditional Tswana idea is that stars are holes in the rocky vault that is the sky.

The Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen saw the sky as the dwelling place of all the divine beings and spirits of the dead. The "things of the sky" generally do not influence or reflect the affairs of man, the !Kung taught, nor do they affect the weather, the growth of vegetation, or other conditions of the earth; they are in a realm of their own.

In Xhosa, a star is 'Inkwenkwezi', 'Inkanyezi' in Zulu, 'Nyenyedzi' in Shona, 'Dinaledi' in Sotho, 'Tinyeleti' in Tsonga, 'Maledzi' in Venda, Dinaleri' in Setswana, and 'Nyota' in Swahili.

While the /Xam Bushmen believed the stars were formerly people, some !Kung Bushmen taught that stars are, in fact, small creatures, and look like tiny porcupines – they have little legs, ears, teeth and are covered with tiny spines. Another !Kung account says that stars are actually ant-lions, watching from overhead with their bright eyes. When they are hungry and see an ant, they quickly fall to the ground to catch it. Some say that all the stars fall to the ground each morning, and we see them on earth as insects. The Ibibio of Nigeria spoke picturesquely of the stars as "Sand of the Moon".

The Sky and the Stars

The Sky and the Stars of the Milky Way
The Sky and the Stars of the Milky Way | Source

Extreme Cosmos: A Guided Tour of the Fastest, Brightest, Hottest, Heaviest,Oldest, and Most Amazing Aspects of Our Universe Paperback by Bryan Gaensler

The Stars, the sun and the Moon and African People

The Sun is 'Ilanga' in Xhosa and Zulu, 'Duvha' in Venda, 'Zuva' in Shona, and 'Letsatsi' in Sotho.

The Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen think of the Sun as a "death thing" because of its searing heat and the association with thirst, hunger, and exhaustion.

The /Xam Bushmen would ask the Sun, early in the morning before they set out to hunt, to steady the hunter's arm when aiming at game. The Sun was originally a man, the /Xam said, whose head shone brightly. But he was a lazy fellow and would sleep late, keeping his light to himself. So one day, out of desperation, the First Bushmen chopped off his head and threw it up into the sky so that his light could be shared with everyone.

On rare occasions, the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun, resulting in a solar eclipse. If the alignment is exact, then the entire Sun is momentarily blacked out. Such a total eclipse was not a welcome sight to the Xhosa, who saw it as an ill omen. In Zulu, Sotho and Tswana traditions this was called "the darkening of the Sun", "ukufiphala kwelanga"(Zulu) and "fifalo ya letsatsi"(Sotho) respectively. The Venda spoke picturesquely of mutsha-kavhili, "the two dawns".

The sky and nature was part of the lore and reality of Africans and they understood it clearly and were in touch with it in may more ways than I can list here. The most important part is to pay attention to the fact that Africans in Mzantsi were in tune with nature and were evolving as human beings and creator and namers of their world.

The Africans named the stars, the Sun and Moon and they each had a role that they played in their live, and gave meaning to it. Also, These cosmic bodies were very important in orientating the African belief systems with the Higher Powers and anchoring the systems of culture, customs and sacred lives within and into the natural order and manifestation of the cosmic figures and their cycles and so forth.

The Sun formed about 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud. Most of the matter gathered in the center, while the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that would become the Solar System. The c
The Sun formed about 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud. Most of the matter gathered in the center, while the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that would become the Solar System. The c | Source

First Magnitude: A Book of the Bright Sky [Hardcover] James B Kaler

The Way Of Africans In Mzantsi Viewing The Moon

The Moon

The Moon –" iNyanga" to the Xhosa and Zulu, "Nwedzi" to the Shona and Venda, and "Ngwedi" to the Sotho and Tswana – is probably the most obvious feature in the night sky, because of its size, brightness, and changing appearance (phases). As the Moon orbits the Earth it goes through a sequence of phases, from New Moon (invisible) to crescent, half-moon, Full Moon, half-moon, and back to New Moon.

To the Kora KhoiKhoi, the Moon was 'Kham', "the Returner"; the Nama KhoiKhoi spoke of "Khab". The KhoiKhoi also considered the Moon as "the Lord of Light and Life", and would sing and dance at times of New and Full Moon.

The Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen said that the crescent phases with sharp points was male, while the Full round Moon was female.

The Xhosa considered the time of New Moon as a period of inaction. When it reappeared as a crescent in the evening sky, it was cause for celebration. Important events were scheduled to take place around the time of Full Moon. Also at Full Moon the mothers would de-worm their children, believing that at this time the worms collected in one place and could be effectively treated.

The Naro Bushmen thought that when the crescent Moon slopes downward, it is said to be looking into a grave and this is a sign that many people will die in that season. A crescent pointing upward was a favourable sign. The round Full Moon is a sign of satisfaction and that people will find plenty of food.

In /Xam Bushmen mythology, the Moon is a man who has made the Sun angry. The Sun's sharp light cuts off pieces of the Moon until almost the whole of the Moon is gone, leaving only one small piece. The Moon then pleads for mercy and the Sun lets him go. From this small piece, the Moon gradually grows again until it becomes a Full Moon. The /Xam also have another account of how the Moon came to be. In the old times,

/Xam said, the Moon was one of the leather sandals of the Mantis-god /kaggen. The sandal was placed in water to soften it somewhat, but this angered the water spirit who then froze the water, locking the sandal in ice. When /kaggen saw the frozen sandal he discarded it, throwing it up into the sky, where it became the Moon. Whatever its origin, the /Xam considered the New Moon as being able to influence hunting and the gathering of ants' eggs, and when the crescent was sighted, they would ask for its assistance.

The surface of the Moon has dark and bright markings; flat lava plains and rocky highlands, respectively. In many African traditions these markings are said to resemble the figure of a man or woman carrying a bundle of sticks.

When the Earth's shadow falls on the Moon, a lunar eclipse occurs. The Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen said that this was caused by the lion, putting his paw over the Moon to darken the night so he could have better hunting

Under certain atmospheric conditions, a "moon bow" can form, appearing as a large ring around the Moon. To the /Gwi Bushman, such a ring was a sign that food will be plentiful.

The Moon played a very important role to the Africans in South Africa in naming their world and understanding their existence using the Moon as part of that explanation symbol and power

The Moon - Outer Space by Pyramid America

The Moon
The Moon | Source
"Under The Southern Stars" of the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth(Australia to South Africa, and the Tip of South America)
"Under The Southern Stars" of the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth(Australia to South Africa, and the Tip of South America) | Source

Active Galactic Nuclei [Paperback] Volker Beckmann

Traditional African South African Star Lore

Bright southern stars

The Southern Cross (Crux) and the two bright Pointers (alpha and beta Centuari) are probably the most recognizable of the southern stars, and they feature prominently in African star lore.

In Sotho, Tswana and Venda traditions, these stars are "Dithutlwa", "The Giraffes". The bright stars of Crux are male giraffes, and the two Pointers are female. The Venda called the fainter stars of the Southern Cross "Thudana", "The Little Giraffe". They also say that the month "Khubvhumedzi" begins when the crescent Moon can be seen for the first time and, at the same time, the lower two giraffe stars are just below the horizon and the upper two are just visible. The BaSotho lore tells that when the giraffe stars are seen close to the south-western horizon just after sunset, they indicate the beginning of cultivating season.

The /Xam Bushmen saw the two Pointers as male lions; they were once men, but a magical girl turned them into stars. The three brightest stars of the Southern Cross they saw to be female lions. To the Khoikhoi, the Pointers were known as Mura, "The Eyes", of some great celestial beast.

The Coal Sack, a large dark nebula near the Southern Cross, is known as the "Old Bag of the Night" to the Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen.

The long axis of the Southern Cross points towards a bright star called Achernar. This star is called "Senakane" (Sotho, Tswana) and "Tshinanga" (Venda), meaning "The Little Horn".

Brighter still than Achernar is Canopus, one of the brightest stars in the night sky. It is widely known in southern Africa as "Naka", "The Horn Star". In Sotho tradition, a careful watch was kept for "Naka" about the end of May. Sotho chiefs awarded a cow for Naka's earliest sighting. The day of the sighting the chief would call his medicine-men together. Throwing their bone dice, the doctors would judge whether the new season would be good or bad.

The appearance of "Naka" also heralds coming of winter and browning of the veld. When Naka appeared before sunrise, the Tswana knew it was time to start breeding their sheep. In Venda tradition, the first person to see "Nanga" in the morning sky (in May, heralding winter) would climb a hill and blow the "phalaphala" (black sable antelope horn) and he would receive a cow as a prize). The Zulu knew Canopus as i-Sandulela, a messenger appearing at the end of Autumn, the harvest time, and also as "inKhwenkwezi", "The Brilliant Star". The /Xam Bushmen believed that Canopus could influence the availability of ants' eggs, a rich source of nourishment, and they called it "The Ant Egg Star".

The Magellanic Clouds—two gauzy patches of light (at far right)—share the sky above the Patagonian Andes with a streaking comet and the luminous band of the Milky Way.
The Magellanic Clouds—two gauzy patches of light (at far right)—share the sky above the Patagonian Andes with a streaking comet and the luminous band of the Milky Way. | Source

Black Hole Astrophysics: The Engine Paradigm (Springer Praxis Books / Astronomy and Planetary Sciences) [Hardcover] David L. Meier

The Constallation Scorpius and the Magellanic Clouds as Seen by Africans of Mzantsi

The beautiful constellation Scorpius with its slender curved row of stars is famous for the bright reddish star Antares. This star was called by the !Xu Bushmen "The Fire-Finishing Star" – not only does it have a reddish colour, but (at certain times of the year) it sets very late at night, when the camp fires have died down. Along the curved body of the scorpion, just before the tail section, lies a close pair of stars (mu-1 and mu-2 Scorpii), which the Khoikhoi called "xami di mura", "The Eyes of the Lion".

Near Scorpius is a conspicuous circlet of stars known as Corona Australis, the Southern Crown. The /Xam Bushmen had a tale about a group of men who sat eating together when a bewitched girl looked upon them, turning them into these stars.

The bright star Fomalhaut lies in a rather star-poor region and is prominent in the summer sky. It is called "Ndemara", "The Sweetheart Star", by the Shona, and also "Ntshuna", "The Kiss Me Star", by the Tswana. The visibility of this star was supposed to indicate the time for lovers to part before their parents discovered them. (Compare this with the tale about Venus the Evening Star, below).

Another prominent southern star is Peacock (alpha Pavonis); the /Gwi Bushmen call it "The Female Steenbok".

The Magellanic Clouds

On a moonless night under a dark sky, two interesting "clouds" can be seen to the south, one cloud much larger and brighter than the other. These are the Magellanic Clouds, or the "Cape Clouds", and are actually entire galaxies, thousands of light years away.

The Ju/Wasi and !Kung Bushmen said that the larger cloud was a part of the sky where soft thornless grass grows, like the kind they used for bedding. One day, they say, God climbed onto the large cloud and went hunting. Several other Bushman groups saw the two clouds as male and female steenbok.

The Sotho saw the clouds as the spoor of two celestial animals. The large cloud was "Setlhako sa Naka", "The Spoor of the Horn Star" (Naka, Canopus) and the smaller cloud was "Setlhako sa Senakane", "The Spoor of the Little Horn Star" (Senakane, Achernar).

Tswana folklore tells that when the small cloud appeared more clearly than the large cloud, a drought would follow.

Stars and galaxies were a guiding feature for Africans in dealing with their lives, nature and world. This made them know and observe the stars and relate them to their very existence and lives.

The Milky Way

The Milky Way
The Milky Way | Source

The Milky Way [Tubed] (National Geographic: Reference Map) (Reference - Space) [Map] National Geographic Maps - Reference (Author, Editor, Illustrator)

The Milky Way

On a dark night, the Milky Way can be seen, a dim band of light stretching from horizon to horizon.

Various groups (including the Venda, Setswana and Sesotho) described it as a supernatural foot path across the sky along which the ancestor spirits walked. Many peoples referred to it as "Night's backbone", "Sky's spine" and "God's back", suggesting the idea that the Milky Way held up the sky, or maybe held it together.

In /Xam Bushmen star lore, the Milky Way was created by a girl of the ancient race who scooped up a handful of ashes from the fire and flung it into the sky. This made a glowing path along which people could see the route to return home at night. She also threw bits of an edible root into the sky, the old (red) pieces creating red stars and the young (white) pieces creating white stars.

The Stars Around The Orion
The Stars Around The Orion | Source

New 8x10 NASA Photo: Orion Nebula by Hubble Space Telescope

The Indigenous African peoples Of Mzantsi Interpretation of the The Orion Stars

The stars around Orion

On summer nights, the brilliant constellation of Orion, with Taurus the Bull on one side, and bright Sirius on the other, graces the southern night skies.

Orion is instantly recognizable by its three bright stars in a short line (Orion's Belt), and the brilliant orange star Betelgeuse. Rigel is the other bright star in Orion (opposite Betelgeuse from the Belt Stars). Roughly between Rigel and the Belt Stars lies Orion's Sword, which appear as three fuzzy stars.

Several cultures identify the Belt Stars as animals. They are seen as three pigs by the Sotho (Makolobe), Tswana (Dikolobe), and the Karanga of Zimbabwe (Nguruve). The Sotho called Orion's Sword "Dintshwa", and the Tswana called it 'Dintja le Dikolobe", meaning "The Three Dogs are chasing the Three Pigs". The /Xam Bushmen said the Belt Stars were "Three Male Tortoises (hung on a stick)," and Orion's Sword was "Three Female Tortoises (hung on a stick)".

To the Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen, Orion's Belt was "The Three Zebras", a male animal flanked by two females.

The Songye of Zaire speak of the Belt Stars as 'aspibwe na mbwa na nyama' "a Hunter with a Dog and an Animal". Similarly, the !Xu Bushmen saw "a Man, a Dog, and a Buck".

The Zulu referred to Orion's Sword as "oNdwenjana"; the meaning isn't clear because it can either indicate a tall object/man/tree, or a type of long-stemmed flower, such as a lily.

The Masai charmingly refer to the Belt Stars as "Three Old Men Pursued by Lonesome Widows"!

Nearby Orion lies Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky. Sirius dominates the morning sky in July, and it late winter is rises early. The Sotho knew it as "Kgogamashego", "Drawer Up of the Night". To the Tswana it was "Kgogamasigo", "Pulls the Night Across". The Venda called it 'Khohamutsho' - "Pulling Out the Dawn". The Zulu had various names for it, such as "iDonsa" and "inDonsemasuku", meaning "straining, or pulling". The /Xam Bushmen called Sirius "The Grandmother of Canopus", because Sirius rises after Canopus, and the elderly usually follow behind the more agile youths. In Xhosa, the star is known as "iQhawe", "The Champion", presumably because it is the brightest star in the night sky.

Taurus the Bull has its own bright orange star, Aldebaran, and not far off is the beautiful star cluster the Pleiades, also called the Seven Sisters.

The /Xam Bushmen saw Aldebaran as "The Male Hartebeest", with Betelgeuse as its mate.

The Pleiades is a prominent cluster of stars, of which usually six or seven bright members can be seen. To many pastoralist groups of southern Africa, the first visibility of the Pleiades in morning twilight (in August or early September) announced the start of the planting season, and usually also marked the beginning of the year.[The Sotho, as I have described above, knew this and operated on this presmise when it came time for the to plant]

The /Xam Bushmen said the Pleiades are one of "summer's things", and the Khoikhoi used the Pleiades to forecast the start of the rainy season.

In Kiswahili (East Africa & Zanzibar) they are Kilimia, "The Ploughing Stars" or "The Digging Stars". There is a Swahili proverb that says: "If the Digging Stars set in sunny weather they rise in rain, if they set in rain they rise in sunny weather." Similarly, they are Kelemera to the Nyabungu of Ruanda, "Lemila" to the Nyasa of Malawi, "Selemela" in Sotho, "Shirimela" in Tsonga, "Selemela" in Tswana, "Tshilimela" in Venda, and isiLimela" in Xhosa and Zulu.

The Xhosa would watch for the first appearance of the isiLimela in June. It is said that the month of the Digging Stars, "Eyesilimela", symbolized new life in man. The coming-out ceremony of the 'abakwetha'(circumcision initiates) circumcision school, when boys would become men, was determined by the appearance of this stellar grouping, and it is the custom for Xhosa men to count their years of manhood from this date.

The //Gana Bushmen say that the Pleiades are the wives of Canopus and Sirius, and the men's younger brother is "Achernar".

Aldebaran and the Pleiades are described by the Ibibio of Nigeria as "The Mother Hen and her Chicks".

The Sotho and Tswana had a rule for finding direction at night: if you want to travel west, keep the Southern Cross on your left hand, and Selemela (the Pleiades) on the right.

The Namaqua Khoikhoi spoke of the Pleiades as the "Stars of Spring" and called them the Khunuseti. They were the daughters of Tsui //Goab, the Dawn or Sky God. A beautiful mythical tale encompasses the remarkably bright stars of this region. One day, the story goes, the Khunuseti told their husband (Aldebaran) to go out and hunt the three zebras (Orion's Belt).

Dutifully, the husband went out, but took only one arrow with him. He aimed and shot at the zebras, but missed. His arrow (Orion's Sword) fell beyond them, and still lies there today. Although he wanted to retrieve the arrow, he couldn't: there was a fierce lion (Betelgeuse) nearby who was also watching the zebras. So the poor man sat there, shivering from the cold and suffering from thirst and hunger, unable to return to his wives (who would be angry) or to collect his arrow. (The Ju/Wasi Bushmen have a similar tale.)

Near Orion and Sirius is the bright star Procyon. The /Xam Bushmen considered it "The Male Eland", who has two wives (Castor and Pollux).

Rigel and Betelgeuse, with Sirius and Procyon, were known as "Magakgala" or "Mahakala" to the Basotho, Lobedu, Northern Sotho and Tswana. When these stars were visible in the early evening, they knew it was time to harvest the corn.

The Stars were about telling the time of the season and the work to be done and may other traditional rites practices adhere in their being implemented to the stars and Moon. the cosmos was part of the lives and culture and life of the Africans in South Africa[and a lot of Africans in Africa-though I just mentioned a few above).

Bright North Stars
Bright North Stars | Source

David Levy's Guide to Variable Stars Paperback by David H. Levy

Bright northern stars

A prominent northern star is Arcturus, which various Bushmen groups called "The Fire-Finishers' Child", because it appeared in the early morning hours, when the camp fires had died down. In Swazi tradition, the star is called 'Lweti', and is visible in the morning sky before sunrise in November, at the time when women begin their day's work.

Capella is a very bright star that never rises very high above the northern horizon as seen from southern Africa. The Zulu call it "iNtshola", "The Cattle Thief". The Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen called it "Green Leaf Horn" and knew that when it was visible, the first flowers would bloom with the coming of the season of rains.

Altair is another bright star that lies toward the north. It is known as "The Female Steenbok" to the /Gwi Bushmen. Located lower than Altair is the bright star Vega, which they call "The Male Steenbok".

Castor and Pollux, the two bright stars of Gemini, were considered by the /Xam Bushmen to be "The Female Elands", the wife of Procyon.

The small but striking northern constellation Delphinus the Dolphin is known in Setswana as "Gakgala", "The Mopane Worm".

Spica is a lone bright star in the modern constellation Virgo. The //Gana Bushmen knew it as "The Pig Star". In Zulu custom, it is known as "iNqonqoli", "The Wildebeest Star", and its seasonal visibility coincides with the calving season of the wildebeest.

Regulus, the brightest star of Leo, was known to the /Gwi Bushmen as "/edzini", "The Fire-Finisher" which only sets when the firewood has been exhausted.

The stars were part of the stories that were told to children around a fire in the winter or spring evenings in the rural areas of Mzantsi. As the lessons were delivered, children would actually see and experience the story by seeing the stars as they are pointed to them by the elders and peers. Learning was experiencing rather than reading, and this made for permanent remembrance to the children and adults alike. The communal lifestyle in the evening around the fire, was schooling too in the ways of nature and the cosmos.


Diameter of Venus = 7,522 Miles Distance from Venus to the Sun = 67 Million Miles at its closest, to 68 Million miles at its furthest. Distance from Venus to Earth = 25 Million Miles at its closest. One Rotation of Venus takes = 243 Earth Days One Or
Diameter of Venus = 7,522 Miles Distance from Venus to the Sun = 67 Million Miles at its closest, to 68 Million miles at its furthest. Distance from Venus to Earth = 25 Million Miles at its closest. One Rotation of Venus takes = 243 Earth Days One Or | Source

Venus [Hard Cover] Seymour Simon

Venus: The Evening And Morning Star: Guides to Life and Behavior


The Evening Star, usually Venus, is visible from time to time in the west after sunset. When this bright star appears in the evening sky, the Xhosa called it U-cel'izapolo', "One Who Asks for Milk from a Teat", because this would be the time when boys playing in the fields would rush home to milk the cows. The Evening Star was also known as "Madingeni", "The Dating Star". In the olden days, boys and girls were not allowed to date each other in public, so they would arrange a secret get-together when Madingeni became visible. Many peoples linked the evening appearance of Venus with supper time. The Ndebele called it "Lykwela mkobe", and the Zulu spoke of "iCelankobe", meaning "Asking for Mealies". The Sotho knew it as "Kopa-dilallo", the Tswana as "Kopadilelo", and the Venda as "Khumbela tshilalelo", meaning "Asking for Supper".

When Venus is visible in the morning sky just before sunrise, it is the Morning Star. The Herero called it 'Okanumaihi', "Little Drinker of Sweet Milk", on account of its appearance at milking time. The Nyae Nyae !Kung Bushmen called it "Old Star" and said that it guided the Sun across the sky. In Xhosa tradition, the Morning Star is "iKhwezi Iokusa" and is associated with diligence. Travellers, who sleep out in the open, would see it and know it was time to resume their journey. Young women and girls also wake up during this time to start doing their daily chores. Girls are often named after Venus and called nomaKhwezi, with the hope that they, too, will be diligent when they grow up.

Venus is, in fact, so bright that it can at times be seen in broad daylight. Xhosa boys, out in the veld herding, would try to spot it as part of the challenge to becoming a true shepherd.

Direction was important for the Africans of South Africa, and stars were used for this purpose too, to find way to one's destination. Night time travel in the darkness was not a problem so long as one could see the stars that have been taught to him by his elders and peers. The naming of their children was based on the names they give to their stars; also, it is very important to note that the cosmos was intertwined with the life, culture, customs, traditions, music, music, languages, dress, behavior, beliefs, practice or sacred rites and their timing through the stars and so forth. The names Africans gave to their stars its universal celstial bodies, might not be in English, but they are what the real life and culture of the African people of Mzantsi is all about.

This knowledge of the Stars seems to be getting lost amongst the Africans of Mzantsi, and the purpose of this Hub is to at least capture some rudimentary meanings to the relationship Africans of Mzantsi had with the Universe, and by so doing, as time goes on, might add more meat to the fleshed out narratives about how Africans dealt with the Cosmic bodies in the lived reality


Another method of tracking flying stones involves the use of the delay-Doppler radar, a very powerful tool that searches for asteroids and conveys information on their orbits, as well as and two-dimensional images of their physical characteristics.
Another method of tracking flying stones involves the use of the delay-Doppler radar, a very powerful tool that searches for asteroids and conveys information on their orbits, as well as and two-dimensional images of their physical characteristics. | Source

Comets, Asteroids and Meteors (New True Book Series) Paperback by Dennis B. Fradin

The Star With Tails

Comets and Meteors

In most cultures of the world, meteors (sometimes called shooting stars) are regarded as signs of important earthly events. Sometimes, these are good events. The San Bushmen of northern Namibia and the Masai of Kenya and Tanzania considered meteors to be favourable omens, foretelling good rains.

In Tswana mythology a very bright meteor is an indication of a good season ahead.

Sometimes, meteors are seen as a bad omen. To the !Xu Bushmen a meteor was an evil spirit racing across the sky to cause mischief among the people.

The /Xam Bushmen, however, said that the stars knew when a Bushman dies, and a falling star announces the death of one of them.

Other interpretations of meteors are neither good nor bad. The Zulu, for example, say that meteors resulted from celestial cattle hastening to new grazing in another part of the sky. When the cattle drag their hooves they break through the floor of the sky and create streaks which soon fill in with mud. The Karanga of Zimbabwe would shout "Li-i-i Thobela!" when they saw a meteor, thinking that a god or ancient chief was shooting across the sky.

Comets were also seen as important signs of earthly events. The Masai considered comets to be the embodiment of important gods. In Xhosa tradition, a comet, "Uzatshoba", is associated with bad luck, calamity, wars and death. There was also a strong belief that comets predicted the death of a chief. To the Sotho, comets were "naledi tsa mesela", and to the Zulu, "inkanyezi enomsile", meaning "stars with tails".

The phenomenon in the sky was interpreted and understood by the Africans in South Africa to be giving meaning, or signs and predictions of omens or good luck, that they paid attention to them very closely and used the event to understand or give meaning to their existence and unnatural phenomena that may visit them.

The cComet held many meanings and was viewed in various different ways,and if it coincides with certain events, it is recognized as such, but also, this may change depending on the circumstance and conditions on the ground when these Comets appear and pass by.

Destination Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors (Destination Solar System) Paperback by Giles Sparrow


NASA wanted to find clues to the formation of the solar system and more about the structure and composition of comets by crashing a bolt of copper into the comet Tempel 1. The resultant deep crater in its mantle or upper crust has allowed scientists
NASA wanted to find clues to the formation of the solar system and more about the structure and composition of comets by crashing a bolt of copper into the comet Tempel 1. The resultant deep crater in its mantle or upper crust has allowed scientists | Source

African Renaissance Hardcover by Peter Magubane

Pictures of the People Of Mzantsi(South Africa)

To understand the culture of Africans of South Africa, we have just shown a smattering of their ways of culture and how they related it to themselves and the world. Talking about the stars and how the Africans of Mzantsi is one of the many ways one has or can explore in order to begin to positively caricature and appreciate their culture and themselves as a unique people.

So far, I have been talking about the origins and culture of the Africans of Mzantsi. Now, I would like to make a photo album of the various people of Mzantsi in their traditional wear and to give the reader a better face to face with the people that are being discussed above. It is important to note that the following differently named, but same people should be known as the Nguni/Bakone of Mzantsi. I am now showcasing the Africans of South Africa I have been talking about above for the reader to get a sense and picture/photo of the Mzantsi peoples. Many-a-times these peole are being spoken of, but in this instance and case, I would like to showcase the African people of Mzantsi, below. I think this too will give many people a sense and feel of the Africans life, and everything about it by viewing the photo album below. The feel' part of the essays will be filled-n by the music posts of the Mzantsi people below, too.

SOWETO BLUES: Jazz, Popular Music & Politics in South Africa Paperback by Gwen Ansell

The Images and Photos Of Women AndThe Africans Of Mzantsi In Traditional Gear

South African African Art
South African African Art
Collage of Faces of the people of South Africa
Collage of Faces of the people of South Africa
Nature Poise/Pose
Nature Poise/Pose

History after Apartheid: Visual Culture and Public Memory in a Democratic South Africa [Paperback] Annie E. Coombes

Traditional Dancing of the Zulus by Zulu Women
Traditional Dancing of the Zulus by Zulu Women
Zulu Women in full traditional and dance dress plus accessories
Zulu Women in full traditional and dance dress plus accessories | Source
African Motswana Gril in Traditional costume and braids
African Motswana Gril in Traditional costume and braids | Source
Tswana woman in full traditional dress
Tswana woman in full traditional dress | Source
Bapedi women in traditional dress on their way to a traditional 'come-together'...
Bapedi women in traditional dress on their way to a traditional 'come-together'... | Source
A group of wonderful Xhosa women, in the traditional dress of their culture. They sang and danced. They are highly respected elders in their society, whose duty it is to hand down stories in the oral tradition which will be lost without the likes of
A group of wonderful Xhosa women, in the traditional dress of their culture. They sang and danced. They are highly respected elders in their society, whose duty it is to hand down stories in the oral tradition which will be lost without the likes of | Source
Basotho boys in traditional wear performing a traditional dance/song...
Basotho boys in traditional wear performing a traditional dance/song...
Basotho People in their full traditional Garb
Basotho People in their full traditional Garb | Source
A Mosotho Girl dressed in her full cultural regalia
A Mosotho Girl dressed in her full cultural regalia | Source
Basotho men Having a home-made beer and talking in the mountains of Lesotho
Basotho men Having a home-made beer and talking in the mountains of Lesotho
Xhosa Women in different Xhosa Traditional Dresses
Xhosa Women in different Xhosa Traditional Dresses | Source
Xhosa Man in Traditional Xhosa wear
Xhosa Man in Traditional Xhosa wear | Source
The Tsonga peole of South A=South Africa are a very peaceful and Conservative nation
The Tsonga peole of South A=South Africa are a very peaceful and Conservative nation | Source
Tsonga Women in traditional Wear in Gazankulu-South africa
Tsonga Women in traditional Wear in Gazankulu-South africa | Source
Swazi children section of the Reed Dance
Swazi children section of the Reed Dance | Source
Swazi Youth/Teens and young adults, lining up for the Reed Dance
Swazi Youth/Teens and young adults, lining up for the Reed Dance | Source
Venda Women in their traditional dress
Venda Women in their traditional dress | Source
Xhosa Women Smoking their Traditional Pipes
Xhosa Women Smoking their Traditional Pipes | Source
Tsonga Woman Dancing
Tsonga Woman Dancing
Ndebele Boys clad in traditional garb, and the attached photo is a Ndebele doll
Ndebele Boys clad in traditional garb, and the attached photo is a Ndebele doll | Source
Ndebele women in traditional apparel
Ndebele women in traditional apparel | Source
The Khoisan young girls singing
The Khoisan young girls singing | Source

The KhoiSan

The Khoisan people of south Africa...
The Khoisan people of south Africa...

KhoiSan Child

Khoisan child in South Africa...
Khoisan child in South Africa...
!Kung girl playing the //gwashi, Nambia Kung San, circa 1950-1955.
!Kung girl playing the //gwashi, Nambia Kung San, circa 1950-1955. | Source
Basotho Women In Traditional Blankets and Straw hats called "Moeianyeho"
Basotho Women In Traditional Blankets and Straw hats called "Moeianyeho"
Zulu Dance Troupe performing a Zulu cultural Dance with one girl(partly obscured, in the line up
Zulu Dance Troupe performing a Zulu cultural Dance with one girl(partly obscured, in the line up | Source
Swazi men and women in the background, in traditional clothes and performing a Swazi traditional dance
Swazi men and women in the background, in traditional clothes and performing a Swazi traditional dance | Source
A Mopedi Man in full colorful Bapedi admixture of traditional clothing performing a Pedi traditional dance
A Mopedi Man in full colorful Bapedi admixture of traditional clothing performing a Pedi traditional dance | Source

Sounding the Cape Music, Identity and Politics in South Africa Paperback – June 20, 2013 by Denis-Constant Martin

Resistance Art in South Africa Hardcover by Sue Williamson

The Indigenous Of Mzantsi(South Africa) - African [Cultural] Power

Given the current access of the Internet and technology, we can now talk or write about people, and we can include in that photos, videos and citation about them to enrich whatever is being talked or written about, Since we are talking about the African people of Mzantsi, I have tired to create a photo-album before I can speak about these people. It is better to see them and have a sense of what kind of people and their Story(History) as is and they are the narrative's thrust.

It is important to link the people above with their culture, traditions, customs, oral history and tradition, sacred rites and their practices, music, dance and traditional and languages/traditional clothes to form a holistic view of the nation of the Nguni/Bakone. Thus far, going through the antiquated Stone Ages, to the present, the very people11(Eleven) of them, the Zulus, Bapedis, Shangaans/Tsongas, Vendas, Swazis, South Sotho, Xhosas, Mandebeles, the Khoi'-'San and the "Colored" which I have included as African people, (only depending where they are married, settled and continue their communities-or regard their identity as).

But the people counted above have had as their culture what I have shown above in the Gallery of photos. This is in aid to the fact that the very selfsame cultures, traditions, custom, sacred rites and their practices, languages, music, and dances as they are going on throughout the land in various formats, is what has been the way of life of the Africans in South Africa from since time began.

There will be a Hub that will be breaking down all these diverse, but same cultures of the African peoples of Mzantsi. In this Hub, and on this trend of thought, my aim is to point out the importance of having a holistic picture of the manifestations of the culture of the Banguni/Bakone people a an energetic, vibrant and in-your-face way of life, filled with the exuberance and love of life, that this system is not really fully comprehended by the fly-by-night scholars of South Africa. It is an ancient social system, and even if it has been shredded by Apartheid(As Asa Informed us), the remnants of it exude a brand of human beingness that in reality, it is the remnants of a way of life/culture that has been frayed through and by the vicissitudes of time and space-Apartheid and its racism; and the bungling present-day African leaders.

What I am saying here is that, it is up to the present-day Technological Society and along with its adherents/users is that they should pick up the cudgel and splurge the viral stream with memes and zines about the culture that founded in all cultures[this too is specifically addressed to Africans of South Africa). This is the straight-forward truth about the history of this social system of Mzantsi: it is the oldest, and it needs to be understood from that point of view, and it is also to be understood that it needs a lot of patching up and stitching to resuscitate and originate whatever is left of it. This is what this Hub is about: about a people who still need to heard and seen in the light of their history, which is the origin of man and everything modern-It is a culture that projects and highlights that as its major pulse and grit and endurance.

The African Personality As Social Empowerment

In this case, discussing the personality of Africans of South Africa, we shall cull and defer to Wilson extensively who informs us that:

"We shall define personality, without claims of definitivity, as more or less enduring psychophysically organized ways of thinking, feeling, desiring, and behaving as they are assumed to be partly determined by an individual's fairly consistent or characteristic attitudes, values, perceptions, motives and other abilities - all of which may be said to uniquely describe him or her as a person.

"It is important to note int his context that personality is generally perceived as organized, as a dynamic organization of traits, tendencies, abilities, intentions and behavior. The behavior elicited from an individual in response to internal and/or external stimuli is organized, i.e., is an expression of his personality organization. Under normal circumstances human behavior is coordinated, not random, and is initiated and mediated by the organized functioning of an organized brain and body - a coordinated system of organs, themselves composed of cellular subunits and homeostatically regulated substances and activities.

"All of this is to say that the powers expressed by the individual as persons and personality emanate in an organized psychological system known as his body. Hence, even at the individual level, at the level of the individual personality, organization, as defined by its many structurally and functionally related levels and complexities, is the base or source of power - of the ability of the individual to solve problems of the world.

"This implies that that "contents" of personality - its abilities, tendencies, interests, tastes - and the nature of their dynamic organization, largely determine the power of the person, and in the context of our current discussion, the contribution, for better or worse, he can make to his group, society and/or culture. We reiterate an earlier statement to the effect that one major way of controlling the power of a group is to control the contents, abilities, tendencies, interests and tastes, and their collective organizational expression in its constituent members.

"There is a general tendency amongst Eurocentric psychologists to overemphasize the uniqueness or utter differentness of individual personnalities. This is perhaps to be expected in a culture whose guiding ideology is that of "rugged individualism" or which idealizes almost a form of collectivism, cooperativism, socialism or communalism.

"However, as we remarked earlier, one of the most remarkable things about individuals is their inveterate tendency to form groups. The gregariousness of humans as well as many other animals has fascinated behavioralist, philosophers and pundits across the ages.

"What is most remarkable about individuals who form distinct groups is their exceedingly high level of conformity and obedience to customary values, expectations, and legal standards.

"Even more remarkable is their sameness or similarity of interests and tastes - their apparent love or need to eat much the same foods and drinks prepared in much the same ways; to be entertained by much the same amusement; to dress pretty much alike' speak the same language; express similar attitudes; like the same kinds of music; and behave pretty much within a rather narrow range of a very broad spectrum of behavioral possibilities."

I have cited Wilson's quote above because he summed up the purpose of this Hub and the foregoing picture album above, and the fact that I have made prior to citing Wilson on this part of the Hub. I was looking for a way to encapsulate and surmise the sense that the African people of South Africa, have in-built within their cultural, customary, traditional, etc., framework and references those qualities described by Wilson-Kown in South Africa as Ubuntu/Botho).

The qualities of being together, do the same things together, connect with each other in a common way on all aspects of their existence and here-and-now reality is what perfectly describes the Africans of Mzantsi. The Diverse Cultures of Mzantsi and everything else, are just that: variegated and diverse-but not different. One culture is different from others maybe in language, which too it is not true these African language are different, but extensions and variations of each other amongst the 11(Eleven) people of the Nguni/Bakone Africans of South africa and are only affected by region, but all retain a national sensibility, phones, semantics and so forth..

So that, the personality of the Africans of South Africa is not something they should be fishing for or hunting from other people's cultures which are foreign to their own indigenous culture, and in the process, discarding of their original culture, and behaving in a dizzy and confused way, [as in a chicken with its head cut off], about what to do for their own people, history, cultures, traditions, customs and the whole nation of the Africans of Mzantsi. As to what Africans need to re-learn and reconfigure about themselves as a "functional Group", as Wilson characterizes, we pick it up further below:

"Perhaps this is not as remarkable as it seems at first when we recognize the fact that an effectively functional group must maintain some necessary measure of conformity and unanimity if it is to achieve its goals in a planned and coordinated manner. In fact, "overlapping" personality tendencies and tastes which characterize the differing personalities of the individuals who constitute a group, provide that group with it necessary degree of conformity; their "non-overlapping" tendencies and tastes which characterize the differing personalities of the individuals who constitute a group, provide that group with the necessity for maximizing its adaptability to changing circumstances.

"Conformity and unanimity in service essential to coordinated group functioning and effectiveness, serve a basic need of the group for self-preservation[and group continuity] and therefore must operationally develop in any organized group. Consequently, in spite of individual differences, organized groups tend to exert some initial and ongoing pressure on their members toward conformity in vital areas of group life.

"Groups seek to induce conformity in their members through role definitions, setting limits to permissible behavior, convincing them of the validity of group goals and values, conditioning them through the manipulation of a broad variety of rewards and punishments. Moreover, a large proportion of basic and acquired individual needs can best be satisfied through group activity and Institutions."

Above I have delineated a swath of historical and languistic/cultural and other functions/usages and the meanings they convey to their and through users(the Basotho, in this case)-are in a way giving Africans and showing them the possibility of what their culture is about, and the reality that they can make it conform to their group activity and the institutions they will have to create from scratch. And we learn more from Coleman that:

"The individual is attracted to the group in terms of his and its commonality of interests, values, and goals; the success and status of the group; its exclusivity; its ability to provide him security and anxiety reduction, and to relieve him of his loneliness and alienation among other things." what I think a group ought to be working on.

We are informed by Parsons that:

"... A child and has its budding personality organized to some significant degree thereby - the organization of the emerging and ongoing personality and motivational system of the individual are functions, not simply of his own independently given needs, but of the way in which his sociocultural group responds to these needs which themselves have been organized." In reference to the infant and the shaping of personality, Parson contends that "the infant in the first few weeks, if not days, of life comes to be integrated into a social system." And we may add that through internalization of its symbols the social system is integrated into the the personality of the [child]/individual

Parsons goes on to contend that the "internalization of the sociocultural environment [brought on by the social relations which the individual has experienced in the course of his life history] provides the basis, 'not merely of one specialized component of the human personality, but of what in the human sense, is its central core'. The social system in which the personality is bred, matured and embedded is characterized by an immense inequality of power relationships, especially in its early phases, and the relatively systematic and organized sanctions (i.e., rewards, punishments, incentives), it imposes on the individual, "eventually leads to the learning of a which is also complementary pattern of responses [by the individual], which is also organized and generalized." Wilson finally adds:

"In sum, the predominant social system hands those who define it and control it[power], which, substantially helps to shape the organized personalities of its individual members. This means that much of the contents, abilities, tendencies, interests and tastes which uniquely characterize its members, are derived from it and are integrated into their unique personalities. However, the uniqueness of their personalities is like the uniqueness of all the individual waves which make up the ocean - while paradoxically uniquely shaped, they are fundamentally made pretty much of the same stuff."

The cultures, customs, traditions, customs, History, Oral tradition and history, languages, music, dance and cultural dresses, to paraphrase Wilson, " are uniquely shaped, [and] they are fundamentally pretty much made of the same stuff."

African Socially Organized Personality

Wilson informs us thusly: "The individual is essentially an "individuated social being." Hence, in spite of its vaunted uniqueness, personality is socializable - that is, it is to an important degree organized by the system of social relations in which it is embedded and with which it reciprocally interacts. Since personality as an organization of contents, abilities, tendencies, interests and tastes is to a measurably important degree determined by the predominant social system of which it is a subunit or member, the social power it generates and expresses is also largely determined by the social system of which it is an integral part.

"Consequently, the personalities which constitute a particular system social system, in spite of their uniqueness, share numerous common orientations promoted by that system and are thereby instruments of that system - and are instrumental to its survival and maintainance. They, in effect, are the power instruments of its social power, of its ability to socially engineer its continued existence and functionality.

"Thus, personality inherently serves both the individual and society. It is most useful to the predominant social system when it conforms to the needs of the system while expressing its conformity in uniquely personal ways.

"Ultimately, personality is a functional social unit of society. Major questions in its study involves asking what function does it serve? Who determines its functions? Who stands to benefit most from its functionality or dysfunctionality?

"In the context of White-Black social power relations we may easily infer from the foregoing discussions that the social powerlessness of Blacks relative to Whites devolves in part from the ability of the predominant, White-controlled social system to impose certain patterns and limitations on the organized ability and behavioral tendencies which characterize the multitude of African personalities.

"The imposition creates Black personalities, in spite o their individual uniqueness, whose character, tendencies and behavioral outcomes are compatible with maintaining the White-controlled system which dominates them. Consequently, those personalities become the variety of expressions of White systematic power and its instruments of social power against their own best interests.

"In a word, Black personalities created and formed by a White-controlled social system are inherently self-defeating. The energy yielded by the conglomerate of black personalities empowers the dominant White-controlled social system, or at least, a social system equally controlled by Blacks and Whites. However, Black empowerment and Black Power whether epitomized by a relatively autonomous Black--controlled social system or by a social system equally controlled by blacks and Whites, requires that the personalities of Black be organized by a Black-controlled social system so that their contents, abilities, tendencies, interests, and tastes are compatible with the self-preserving, liberated interests of that system and the individual interests of its members."

Thus, personality inherently serves both the individual and society. It is most useful to the predominant social system when it conforms to the needs of the system while expressing its conformity in uniquely personal ways. This will be a testament of the existence of Free will and Self-autonomy

Art and the End of Apartheid Paperback by John Peffer

The Trumpet Player Statue - Fusion of South African Musical Cultures
The Trumpet Player Statue - Fusion of South African Musical Cultures | Source
South African Traditional Fltue Player
South African Traditional Fltue Player
South African women in various types of traditional dress singing a Capella
South African women in various types of traditional dress singing a Capella | Source
Gumboot dancers in Action
Gumboot dancers in Action | Source
South African boy playing his "Home-Made" guitar
South African boy playing his "Home-Made" guitar | Source

The World of South African Music: A Reader Hardcover by Christine Lucia (ed)

Liberated Voices: Contemporary Art from South Africa Hardcover by Frank Herreman (Editor)

African South African Music In The Mix

Speaking of "expressing oneself in unique and personal ways", I have just posted several pictures of South Africans performing their music. Above in the Hub I have been speaking about the history, culture, customs and traditions of the Africans of south Africa. Below I will post some of the music performed by Africans of South African in order to flesh out the topic and include music, dance, cultural/traditional and modern music, dance and clothes of the Africans of South Africa. Here's as a short historical heads-up from the South African Hub reading on this subject:

South African music, entwined with dance, runs through the blood of the people, and it is an inseparable part of their hearts and souls and breadths.

With its rainbow fusion of South Africa music and European and Asian music cultures, South Africa is a hotbed of musical originality and creativity.

This is evident in the diversity of its music which ranges from raucous festival rock music to fashionable classical concerts, from the unique Zulu Maskanda and township kwaito music styles to world-renowned African jazz, rock and hip-hop.

At present there are various genres of South African music, which go something like:traditional music and musicians; Missionaries and Choirs(Ischatamiya being antoher one of the Choir genre); Kwela; Mbaqanga; Marabi; Minstrels; Mbaqanga Jazz/Soul/Township Funk; Contemporary and OldAfrican South African Classical Jazz; Jazz in Exile/from exile; South African African Jazz inside South Africa; and of course various genres of White folks music. There is a very special genre, the African traditional and cultural music and dance/traditional clothes. this is a very important section of the African musical mosaic that has been written about this extensively in my Hubs, "South African Music & Dance's Struggle Against Culture Wars: A View Of The Music And Dance of Africans Of South Africa." Another one I have published and written about South African music from exploring all types of music played by South African is called: "The Music of The People: Africans in South Africa and their Musical Sound Systems; and then there is another one I wrote too about the music of Africans of South AAfrica called: "South African Township Homegrown Artists: Township-Style Sounds: African Cultural-Musical Echoes & Polyrhythmic Licks." The reader might also like to check out one other Hub where I trace the different musical genres of Africans throughout the world by reading the Hub I wrote titled: "African Music Is High Culture: The Power Of Song In The Struggle For Survival."

In order to give a semblance of the sound/music of Africans of South Africa, I will dedicate the following section to the Musical posts of or from South Africa. In this case I will post one cultural and contemporary music of the different groups of South africa.

Popular Gospel, Choral and A-Capella from the Townships of South Africa [Import] Various Artists

Cultural Dress - A glimpse

Lesedi Cultural Group
Lesedi Cultural Group | Source
Xhosa Women Dancing At The Gold Reef
Xhosa Women Dancing At The Gold Reef
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela | Source
Ausi Miriam Makeba
Ausi Miriam Makeba | Source

South Africa - Putumayo Presents

Izingqungqulu Zomhlaba - Ngiyesaba

Ichwane LeBhaca - Babanga Ilifa (Contesting Inheritance)

Sipho Gumede - Village Dance

Sipho Gumede - When Days Are Dark, Friends Are Few

Caiphus Semenya - Matswale

Mahlathini Mahotella Queens - Kazet

Ladysmith Black Mambazo - Homeless Live

(R)Inyokanyoka.ABAKWETHU) Umgqumeni..

Soweto Drummers

Xigubu xa Machangana Vatsonga(The Drums Of The Shangaan/Tsonga)

LEONARD DEMBO-MUST SEE REMIX(A South African-Zimbabwe-Congolese Music and dance)

Paul Ndlovu - Hita Famba eMoyeni Nkatanga

Paul Ndlovu - "yambu rixile

Harari Summertime

Harari Party

Sipho "Hotsticks" Mabuse - "Burnout"

Ray Phiri and Stimela - Fire, Passion and Ecstacy

Stimela - Whispers In The Deep Live 2010

Jabu Khanyile - Mbombela

Caiphus Semenya - Ziph'inkomo(Where are the cows for the Dowry)

Caiphus Semenya - Matswale

Letta Mbulu and Caiphas Semenya - "Nomalizo"

Letta Mbulu Many Rains Ago [oluwa]

Miriam Makeba - African Sunset

Miriam Makeba - Amampondo

Drums for tomorrow - Amampondo (South Africa)

South African Music (Dikgomo remix)

South African music (Vomaseve Dance Mix

Mandela: Son Of Africa, Father Of A Nation - Original Soundtrack [Soundtrack] Hugh Masekela |

Thoughts On The Story(History) of the Music and Musicians Of Mzantsi

Cultural Independence

South Africa has had a very violent past, and just by looking at the people, one starts wondering, what was it that the Apartheid regime achieved in oppressing the indigenous people of south Africa? Well, a lot. But, in their resistance to Apartheid, the African people were at their best. The after effects of the repression, violence and oppression carried out on them, is still affecting and effecting everything about their lives. Some, few, have managed to amass incredible wealth, but mostly are still suffering, unemployed and abused in many other new ways by the government the elected into power.

If then, we are to tell and write about the Story(History) of a people, we can at least introduce a new component of the culture-Music- into the forefront of the virally streaming global community. The selection of music above does not in any way cover the vast areas and depth of the music of Africans in South Africa. This is just a smattering of what music is like in the lives of Africans of Mzantsi.

The music that has been produced in these Townships(Soweto, for one), made up of other Large Townships in their own right, (aside from being part of Soweto). During Apartheid, Soweto was build a dormitory/labor quarters for cheap African labor, and they were regulated and controlled like Concentration Camps, and the Africans were forced not to recognize these labor reserves or Townships not as their permanent place of domicile, but always remember that they had to go back to the rural areas. These Townships came to be known as "Black Spots".

All the musicians one sees above were either born in these Ghettoes, or their parents moved there from the rural areas in search of work. Gallo Records, in its paternal fashion, made sure that these musicians followed a certain pattern of what they(the Record Execs.), perceived to be Mbaqanga [and they have pocketed most of the earnings and gave a pittance to these musicians], and issues them a formula and style in order for them to be recorded. So, the musicians presented themselves as a unit whenever they came to record or cut a song, and they had to rehearse for a year before they could go on tour.

These artists, even they became popular, they still could not open their own companies(labels), nor switch companies. Apartheid had a long arm and reached into quarters seldom talked about, unless amongst the artists themselves and friends. Mbaqanga is the confluence of traditional music, Township Funk, dance and traditional costume.

The artist demonstrate to the audience a correspondence between body movement gesture(Traditional or modern African dances), melody, and rhythm. So that, the Story and history of the Music and African Musicians in south Africa, will really require a new and original Hub. At this juncture[see some I have mentioned above], I am just giving flesh to the barren bones of African history gnawed by more than five centuries of colonial and finally Apartheid rule-and music, after most about the past is said, seems appropriate enough to gibve us a sense of what these Africans people are about.

It is therefore my contention and assertion that the music, dance, traditional dress has always been the dominant and permanent feature of the cultural wear and practices of the indigenous of Mzantsi from time immemorial. This may not be exactly what it was in its inception in remote antiquity, but it is the best thing that has been amongst and by the Africans of South Africa long before the arrival of the settlers-going back to really great and remote antiquity. If that is lost from the analysis, or the African people loose their culture, music, customs, history and so forth, below is a sense of the apocalypse

The Effects And Affects Of Loss Of Indigenous Tradition

We are informed by Fu-Kiau that:

"... I believe people are engaged in such death-bringing activities because of fundamental deviations from basic ethical, moral, and spiritual principles of life and tradition.
These fundamental deviations weaken the body's functioning and individual self-healing power, the best healer of any individual and, therefore, society. It is mortally dangerous to deviate from certain traditions. hurts to lose certain traditions, these are practical principles of life. The loss can lead to self-destruction of the individual, society, the world, and its civilization."

Above is the indigenous socialization and culture of African of South Africa which has been ignored, or treated as some 'exotic' and 'backward' mode and ways of the 'underdeveloped and child-like' insignificant ways of living and carrying out a culture by people who never evolved and never had anything worth recognizing or acknowledging about their barbaric culture-and if Africans believe that-all is lost. So that, we need to heed the fact and reality that the "mission of writing a quality history, African controlled, socialization process will be more than a basic response to oppression. It is also a fundamental path to promote healthy individual and collective development of the whole collective preventing cultural genocide.'(Asa)

Asa adds:

"To justify the brutal, greedy, and inhumane behavior directed at Africans, oppressors instituted and fostered slanderous propaganda campaigns to paint a peicture of Africans as cultureless, igorant, and evil people-is a set back for Africans and devastating to the humanity. These campaigns included diverse international codes, messages and signals which were used to produce the same result; the full scale degradation of African people wherever they exist in the world. The goal was and is to encourage everyone, but especially Africans, to resist Africa and never speak out about European Imperialism as being against Africans around the world."

We now know, for a fact, today, that there are more African-African History Master Teachers teachers(present and past) who have stood, in defiance against the European and other cultural terrorists and in defense of the African history against individuals committed and perpetuating and all traces of African Consciousness. These Africans, who have been the light of advancing African history, stood and still stand tall and taught and continue to teach, speak, and act in truth (one can review the Video by Wilson above/and Clarkes at the end of the Hub), and many others that will be posted in this Hub(I have written a Hub on one of these Master teachers I dubbed: "Master Teacher Of African History-Prof. John Hendrik: Africa's Survival From Antiquity To Beyond The 21st Century," which I have already published a Hub replete with video lectures by Clarke, and a new way of viewing and writing African history of Africans of South Africa, as part of the narrative of recreating and resuscitating this historiography which has been nearly and thoroughly falsified and distorted-and expunged from decent commentary of Human History.

Asa informs us:

"Discourse and active organization strategies intended to lead African people to command their own socialization process must rebuild and improve upon distinct African indigenous tradtions. Numerous documents and oral histories outline the vast traditions which were practiced by our ancestors and passed down through the generations. We must critique these traditions and, when needed, improve them so that they will address the contemporary challenges that Africans face around the world.

"We must also understand that our indigenous socialization practices can help us to clarify our purpose and vision as an African family. Today, as we continue to face the "Culture Wars" against Africans, we must not surrender or neglect our vision of an appropriate destiny that derives from who we are as a people. It is a vision that points to our survival and maps the steps that lead to a reclamation of our African power[history, customs, traditions, sacred rites and practices, oral history and tradition, African languages, music, dances and traditional dresses].

Above I have attempted to delineate and bring to life the history and culture which part of what is Mzantsi today. What I am saying is that, if we go to any age or evolution of Man, when it comes to the South Africa(Mzantsi), we cannot do so to the exclusion of the discourse of African Socialization of the Mzantsi indigene.. In order for the Pre-stone Age history and historiography to make sense as far as I am concerned, it looks barren and senseless/useless if it does not tie-in the authentic and legitimate way and manner in which Africans of Mzantsi applied, plied and made manifest their historical and cultural existence in this part of the world, it is what we see today in the musical and dance culture of Africans, since culture is not static, it has evolved in time and survived from the vicissitudes of The European belligerent Cultural Wars and terrorism against African People and their Culture.

"Today, as we continue to face the "Culture Wars" against African people, we must not surrender or neglect our vision of an appropriate destiny that derives from who we are as a people. It is a vision that points to our survival and maps the steps that lead to a Reclamation of our African Power." (Asa)

To reclaim African history, culture and so on, one of the many ways to go about doing that is to write it from our own perspective, flesh and refurbish with new information(which is omitted old information) and, as Asa poignantly pointed out, "It is a fundamental path to promote healthy individual and collective development, while preventing cultural[historical] genocide."

Many Africans have never made the choice to disappear, and to merely be "mainstream," and which in reality will never happen. For these Africans who are not alienated from family and traditions, it is time to restore our historical and cultural structures, before they are permanently lost, eliminated and wiped out of historical and cultural memories forever and irreviersibly.

Dr Amos Wilson - Awakening Natural Afrikan Genius

RBG-Falsification of African Consciousness, Honorable Dr. Amos N. Wilson

Dr. Amos Wilson - Blueprint For Black Power

V522 WEST & REST OF US Paperback – March 12, 1975 by Chinweizu

The Power(-lessness) Of African People Facing European Cultural Terrorism

What Wilson has to say about the bogus "Democracy' that is the present-day supposedly "Rainbow Society" or "multicultural society that is South aFrica Africa. He notes that South Africa is the engine for the economic development of Africa and theThird world, so that, he brings to attention the reality that we need to know the truth about present-day South Africa and what it is all about.

The final installment of his lecture is on a Blueprint For Black(African) Power, which I have included, for in writing the History of Africans in South Africa, Wilson is invaluable in this lecture. This Hub is about that type of empowerment where Africans of South Africa take up on their history and to write it in order to empower themselves given the present decrepit reality they exist in.

In some cases, Africans have been identified early on and recruited before being socialized to commit to a European agenda. European oppressors send 'trained' Africans into African communities, and institutions attempt to lead the rest of the African family, in blind allegiance, to the alien agenda that does not serve our community's interests.

The 'divide and conquer' strategy has been used against Africans since the first invaders journeyed there to pillage the land. the pitted clan against clan so that they could steal and enforce their agenda as the warring Africans directed their scrutiny at each other. Today, the divide and conquer strategy is employed by the right wing and the left wing-alike. Individual Africans have been permitted to rise the their highest levels, but only if they are not perceived as identifying with Africans as an ethnic group.

Self-hatred or the hatred of Africans is a prerequisite for financial gain and acceptance in a white supremacist culture. "Cultural Terrorists" have always used the domination agenda that was designed to divide Africans from each other, and "by any means necessary", and to bond individuals to those who dominate us.

For instance, the cultural terrorism in Brazil, provides a functional country to study and learn how Cultural Terrorsim" by Europeans has been effective. It can help us to grasp the fate that some oppressors now envision for Africans everywhere, and to see a sophisticated divide and conquer system in operation.

"In 1914, Theodore Roosevelt wrote an article in a popular magazine describing what he had seen and heard in Brazil. He was told the following by one observer in Brazil. 'Of course, the presence of the negro is the problem-[Like the Apartheidizers referred to Africans in South Africa as the "Die Swart Gevaar"(The Black Danger)], and a very serious problem, both in your country and mine, Brazil. Slavery was an intolerable method of solving the problem, and had to be abolished. But the problem itself remained, in the presence of the Negro. ..With us, the question tends to disappear, because the Blacks(Africans) themselves tend to "disappear" and become absorbed. ...In Brazil, the ideal looked forward to is the "disappearance" of the Negro himself. ...that is through his gradual absorption into the White race.(Hilliard)

Asa informs us that:

"Many Africans have never made the choice 'disappear', and not merely "mainstream," and never will. For these Africans who are not alienated from family and traditions, it is time to restore our structures for socialization. It is time to mobilize and to rescue our people, before they are lost in utter and irreversible identity confusion. We may not always understand that the consequences of that identity confusion are economic, political, social, esthetic and spiritual." [It is to these Africans that the Hub above is directed to, world -wide, and more specifically- directly to the Africans of South Africa who are caught-up in the embrace of trying to be like their Masters-in the clutches of their former oppressed condition and mind-set: Apartheid Hangover].

Importance of Family, Traditions, Customs History and African Unity

If anything Asa has said above, it only teaches us, according to Asa, that "African socialization practices served to assist communities in day-to-day operations, collective survival, interpersonal relations, and basic quality of life issues. The content of an African education and socialization process contains many components which are modified according to the specific goals and aims of a community. It includes:

  • Study of the whole heritage of the community
  • Study of the spiritual significance of everything
  • Study of the the whole life of the community
  • Study of the whole environment and ecology
  • Study how to maintain health
  • Build an understanding of MAAT(Ubuntu/Botho) and a commitment to do MAAT(Ubuntu/Botho)
  • Building strong community values
  • Building fundamental and advanced skills
  • Building strong social bonds
  • Building a strong ethnic family identity
  • Study of geopolitical and economic forces
  • Building respect for elders(Young and The whole Community)
  • Building and maintaining effective nurturing systems for children

"Our methodology for socialization follows from the above. Bonded relationships among teachers and students are the foundation for method. Collective efforts of students, teachers, families and communities are essential. Rituals, rhythms and performances are essential. Meditation and reflection is essential. Conducting socialization in specially prepared "sacred spaces" is essential. With all of this, critical reflection is a must.

Regardless of our understanding of the diverse ways in which European systems of education typically failed African people, Africans continue to be dependent on the European approach; an approach that carries no high expectations of us. In fact, the European system is based largely on assumptions that we lack the intellectual and cultural capacity for thigh levels of achievement. Actually, Western education for the masses carries no high values and aims for anyone, European, African or others; not even excellence in basic skills.

"This is a very dangerous development of us. Miseducation continues to be a threat to our survival as a people. This particular form of miseducation strives to make us individuals, non-spiritual, materialistic, passive consumers, and even cravers of White Supremacy ideas, contents, behaviors and values. Frances Cress Welsing calls this "pro-racism," the act of taking the orientation of one's oppressor." W/E.B.Dubois calls this "double consciousness." Many other African have arrived at the same conclusions, though they may have often used different language." (Asa)

Cultural Dependency vs Intergenerational Cultural Transmission

So that, according to Asa:

"The cultural dependency of African people and many other ethnic groups is due to years of miseducation and the gradual loss of control of "intergenerational cultural transmission". Most Africans are in deep debt. Most of us purchase most of our goods and services from non-Africans. Even simple things like hair care and nail maintenance are provided for many of us by others. Worst of all, there is an absence of a community controlled 'Intergenerational Cultural Transmission' process. That void is filled by the propaganda of others. Gradually, we have lost the memory of our values, our history, and our creativity.

"Culturally dependent people will believe, internalize and utilize anything that they are socialized to believe is correct. For this reason, Africans around the globe copy European standards of beauty. In certain African countries, there is a crisis in the number of people who bleach their skin in an effort to lighten it and look more like Europeans(Koreans and other Asiatic people are affected by this syndrome, too)

"Instead of growing food or practicing the natural medical practices that were passed on to us, we are totally dependent on others. It is ironic, that those who make money on the medicine and other medical remedies today, studied and copied the practices of indigenous people around the world; the very people that they called backward. Now, instead of benefitting from the legacy of their ancestors, the descendants are dependent for medicine, food, and other things needed to survive from their conquerors and rulers/enslavers.

"Africans begun to internalize the negative views that exploiters have of us and our tradition/[Cultures and histories]. Many of us have become eager seekers o be educated in alien traditions, without criticism of them. For the past few centuries, the mass education that we receive in Africa and in the Diaspora is rooted largely in Western European education orientation and practice."

This condition has led to financial and political dependnence. We no longer create the things that we need to survive; not food, clothing, shelter, our own education, etc. Even those things that we do create such as our music, are under the control of others who have turned these 'creativities' against us. Destructive images are carried back into African Communities, where messages of uplift should be found." total confusion and ignorance reigns in countries like Mzantsi because the indigenous have not yet figured out to form a cohesive collective unit and a nation. This needs to concern Africans and the world's people of good intentions.

The Routes taken by Bartholomew Diaz and Vasco da Gama in the 15th Century A.D.
The Routes taken by Bartholomew Diaz and Vasco da Gama in the 15th Century A.D. | Source
Bartholomew Diaz
Bartholomew Diaz | Source
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama | Source
European Dress during their 'explorations'
European Dress during their 'explorations' | Source
Spanish Ships
Spanish Ships | Source
This was the extent of the Knowledge about the Wold Europe had more than 400 years ago
This was the extent of the Knowledge about the Wold Europe had more than 400 years ago | Source
Jan Van Riebeeck and his 1652 Settler landing in the Cape
Jan Van Riebeeck and his 1652 Settler landing in the Cape | Source
Portait of Jan Van Riebeeck
Portait of Jan Van Riebeeck

Is Apartheid Really Dead? Pan Africanist Working Class Cultural Critical Perspectives [Paperback] Julian Kunni

Recomposing African South African African History And Historiography

Where To Start...

When the ANC-led government took power on South Africa through Democratic elections, it was the first time that Africans of South Africa saw and elected Africans to collectively rule over all the eleven peoples of South Africa, since the arrival of the Settlers in 1490)Bartholomew Diaz), 1492(Vasco Da Gama and in 1552(Jan Van Riebeeck) and in 1880(British Settlers)-somewhere in between these dates saw the arrival of the French Huguenots in South Africa.

Bartholomew Diaz

"Discovery", Renaming and Colonization Of Africa

Bartolomeu(Bartholomew) Diaz was born in Portugal sometime around 1450. Little is known about his early life, but it is believed that he came from a long line of navigators that may have included Dinis Dias, who rounded Cape Verde in 1455, and Joao Diaz, who rounded Cape Bojador in 1437. Accounts of Bartolomeu's(Bartholomew's) earliest voyages are very few and far between, but it is known that he accompanied Diogo d'Azambuja on an expedition to the Gold Coast of Africa in 1481.

Dias was a cavalier of the royal court, superintendent of the royal warehouses and sailing-master of the man-of-war San Christovao when King John II appointed him on October 10, 1486, as the head of an expedition to sail around the southern end of Africa for the purpose of establishing a sea route to the rich trading grounds of India.

The expedition left Lisbon in late July or early August, 1487, with two armed caravels of fifty tons each and one supply ship. It sailed first towards the mouth of the Congo River, then followed the African coast southward to Walfisch(Walvis) Bay, where Diaz erected a stone column. After passing 29° south latitude he lost sight of the coast and was driven by a violent storm, which lasted thirteen days, far beyond the southernmost point of Africa. When calm returned he sailed again in an easterly direction and, when no land appeared, turned northward, finally landing at Mossel Bay (in present-day South Africa).

Following the coast he reached Algoa Bay and the Great Fish River before being forced by the crew's fears to turn around and head back to Portugal. It was during the return trip that Diaz spotted the southernmost point of Africa. Although some controversy surrounds who named that point the Cape of Good Hope, most historians generally give credit to Diaz rather than King John II, who may have named it Cape Tormentoso (Cape of Storms). The expedition returned to Lisbon in December, 1488, after an absence of sixteen months and seventeen days.

Nevertheless, the voyage of Dias was fraught with consequences, for at the time the search for a passage to the Indies was a move in the great struggle between the Moslem world and Christendom. The epoch-making voyage of Dias not only opened up the sea route to the Indies; it paved the way for contact between Europe, Africa, and the East, greatly extending the Portuguese sphere of influence. Early information about Diaz's voyage is limited because all the actual records of his voyage perished when the castle of São Jorge, in which they were housed, burnt down after the Lisbon earthquake of 1755.

However, historians have reconstructed story from chronicles written in the sixteenth century, from near-contemporary maps, and from the stone pillars or padroes which the explorers raised on headlands along the African coast during their voyages, and from old rutters (sailing instructions). The route-book of Duarte Pacheco Pereira has been particularly useful. Pereira wrote the Esmeraldo de Sito Orbis, in which he records his own adventures on the Guinea coast. He wrote from direct experience because Diaz rescued him in 1488 on his return voyage after the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope.

Diaz's squadron of three ships departed from the River Tagus below Lisbon in August 1487. The name of the flagship has not survived, but we do know that Dias’s pilot was Pero de Alenquer. The second caravel was the São Pantaleao, commanded by João Infante and piloted by Alvaro Martins. Diogo Dias, Bartolomeu’s brother, commanded the storeship, a square-rigger. Her pilot was João de Santiago, who had previously accompanied Diogo Cão up the Congo River. (See Cão, D.) They also carried with them six African hostages who had been taken to Portugal earlier, some by Diogo Cão. They were to be landed at various places on the coast to praise the greatness of the Portuguese and to explain to local chiefs that the Portuguese king wished to establish friendly relations and make contact with Prester John, the legendary Christian king of Ethiopia. The Portuguese king wished them to know that they were seeking a way to India in order to trade.

To replenish provisions before voyaging beyond the Congo, the squadron called at São Jorge de Mina, the Portuguese fortress on the Gold Coast. They touched on the barren Namibian coast in December, and on the coast of Angola, they transferred provisions and supplies from the storeship and left it at anchor with a caretaker crew of nine men. Beyond Cape Cross, they sailed close to the coast. It is thought that they reached Golfo da Conceicão (Walvis Bay) on 8 December, where it is likely that they anchored. Sailing southward along the Namaqualand coast, they named the Gulf of St Thomas (Spencer Bay) and the Angra das Voltas (Luderitz). Continuing along an inhospitable coast, they sailed into Golfo de Santo Estevão (Elizabeth Bay).

On 6 January, Diaz named a range of mountains Serra dos Reis (the northern Cedarberg). Beyond this point, tradition has it that they encountered adverse winds. Beating on for some days without sighting land, they unwittingly rounded the Cape of Good Hope in late January 1488. While coasting along the southern shores, they came to the Gourits estuary where they saw Khoikhoi tending their wide-horned cattle. They named this river, Rio dos Vacqueiros (River of the Cowherds).

Much worn by wind and weather, in early February 1488 they pressed on eastwards along the coast and, realizing they must have rounded the continent of Africa, they anchored in a broad bay to replenish their water casks. They named this bay Golfo de São Bras (Mossel Bay). Here, the local inhabitants accepted their trinkets and the sailors were able to buy by barter cattle and sheep. But the Khoikhoi later grew distrustful of the interlopers and attacked them. Snatching up a crossbow, Diaz shot one of them dead causing the people to flee in terror. The sailors immediately withdrew to their ships, and the expedition sailed on eastward as far as Bahia da Roca (Algoa Bay) where they anchored in the lee of the largest of three rocky islets crowded with sea birds and sea-lions.

On the summit, they raised a wooden cross and celebrated mass. They named the islet ilhéu da Cruz. A few days after leaving Algoa Bay, they came to a river mouth, which Dias called Rio de Infante after João Infante, the captain of the second ship. Here, his men compelled him to return them to Portugal because they were exhausted and frightened and their provisions were running out. Historians first assumed his turning point to be the mouth of the Great Fish, but it is now thought to have been the Keiskamma River at Hamburg, 50 km south-west of East London. On 12 March 1488, a little west of Bushman's River mouth, they dropped anchor at a headland, formerly called False Islet, now known as Kwaaihoek. Here, Diaz erected his farthest stone pillar, the padrão de São Gregorio and then resumed his homeward journey. Eric Axelson excavated fragments of this padrão in 1938.

Again, Diaz's caravels sailed into Algoa Bay. They anchored at Struisbaai Bay on 23 April, naming it Aguada de San Jorgy. They probably stayed here for some time renewing their supplies of fresh food. They saw Cape Agulhas on 16 May, but were unaware that this unimpressive point was the southern extremity of Africa, as all later maps indicate the Cape of Good Hope as being the tip of the continent. The caravels then sailed into Walker Bay, beyond which lies modern Hermanus.

Sailing on past a backdrop of mountain ranges, they rounded Cape Hangklip, and entering False Bay, naming it Golfo dentro das Serras (the bay between the mountains). Diaz sailed for some days in False Bay and it is very likely that he saw Table Mountain from here, as the side of the mountain is clearly seen fro this position. On 6 June, Diaz erected a second padrão somewhere on the Cape Peninsula. Legend has it, Dias called Cabo Tormentosa —Cape of Storms —, and the Portuguese king supposedly renamed it Cabo da Boa Esperanca. Professor Axelson scotches this with reference to Pacheco Pereira's statement:

It was not without good reason that this promontory received the name Cabo da Boa Esperanca because Bartolomeu Diaz, who discovered it at the command of the late King João in the year 1488, saw that the coast here turned northwards and north-eastwards towards Ethiopia-under-Egypt and on to the gulf of Arabia, which gave indication and expectation of the discovery of India, and for this reason gave it the name of Cabo da Boa Esperanca.

Moreover, a note in a book of Christopher Columbus records that Dias gave an account to King João of how he navigated `to the promontory called by him Cabo da Boa Esperanca'. (Axelson, 1972: 149). Diaz's chroniclers record that a padrão dedicated to São Filipe was placed on a prominence of the Cape of Good Hope on 6 June 1488 (Saint Philip's Day). But no trace of it has ever been found.

From the Cape of Good Hope, Diaz sailed northward. On St Christopher's Day, 34 July, he rejoined the storeship they had left behind at Luderitz Bay. Of the nine men who had remained, six had been killed in attacks by Khoikhoi hostile to their presence, and the three survivors were so weak that the purser, Fernão Colaco, apparently died with joy at the sight of the returning ships. After setting fire to the store-ship, Diaz erected his last padrão to the west of the bay that he called Golfo de São Cristovão. By the 1820s, the limestone pillar had been overthrown.

Professor Axelson identified the original site on the foghorn knoll in 1953 and he recovered many fragments of the padrão at the foot of the hill and in the adjacent channel and shallows. Diaz probably put in at the mouth of the Congo. He certainly anchored at Principe Island in the Gulf of Guinea, where he rescued Pacheco Pereira and the survivors of an expedition, which had been sent to explore the waterways entering the Bight of Biafra. These explorers had fallen ill with fever and had lost their vessel after a fruitless search for a navigable route to the land of Prester John[Who professor Hendrik Clarke, the Doyen Guru and Master Teacher of African History disputes that Prester John never really existed-he sees it as ruse to colonize Africa by these early thugs and seafarers].

Diaz dropped anchor at the river Tagus in December 1488 after a voyage of sixteen months and seventeen days, and having discovered 350 leagues of coastline unknown to Europeans. According to Christopher Columbus, who said he was present at the time, Dias sketched and wrote in a chart for the king, league by league, the voyage he had just completed. This chart has since vanished.

In the same decade that Diaz had reached the Cape of Good Hope, Christopher Columbus had sailed across the Atlantic, also looking for a sea route to the Indies. To settle conflicts between Spain and Portugal arising out of Columbus's first voyage, Pope Alexander VI drew up the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 to demarcate the boundaries of the spheres of influence of the Spanish and Portuguese kings[According to Prof. Clarke, the Pope decreed and gave these sailors the right to enslave Africans, and that they should stop feuding amongst themselves-the chronicles on the Slave Trade have a lot to say about this fact nd issue]..

Nine years were to elapse before the next Portuguese fleet under Vasco da Gama sailed around Africa in search of India. During that time, João II died (1495) and was succeeded by his cousin and brother-in-law, Manuel, who took a keen interest in exploration. Dias accompanied Da Gama's fleet as far as the Cape Verde islands where he left it to command the fort at Mina. Dias gained experience in trading at Mina and brought back with him a cargo of gold and slaves, which were sold to provide finances for further expeditions.

When Da Gama returned to Portugal in 1499 with news about the extent of Muslim gold trading on the east African coast, King Manuel became determined to send a strong armada to take advantage of these discoveries. The fleet, under the command of Admiral Pedro Alvares Cabral, included a squadron of four caravels under Dias, who had been selected to found a fortress-factory at the gold-exporting port of Sofala on the east coast. On 9 March 1500, the armada set out on the Atlantic and turned south-westward to take advantage of the south-east trade winds.

Cabral may well have been secretly instructed to explore the western area allotted to Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. Sailing westward, the fleet came upon the bulge of South America. Dias thus became an active participant in the first discovery of Brazil. In order to test the mood of the local inhabitants Dias was ordered to land a longboat at an anchorage they named Porto Seguro (the present Baia Cabralia). As the natives proved friendly and attractive, the Portuguese went ashore and danced and made merry with them, visited their village, and afterwards celebrated mass on the beach.

Cabral and his fleet sailed from Brazil on 2 May 1500. On 24 May, while re-crossing the South Atlantic, a cyclone suddenly overwhelmed the fleet. Four ships were swallowed up, including the caravel of Bartolomeu Dias.

Cabral secures the sea route to India for Portugal. Cabral eventually found himself off Sofala with only six battered ships, all stripped of sail. Realizing it was now impossible to establish a fortress at Sofala, he pressed on to Cochin and other ports where he traded for spices and formed alliances with the local rajas, finally securing the Portuguese sea route to India that Diaz had done so much to establish.

Despite his success at sailing around the southern tip of Africa, Diaz was not given credit within Portugal for locating and mapping the Cape of Good Hope -- probably because he had failed to reach India. Nevertheless, in 1494 he was appointed to oversee the construction and outfitting of a fleet of ships for an expedition to reach India by way of the Cape of Good Hope. This expedition, led by Vasco da Gama, left Portugal in 1497; Diaz accompanied the voyage, but in a subordinate position and only as far as the Cape Verde Islands. Upon reaching the islands he was sent to establish trading posts in present-day Mozambique.

In 1500, Diaz was given command of a caravel in Pedro Ãlvares Cabral's expedition to civilize, Christianize, and trade with India. Due to a miscalculation in longitude the expedition sailed so far to the southwest that it saw land and forests never seen before. The trees were bright red, like glowing embers, hence the name given to the new territory -- Brazil. The grand discovery came at a price, however. On May 29, the expedition was overtaken by a sudden storm that overwhelmed four vessels, one of which was that of Dias.

Vasco Da Gama

Explorer Vasco da Gama was born in Sines, Portugal, around 1460. In 1497, he was commissioned by the Portuguese king to find a maritime route to the East. His success in doing so proved to be one of the more instrumental moments in the history of navigation. He subsequently made two other voyages to India, and was appointed as Portuguese viceroy in India in 1524.

Explorer Vasco da Gama was born into a noble family around 1460 in Sines, Portugal. Little is known about his upbringing except that he was the third son of Estêvão da Gama, who was commander of the fortress in Sines in the southwestern pocket of Portugal. When he was old enough, young Vasco da Gama joined the navy, where was taught how to navigate.

Known as a tough and fearless navigator, da Gama solidified his reputation as a reputable sailor when, in 1492, King John II of Portugal dispatched him to the south of Lisbon and then to the Algarve region of the country, to seize French ships as an act of vengeance against the French government for disrupting Portuguese shipping.

Following da Gama's completion of King John II's orders, in 1495, King Manuel took the throne, and the country revived its earlier mission to find a direct trade route to India. By this time, Portugal had established itself as one of the most powerful maritime countries in Europe.

Much of that was due to Henry the Navigator, who, at his base in the southern region of the country, had brought together a team of knowledgeable mapmakers, geographers and navigators. He dispatched ships to explore the western coast of Africa to expand Portugal's trade influence. He also believed that he could find and form an alliance with Prester John, who ruled over a Christian empire somewhere in Africa. Henry the Navigator never did locate Prester John, but his impact on Portuguese trade along Africa's east coast during his 40 years of explorative work was undeniable. Still, for all his work, the southern portion of Africa—what lay east—remained shrouded in mystery.

In 1487, an important breakthrough was made when Bartholomew Diaz discovered the southern tip of Africa and rounded the Cape of Good Hope. This journey was significant; it proved, for the first time, that the Atlantic and Indian oceans were connected. The trip, in turn, sparked a renewed interest in seeking out a trade route to India.

By the late 1490s, however, King Manuel wasn't just thinking about commercial opportunities as he set his sights on the East. In fact, his impetus for finding a route was driven less by a desire to secure for more lucrative trading grounds for his country, and more by a quest to conquer Islam and establish himself as the king of Jerusalem.

Jan Van Riebeck

On 24 December 1651, accompanied by his wife and son, Jan van Riebeeck set off from Texel in The Netherlands for the Cape of Good Hope. Van Riebeeck had signed a contract with the Dutch East India Company (VOC) to oversee the setting up of a refreshment station to supply Dutch ships on their way to the East. Sailing on theDromedaris with two other ships, the Rejiger and De Goede Hoop, Van Riebeeck was accompanied by 82 men and 8 women.

When Van Riebeeck left The Netherlands in 1651, the Council of Policy, a bureaucratic governing structure for the refreshment station, had already been established. On board the Dromedaris Van Riebeeck conducted meetings with his officials – minutes of the meetings of the Council of Policy, dated from December 1651, have been carefully archived.

Land was sighted on 5 April 1652 and the ships docked the next day. Within a week of the arrival of the three ships, work had begun on the Fort of Good Hope. The aim was to establish a refreshment station to supply the crew of the Company's passing trading ships with fresh water, vegetables and fruit, meat and medical assistance. However, the first winter experienced by Van Riebeeck and his crew was extremely harsh, as they lived in wooden huts and their gardens were washed away by the heavy rains. As a result their food dwindled and at the end of the winter approximately 19 men had died.

The arrival of Van Riebeeck marked the beginning of permanent European settlement in the region. Along with the Council of Policy, Van Riebeeck came equipped with a document called the ‘Remonstrantie’, drawn up in the Netherlands in 1649, which was a recommendation on the suitability of the Cape for this VOC project.

Van Riebeeck was under strict instructions not to colonise the region but to build a fort and to erect a flagpole for signaling to ships and boats to escort them into the bay. However, a few months after their arrival in the Cape, the Dutch Republic and England became engaged in a naval war (10 July 1652 to 5 April 1654). This meant that the completion of the fort became urgent. Fort de Goede Hoop – a fort with four corners made of mud, clay and timber – was built in the middle of what is today Adderley Street. Around this a garden was planted and meat was bartered for with the Khoikhoi (who were initially called Goringhaikwa, and later Kaapmans). The construction for Castle of Good Hope which stands today only began in 1666, after Van Riebeeck had left the Cape, and was completed 13 years later.

Although the VOC did not originally intend to establish a colony at the Cape, permits were issued in February 1657 to free nine company servants (who became the Free Burghers) to farm along the Liesbeeck River in order to deal with a wheat shortage. They were given as much land as they could cultivate in three years but were forbidden to trade with anyone other than the VOC. With the number of private farms increasing, by 1659 the station was producing enough to supply any passing ship. The station also began to experience a chronic labour shortage and because the Khoisan were seen as ‘uncooperative’, slaves were imported from Batavia (now northern Jakarta) and Madagascar in 1657.

The land on which the Dutch farmed was used by the Khoikhoi and the San, who lived a semi-nomadic culture which included hunting and gathering. Since they did not have a written culture, they had neither written title deeds for their land, nor did they have the bureaucratic framework within which to negotiate the sale or renting of land with strangers from a culture using written records supported by a bureaucratic system of governance. Hence Van Riebeeck, coming as he did from a bureaucratic culture with a unilateral, albeit written, mandate to establish a refreshment station, refused to acknowledge that land ownership could be organised in ways different from the Dutch/European way. He denied the Khoisan rights and title to the land, claiming that there was no written evidence of the true ownership of the land. Consequently in 1659 the Khoikhoi embarked on the first of a series of unsuccessful armed uprisings against the Dutch invasion and appropriation of their land – their resistance would continue for at least 150 years.

In response to the growing skirmishes with the local population, in 1660 Van Riebeeck planted a wild almond hedge to protect his settlement. By the end of the same year, under pressure from the Free Burghers, Van Riebeeck sent the first of many search parties to explore the hinterland. Van Riebeeck remained leader of the Cape until 1662. By the time he left the settlement in May 1662 it had grown to 134 officials, 35 Free Burghers, 15 women, 22 children and 180 slaves.

The people who came to the Cape of Good Hope under Commander Van Riebeeck were very simple folk, common soldiers and sailors who cared more about comfort than fashion. Their clothes were necessarily as simple as their persons. For the first few months after their arrival they lived a camping life, and their European-made clothing probably became soiled and bedraggled, eventually to be replaced by crude home-made garments cut from rolls of imported cloth until the Burghers became settled and until tradesmen were allowed to ply their trades.

Men would probably dress in crude leather buff-coats with a plain cotton or linen shirt beneath and tubular or knee breeches; and women in simple full-skirted gowns tucked up over short petticoats. But the patterns for even these home-made clothes would have been based on the modes fashionable at the time of the departure from Holland.

These notes and illustrations do not attempt to reconstruct the makeshift clothing of the pioneering period of the first years at the Cape but to give some idea of the clothing worn by merchants, soldiers, sailors and simple people in Holland and in the service of the Dutch East India Company at that time, such as might have been at the Cape with Jan van Riebeeck.

The dominant influence of the 16th century was powerful Spain; during the first two decades of the 17th century Spanish fashions prevailed abroad; in the third they began to make way for other modes, yet certain articles of Spanish costume were retained, not for decades but for centuries.

By Van Riebeeck's time Holland was at her zenith of political power and enjoying immense wealth, and this may account for the change of influence in fashion. Holland now took the reins and from then until the end of the century dictated what was to be worn. Holland demanded increasing simplicity in dress and exerted similar influence on colour, for black rapidly became the fashionable wear.

The day of Jan Van Riebeeck’s arrival became a public holiday with the 300th anniversary in 1952 and was celebrated as Van Riebeeck’s Day until 1974. During the tercentenary celebration on 6 April 1952, the Joint Planning Council (made up of members from the ANC, SAIC, SACP and COD) held mass meetings and demonstrations throughout the country as part of the lead up to the Defiance Campaign. The ANC and TIC issued a flyer entitled ‘April 6: People Protest Day’.

In 1980 the public holiday was changed to Founder’s Day. The holiday was abolished in 1994 by the democratically elected ANC government. However, statues of Jan van Riebeeck and his wife remain in Adderley Street, Cape Town. The coat of arms of the city of Cape Town is also based on that of the Van Riebeeck family, and Hoërskool Jan van Riebeeck is a popular Afrikaans high school in the centre of Cape Town.

The Nguni/Bakone Of Mzantsi

The Bushman/San of South Africa
The Bushman/San of South Africa | Source
Zulu Youth
Zulu Youth | Source
Indigenous Xhosa Girls dancing and waring their Traditional garb
Indigenous Xhosa Girls dancing and waring their Traditional garb | Source
Basotho people wearing their traditional Blanket and sats
Basotho people wearing their traditional Blanket and sats | Source
Bapedi Women in their Traditional Cultural Dress
Bapedi Women in their Traditional Cultural Dress | Source
Shangaan Folks dancing their traditional/customary and dressed in their traditional cultural clothes
Shangaan Folks dancing their traditional/customary and dressed in their traditional cultural clothes | Source
Pretty-healthy-looking and beautiful Venda women
Pretty-healthy-looking and beautiful Venda women | Source
Ndebele Men in Dance from and in their traditional dress
Ndebele Men in Dance from and in their traditional dress | Source
Ndebele Women in Traditional dress
Ndebele Women in Traditional dress | Source
Batswana Boys and girls, dressed in their traditional clothing performing their customary/traditional dance
Batswana Boys and girls, dressed in their traditional clothing performing their customary/traditional dance
Shangaan Women Proudly showing their traditional dress(see their dance video above)
Shangaan Women Proudly showing their traditional dress(see their dance video above) | Source
Swazi Men and Women in their Traditional dress and performing their traditional dance
Swazi Men and Women in their Traditional dress and performing their traditional dance | Source
The Xhosa Branch Mfengu men displaying their full traditional garb
The Xhosa Branch Mfengu men displaying their full traditional garb | Source
South African "Colored" people's Culture - The Cape Minstrels
South African "Colored" people's Culture - The Cape Minstrels | Source
Zulu Women and Traditional
Zulu Women and Traditional

South Africa's Early Homnid

Taung Child: a partial skull and brain endocast discovered in 1924 in Taung, South Africa. This 2.3 million-year-old skull of a young child is the ‘type specimen’ or official representative of this species. It was the first fossil of a human ancestor
Taung Child: a partial skull and brain endocast discovered in 1924 in Taung, South Africa. This 2.3 million-year-old skull of a young child is the ‘type specimen’ or official representative of this species. It was the first fossil of a human ancestor | Source

The Human Fossil Record, Craniodental Morphology of Genus Homo (Africa and Asia) (Volume 2) [Hardcover] Jeffrey H. Schwartz

Miseducation and Socialization: Original African History of Mzantsi

It is very important to note that Politicians, those in South Africa and the United Nations are not historians nor Archeologists, nor are they Palentologists. Some of their motives are politically motivated, but in reality they are ahistorical. It is true that the Khoi and and San are the "among" the 'original inhabitants' of South Africa. It is also true that Africans in South Africa are also the original people of South Africa, too. That the Africans in South Africa are not the original people of South Africa was a myth perpetuated by the past Apartheid intellectuals trying to demonstrate that the settlers came at the same time as the indigenous Africans in South Africa, which has not been backed-up by historical facts.

There were many different species of Austraopethicus genus. The first adult specimen of an Australopethicus was discovered in 1936 at Sterkfontein by paleontologist and director of the Transvaal museum, Dr. Broom. There are other Austrolopithecines discovered at Sterkforntein Caves and at Makapans Valley, about 300 km(480 miles) from Sterkfontein, near Mokopane in Limpopo Province. The Australopithecus found in Sterkfontein is one of the oldest australopithecines ever found, dating to between 4.1-million and 3.3 millions old, according to the paleomagnetic evidence and cosmogenic isotope dating. Other hominid remains dating to a similar time have also been recovered from the Jacovec Cavern at Sterkfontein.

Then there is the case of the Taung Child. Dr. Raymond Dart, an Australian by birth who studied in England became the Head of the University of Witwatersrand University's Department of Anatomy, received tow large wooden boxes at his door sent to him by his Geologist colleague, from the Bruxton Limeworks in the small town of Taung, about 150 km (95 miles) from Kimberley, now known as Northwest Province of South Africa, and which now forms a part of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage site.

In the second box, he was amazed to see the fossilized cast of a tiny brain on top of the pile. It belonged to the Taung Child, and was one of the most remarkable scientific discoveries ever made. The Taung skull was small enough to gift in the palm of a hand, and it was that of a three or four-year old child and smaller than a modern human of the same age. It had small canine teeth, and the position of the foramen magnum, where the spine joins the base of the skull, showed it walked upright - two distinct differences from true apes.

Not many people believed Dr. Dart until the 1940s and 1950s, until hominid fossils from the Cradle of Humankind in South Africa started to swing the balance of probability that humankind had, in fact, originated in Africa. Dart made a giant intellectual leap and concluded that it was neither ape nor human, but a missing link in the old-time Chain of Being. He named it Austraipithecus Africanus (Southern Ape of Africa). He noted that it was an ape which had undergone some crucial evolutionary changes in a human direction. Knocking on the door of humanity, it had not crossed the threshold.

Another one was Mrs. Ples was born over 2 million years ago and was a female skull found by Dr. Broom and John Robinson, and the skull was encased in breccial in the Sterkfontein Caves. Their find helped to highlight the view that humankind originated in Africa- something which most scientists were sceptical of at that time. The Star Newspaper of Johannesburg gave Mrs. Ples her name, after Broom stated the skull was female of a species called Plesianthropus transvaalensis "near human from the Transvaal", although she was later identified as belonging to the same species as the Taung Child, Austrlipitehicus africanus.

Lastly, there was "Little Foot" a fossilized skeleton of an early form of Austrolopithecus, which was between 4.1-million and 3.3-million years old, making it the oldest known hominid from the Cradle of Humanity. The finding of the "Little Foot" deep inside the Sterkfontein cavern, was one of the most remarkable discoveries ever made in the field of Paleontology. (See update at the end of the Hub on this finding of this remarkable skeletal find).

This may seem like a a long winded and scholastic answer as to whether I believe that the Khoi and the San are the "original" people of South Africa. Yes, they are part of the original people of South Africa and not "the" only original peoples of South Africa'. When the continents were as one, in the early development of the earth(as already discussed above), and Plate Techtonics shifted them from their original cluster, known as Gondwanaland, we now know and can study the gradual movements of the Plate Techtonics, and all continents and that everything was centered in where there is South Africa today. I have already addressed this part above in this Hub.

By saying that I will follow a timeline of the development of African Historical Consciousness, I know for a fact that the type of information I have provided in my article, is one way Africans can claim and embrace this whole narrative as related and relevant to them. If people. like Mr. Chris Nissen from the ANC decide to agree with the UN, this does not necessarily make them authorities of the evolution of the peoples of the continent of Africa, and more specifically, the people of South Africa. Both the UN and Nissen are incorrect and have a very narrow perspective about the History of the Africans of South Africa, and how they evolved to what we see them as today.

Yes, they are totally incorrect and they need to do more serious research, not what they get from TV, or some articles which purport to delineate a history of a people they have not really bothered to understand, research on and read up on from serious authorities on the subject of the "originality" of people in their present homestead, nor know anything about their history. I could go on and on on this issue, and in fact, I am onto this Hub for my discourse and trying to clarify the subject. By the time anyone reads up to this far, they should be aware that the Hub above is the one I have been meaning to write in order to begin to address the origin of Africans of South Africa and their role in contributing towards the History of Man and the present-day so-called modern civilization

Mummification Of A Culture

For this part of the Hub, in order to tie-in concretely, African History and culture with and for the people of Mzantsi, I will again defer to Asa's analysis:

"The lasting challenge that we face is the absence of information and understanding of African culture. This has been by design. The enforcers of an oppressive system work to create cultural disorder among the oppressed. In particular, they suppress the value of other [history] cultures while glorifying and fabricating the history of themselves. They understand that the resulting disorder will make it impossible for the oppressed to be truly independnet. Fanon made some interesting observations along these lines:

"The unilaterally decreed normative value of certain cultures deserves our careful attention. .... The enterprise of deculturation turns out to be the negative of a more gigantic work of economic, and even biological enslavement... The doctrine of cultural hierarchy is thus but one aspect of a systematized hierarchization implacably pursued.

...For its systems of reference have to be Broken. Expropriation spoliation, raids, objective murder, are matched by the sacking of cultural patterns, or at least condition such sacking. The social panorama is destructed; values are flaunted, crushed, emptied.

"...The lines of race, having crumbled, no longer give direction. In their stead, a new system of values is imposed, not proposed but affirmed, by the heavy weight of cannons and sabers.

"The culture, once living and open to the future, becomes closed, fixed in the colonial status, caught in the yoke of oppression. Both present and mummified, it testifies against its members. It defines them in fact without appeal.

"The cultural mummification leads to a mummification of individual thinking. The apathy so universally noted among colonial peoples is but a logical consequence of this operation. Their approach of inertia constantly directed at the natives is utterly dishonest. As though it were possible for a man to evolve otherwise than within the framework of a culture that recognizes him and the he decides to assume.

"...Thus, we witness the setting up of archaic, inert institution. Functioning under the oppressor's supervision and patterned like a caricature of formerly fertile institutions."

To this, that is, what Fanon is saying above, Asa adds:

"Fanon continues to outline the manner in which French officials maneuvered to control the Algerian people by creating internal conflict among the Algerian people by creating internal conflict concerning the cultural requirement that the women wear the veil. While there may have been real issues related to female oppression in Algerian culture, the French were not genuinely concerned with it. Their goal was to divide and conquer the people so that they could control them all - male and female." To this, Fanon writes:

"...the French administration in Algeria committed to destroying the people's originality, and under instructions to bring about the disintegration, at whatever cost, of forms of existence likely to evoke a national reality directly or indirectly, were to concentrate tier efforts on the wearing of the veil, which was looked upon at this juncture as a symbol of the status of the Algerian woman. Such a position is not the consequence of a chance intuition.

"It is on the basis of the analyses of sociologists and ethnologists that the specialists in so-called 'native affairs' and heads of the Arab Bureaus coordinated their work. At the initial stage, there was a pure and simple adoption of the well-known formula, 'Let's win over the women and the rest will follow'(Fanon).

It is very important to pay attention and take notice on issues jut discussed above and what they mean to the man in the street. Oppression mould and forms its victims to its dictates-this is mainly for economical, psychological and social domination of the intended target. These attempts to control a whole people have had and are still having negative effects on the victims, up to this day, that need to be studied and understood in order to be overcome.


Conjoint Botho/Ubuntu
Conjoint Botho/Ubuntu | Source

The Souls of Black Folk (Dover Thrift Editions) [Paperback] W. E. B. Du Bois

Botho/Ubuntu; Setso/Isintu (Being Human - African Cultural Ways Of Being And Seeing)

Undesired Ethnic Segregation

When the disgruntled Boer Settlers departed from the Cape and went into the Eastern Cape, the first encountered the Africans, west of the Gumtoos River, at the beginning of the 18th century. This was followed by a series of what I choose and will call it African Wars"(which is negatively dubbed "Kaffirs Wars"(Akin to Nigger Wars), thus my reason to begin calling them "African Wars" , which the Xhosa's lost and were pushed further and further back, until by 1857, the territory west of the Fish River was entirely in the hands of the Europeans, and the land between the Fish and the Kei Rivers was a patchwork of European Farms, and what emerged as African Locations(Townships. British control as extended over the territory still occupied by Africans, until in 1894, Pondoland, the last block of territory in the Cape to remain independent, was annexed.

We further note that East of the Fish River, missionaries and traders were ahead of settlers and government agents. In 1816, a London Missionary Society agent built the first mission station in "African Land"; other societies followed hard on his heels, and in spite of the continually recurring wars, the number of stations grew. By 1830 the chain of stations stretched as far as Buntingville in Western Pondoland.

In spite of government prohibitions, settlers had from first traded with Africans, and shortly after 1830, when 'persons of assured good character' were permitted to trade freely in the African territories, there were trading stations all throughout the Easter Cape(Then referred to as "Kafraria"), up to the Umthata River. Long before Pondoland was annexed, traders were buying hides and skins,ivory, horn, cattle and selling blankets, hoes, and axes, besides doing an illicit trade in guns. Trade developed until the modern network of stores, each seldom more than five miles distant from its neighbors, was spread all over the African people's territories. (S. Kay, 1833).

From the first the settlers required labor for their farms. The Dutch East India Company had, in the early days, imported Malay Slaves; but even before 1836, when slavery was abolished, the cattle farers on the 'eastern frontier' had worked chiefly with KhoiSan servants(referred to as Hottentot). Their prjudice against "those incorrigible thieves, the "Kaffirs(meaning and referring derisively to the African indigene), made them unwilling to employ them as servants, but the labor shortage was acute, and Ordinance 49 - 1828 proved provided for issues of passes for the admission of "Kaffirs'-akin to "Nigger"(Indigenous Africans) desirous of entering the service of farmers into the colony.

During 1856-7, the Xhosa are purported to have killed their cattle and planted no grain, believing that by so doing they would cause their ancestors to rise, and Europeans would be swept into the sea. During the famine that followed, they poured into the Colony, prepared to work in return for food. Some people have said that this story is not being told truthful, and many, even today, believe that the Boers are the ones that tricked Nonqauze to tell the fib and untrue story to her people, having disguised themselves by smearing themselves with White Ochre, or something like that, that this was one form of Warfare that was conducted against the Xhosas and the"African Wars that were troubling the Boers.

Be that as it may, many of those who came after the cattle killing never returned to their former homes, parts of the territory they had occupied were given to Europeans or the the Fingos(refugees of Zulus who fled from Chaka in Natal, and were received by the Xhosa people), and these Fingos were the nucleus of the class of farm servants who had no stake in the rural areas then called "African Reserves", and has remained for several generations on farms in the Eastern Cape Province. As the town and trade grew, unskilled labor was needed. Already in 1850, arians were being employed to unload ships at East London, and by 1875, the African urban population was 858. Some Fingo were settled near Grahamstown and they supplied service for the town.(Census Report, 1875)

The discovery of diamonds in Kimberley in 1870 and of gold on the Rand fifteen years later, , ernomously increased the demand for cheap labor, and in spite of the introduction of Poll tax in British Kaffraria(the land between the Kei river and Keiskama River), by Grey in 1857, and later by Rhodes in the Glen Gray district (where those who worked for than three months of the year for Europeans were exempt), there was a continual shortage of labor.

The Transvaal Labor Commission for 1903

I have written about the the sailors of the shipwrecked Stavenisse off the coast of Natal, in another Hub, whose story is told by George McCall Theal as follows:

"In the records of the Cape Colony, there is a graphic account of the adventures of the crew of a Dutch vessel named the Stavenisse, which was wrecked at the entrance of the Bay of Natal if February, 1686. It was wrecked written for the use of the directors of the Netherlands' East India Company, and contains a good deal of interesting information concerning the country and its inhabitants. Near at hand , and English vessel had been lost a few months previously, and still another was driven ashore a few months later.

"All the wrecked seamen were received with kindness by the (Natives) Africans; they were supplied with food, and what property they could save was respected. By the unified efforts of the Dutch and English, assisted to some extend by the Africans[of [Mzantsi], a vessel fifty feet long was constructed, partly from the wreck of the the Stavenisse and partly from the timber found growing there. In this little craft, the captain, three oficers, and seven seamen of the Stavenisse, with nine English sailors, set sail for Cape Town, taking with them abundance of provisions and three tons of ivory obtained in exchange for some beads and copper saved from one of the the wrecks. They made the passage form Natal to Cape Town in Twelve days.

"An English vessel which had opportunely called before thy sailed, took some others away and they left at Natal forty-seven of the crew of the Stavenisse, one Frenchman, and four Englishmen. Upon their arrival in Table Bay, the Cape government purchased their tiny vessel, fitted her out, and dispatched her to make discoveries along the coast and rescue the remaining sea men.

"In the meantime, most of those unfortunate people had attempted to make their way overland to Cape Town. Some perished on the journey and, nearly twelve months after their departure, nineteen of them were picked up on the African coast of the Cape by the little vessel they had assisted to build in Natal. They had by this time been living two years among the African peoples, whom they described as friendly, hospitable, obliging, intelligent and ingenious, with laws and customs the same as those of the present-day African South Africans. Of the countries in which they had resided and through which they had travelled, they spoke in high terms of praise."

Another account about the Africans before the coming of the Dutch, or before they collided with the British/Boer belligerent culture, the Ship, Noord, arrived in Natal on the 4th of January, 1689, and entered the bay, there being at the time a considerable depth of water on the bar. In the evening of the same day the commander accompanied two of the sailors of the Stavenisse, who had gone on board, to their residence, where they had been living in plenty since the loss of their vessel, and were then in possession of several head of cattle. The commander was conducted to a neighboring kraal(village), where he was feasted on milk and fresh millet, and found the people civil and kind- ... During the nineteen days that the Noord remained in the Bay of Natal, the utmost harmony was maintained between the African people and Europeans."

"These seamen were not the only Europeans who had been kindly teated by the Africans of South Africa, for they found an aged Portuguese in the country, who had been wrecked on the coast forty years ago before, on his homeward voyage from India. The man had forgotten the language of his youth, and even his God; he had adopted the African customs, and had a wife and cattle in plenty"

What has the history of Africans in South Africa have to do with what I am writing about Prof. Clarke, one may ask. Well, One of the things that Clarke did was his encouragement to Africans to begin to read and write their history. In their writings, Wilson et al, Stavenisse is that "in 1688, survivors from the Stavenissewreck on the Transkei coast and those who were shipwrecked around the 1500s described a population and a way of life of Xhosa-speaking people has been like that for many centuries, which demonstrated that the Xhosas who had been living there for some antiquated centuries/millennium before they came into contact with them in from the 1500s to the 1600s and beyond; that these were the ancestors of the present occupants of Xhosa People they met and those that presently lived there for eons to date.' (M. Wison and L. Thompson(eds). They had Ubuntu/Botho even for foreigners

The detailed accounts given by these survivors suggest that change in the way of life of the Xhosa-speaking people was very slow for very many centuries(Credo Mutwa gave the earliest account of this in his book "Indaba My Children," 1966).What the shipwrecked men described was not very different from the domestic life from antiquity to today, despite the fact that the people had by now lost their political independence and economic self-sufficiency.

One other point that I will like to make and revise is the fact that Around the 5th century A.D. there was iron smelting in the Transvaal(South Africa) and there was also the stock-keeping iron workers at Ntshekane, South of the Drakensberg Mountains in what is now Natal in the ninth century. There was also pottery found along the coast as far west as the Chalumna river indicate early iron-age settlement, typical of the Pondo and distinct from that at Ntshekane, and was dated back to around the eleventh century.

These historical factoids are conveniently left out by the Dutch Historians is that the African people of South Africa were living in the places and regions they found them in, for eons before 1652, and that it is not true that the Africans came to South Africa around the time the Dutch landed in the Cape in 1652; also,they had fully function societies and families with culture, customs, traditions, languages, practices, rites that they adhered to throughout time form the remote antiquity(This will be briefly touched upon below-showing how they were destroyed and colonized)

Boer Policy

South Africa in the 1880s cited by David LivingsoneThe Roots Of Apartheid
There is no need to introduce David Livingstone except, in this context, to situate these extracts from his Missionary Travels and Researches. In this particular case in his travels in Botswana and Zimbabwe, we look specifically at his sojourn in Mzantsi."The word Boer simply means "farmer"[and in the minds of the Africans it means a foreign "trekker'], and is not synonymous with our word 'boor'. Indeed to the Boers generally, the term would be quite inappropriate for they are sober, industrious, and most hospitable of peasantry[So, in essence, what Livingstone was saying is that the Dutch Settlers(Boers) were a a mere peasantry].

Those, however, who have fled from English Law on various pretexts, and have been joined by English deserters and every variety of bad character in the distant localities, are unfortunately of a very different stamp. The great objection many of theBoers had, and still have, to English Law is that it makes no distinction between Africans men and White men."They felt aggrieved by their supposed losses in the emancipation of their Hottentot slaves, and determine to erect themselves into a Republic, in which they might pursue without molestation the "proper treatment of the Blacks(Africans)." It is almost needless to add that the "proper treatment" has always contained in it the essential element of 'slavery', namely, compulsory unpaid labor.

One section of this body, under the late Mr. Hendrick Potgieter, penetrated the Interior as far as the Cashna mountains, whence a Zulu African chief, named Mzilikazi, had been expelled by a well-known African King, Dingaan(in this case, it is only correct to state that Mzilikazi, after having been sent on his military forays by Chaka, decided not to return the spoils, but headed north with his group and ended up forming the clan(nation) of Matebele in Zimbabwe); and they got a glad welcome given them by The Batswana Nation, who had just escaped the hard sway of that cruel king. [these Boers] came with the prestige of White men and deliverers; and the Batswana were saying "that Mzilikazi was cruel to his enemies, and kind to those he conquered; but the Boers destroyed their enemies, and made slaves of their friends."

"The Clans who still retain the semblance of independence are forced to perform all the labor of the fields, such as manuring the land, weeding,, reaping, building, making dams and canals, and at the same time, to support themselves.I have been an eyewitness of Boers coming to a village, and according to their usual custom, demanding twenty or thirty women to weed their gardens, and have seen these women proceed to the scene of unrequited toil, carrying their own food on their heads, their children on their backs, and instruments of labor on their shoulders. Nor have the Boers any wish to conceal the meanness of thus employing unpaid labor;"Mr Gert Kreiger, and the commandants, downwards, lauded his own humanity and justice in making such an equitable regulation. "We make people work for us, in consideration of allowing them to live in our country

Livingstone continues to inform us that:

"The Boers, four hundred in number, were sent by the late Mr. Pretorius to attack the Bakwenas in 1852. Boasting that the English had given up all the Africans into their power, and had agreed to aid them in their subjugation by preventing all supplies of ammunition from coming into the Batswana country, they assaulted the Bakwenas, and, besides killing a considerable number of adults, carried off two hundred of our school children into slavery.

The Africans under Sechele defended themselves till the approach of night enabled them to flee to the mountains; and having in that defense killed a number of the enemy, the very first ever slain in this country by the Batswanas, I received the credit of having taught the Africans to kill the Boers!(Livingstone does not mean, of course, that he did the killing himself.)

"My house, which had stood perfectly secure for years under the protection of the Africans, was plundered in revenge. English gentlemen, who had come in the footsteps of Mr. Cumming to hunt in the country beyond, and had deposited large quantities of stores in the same keeping, and upwards of eighty head of cattle as relays for the return journeys, were robbed of all; and when they came back to Kolobeng, found the skeletons of the guardians strewn all over the place.

"The books of a good library-my solace in our solitude-were not taken away, but handfuls of the leaves were torn out and scattered over the place. My stock medicine was smashed; all our furniture and clothing carried off and sold at public auction to pay the expenses of the foray.

Apartheid, in its formative years and years of rule was illogical and irrational beyond belief. Plaatje states with a sarcastic and incredulous tones: "If we exclude the arid tracts of Botswana, these locations appear to have been granted on such a small scale that each of them got so overcrowded that much of the population had to go out and settle on the farms of White farmers through lack of space in the locations. Yet the majority of the legislators, although well aware of all these limitations, and without remedying any of them, legislate, shall we we say, "with its tongue in cheek" that only Natives may buy land in Native Locations."Again, the Locations form but one-eighteenth of the total area of the Union.

Theoretically, then, the 4.5 million Africans may 'buy' land in only one-eighteenth of the Union, leaving the remaining seventeen parts for the one million Whites. so that, without going into the deep-end of the historical progression of the taking of the land from Africans, I will duly note here that Plaatjie stated that "the Union government gazetted another Bill in January 1911, to amend an anomaly under which the African can neither purchase nor lease land, and native landowners in the Free" State(which was neither free by any stretch of the imagination), could only sell their land to the White people.The gazetted Bill proposed to legalize only in one district of the Orange "Free" State the sale of landed property by an African to another African, as well as to a white man, but it did not propose to enable Africans to buy land from White people.

Needless to say that some White people were disenchanted with such moves and what they considered to be concessions. In trying to appease the grumbling and dissatisfied Boer peasantry, Burton was replaced by Hertzog as the minister of of "Native Affairs" because the Boer/Dutch Backveld peasant polity was unhappy with the notion of Anglicizing the whole whole country-thus the shuffle of the ministry and the Hertzog put at the Head of "Native Affairs".According to Plaatjie, any visitor to South Africa would be taken aback at the seemingly cordial and great understanding between the the Boers and the Africans, that one would be hard pressed to impress them that racial division are as big as the yawning spaces. Then Plaatjie adds,

Thus, let the new arrival go to one of the farms in Bethlehem and Harrismith Districts fro example. and see how willingly the Africans toil in the fields; see him gathering in his crops and handing over the White man's share of the crop to the owner of the land; watch the farmer receiving his tribute from the African tenants, and watch him deliver the first prize to the African tenants who raise the largest crop during that season; let him also see both the Africans and the land-owning White farmers following to perfection the give-and-take policy of "live and let live", and he will conclude that it would be gross sacrilege to attempt to disturb such harmonious relations between these people of different races and colors. But with a ruthless hand, the Natives' Land Act has succeeded in remorselessly destroying those happy relations.

We need to now go much deeper into the Apartheid itself and its intircacies. This important for us to begin to understand the present dysfunctional decrepit existential reality of Africans of Mzantsi today[A look Will given to present-day Drug scourge in south Africa, below). I have partly given the history and evolution of the Boers for one cannot talk about the history of Africans of Mzantsi and ignore the Boer/British history in South Africa. In the same vein, we cannot also make the history of Africans be defined by the events of the settlers, but we also need to interpret and analyze the effects and affects of these two belligerent European people, what it is I will be meaning when I say this has left Africans of South Africa today with an "Aparhteidized Hangover"-and the bungling ANC government rule.

This truism can be seen from the very people, the Boers who had undergone this phenomenon of being transformed from what they know as their culture to being Anglicized in the 19th century. About this issue, Bunting informs us thus:"After the War the Afrikaner nation, bruised and bleeding, rallied its strength to meet the [perceived] danger which still faced it - that its language and culture would be submerged by those of the conqueror. Milner assiduously pushed his policy of Anglicization, and many an Afrikaner can still remember today how he was punished or humiliated at that time for speaking in his native language, Dutch. And yet, hypocritically, they turn on and against the Africans and mete-out the same cruel treatment.

The Treaty of Vereeniging read: 'Both the English and the Dutch languages shall be taught in the public schools of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony if the parents of the children demand it.' But, writes Hertzog's biographer C.S.van den Heever, The Afrikaners discovered 'that "parents choice" was a dangerous principle, for ignorant parents were often influenced to take decisions which were not in the interests of their children.'"Just as a large proportion of Afrikaners in the Cape had learnt during the nineteenth century to despise their own language and to absorb the culture of the Englishman, even to the point of having English spoken in their own church, so many Afrikaners after the Boer War diceided to make their peace with the English, and allowed their children to be contaminated in their schools."

If we have anything at all to say about the present-day children is that they have been intoxicated and contaminated by Western norms and anomie. This can be garnered from the mouths of the citizens of South Africa, and the cry is for the children that are lost and have no real future. If we do not address this issue, it will, in the end, seem like it is non-existant, and the carnage of a people will continue unabated.

Grooming and Taking Care of the Infants and the Very Old, plus everyone in-between. is part of what keeps the spirit of Botho/Ubuntu in place
Grooming and Taking Care of the Infants and the Very Old, plus everyone in-between. is part of what keeps the spirit of Botho/Ubuntu in place | Source
Apartheid from Madiba(Mandela) from an African Perspective and Understanding of its Existential Reality
Apartheid from Madiba(Mandela) from an African Perspective and Understanding of its Existential Reality | Source

South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid (Seminar Studies In History) [Paperback] Nancy L. Clark

The Construction of Pre-Apartheid

The Propagation of Early Apartheid Rule and Foundation

"First of all, General Hertzog, the new minister of Native Affairs, travelled up and down the country lecturing farmers on the folly in letting ground to the Africans' the racial extremists of his party hailed him as the right man for the post, for, as his conduct showed them, he would soon "fix up" the Africans. At one or two places he was actually welcomed as the future Prime Minister of the Union. On the other hand, General Botha, who at that time seemed to have become visibly timid, endeavored to ingratiate himself with his discontented supporters by joining his lieutenant in traveling to and fro, denouncing Dutch the Dutch farmers for not expelling the Africans from their farms and replacing them with poor Whites.

"This became a regular Ministerial campaign against the Africans, so that it seemed clear if any Africans could still find a place in the land, it was not due to the action of the government. In his campaign The Premier said other unhappy things which were diametrically opposed to his London speeches of two years before(I think that would be the speech he made in the newly founded League of Nations); and while the Dutch Colonists railed against him for trying to Anglicize the country, the English speakers and writers justly accused him of speaking with two voices; cartoonist, too, articulated and caricatured him as having two heads - one they said, for London, and the second one for South Africa.

""The uncertain tenure by which Englishmen in public service held their posts became a subject of debates in the Union Parliament, and the employment of government servants of Color was decidedly precarious. They were swept out of the Railway and Postal Service with a strong racial broom, in order to make room for poor Whites, mainly of Dutch descent. Concession after concession was wrung from the Government by fanatical Dutch postulants for office, for Government doles and other favors who like the daughters of the horse-leech in the Proverbs of Solomon, continually cried, "Give, give."

"By these events we had clearly turned the corner and were pacing backwards to pre-Union days, going back, back and still further backward, to the conditions which prevailed in the old republics, and (if a check is not applied) we shall steadily drift back to those days of the old Dutch East Indian Administration.

"The Bill which proposed to ameliorate the "Free" State cruelty, to which reference has been made above, was dropped like a hot potato. Ministers made some wild and undignified speeches, of which the following spicy extract, from a speech by Hon. Abraham Fischer to his constituents at Bethlehem, is a typical sample:

"What is it you want?" he asked. "We have passed all the "'Coolie"(a contemptuous South African Term for British Indians), laws and we have passed all the 'Kaffir"(derogatory reference to Africans by White South Africans) laws. The "Free" State has been safeguarded and all her Color laws have been adopted by Parliament. What more can the Government do for you"? And so the Union ship in this reactionary sea sail on and on and on, until she struck an iceberg - the sudden dismissal of General Hertzog.

"To the bitter sorrow of his admirers, General Hertzog, who is the fearless exponent of Dutch Ideals, was relieved of his portfolios of Justice and Native Affairs - it was whispered as a result of a suggestion from London; and then the Dutch extremists, in consequence of their favorite's dismissal, gave vent to their anger in the most disagreeable manner. One could infer from their platform speeches that, from their point of view, scarcely any one else had any rights in South Africa, and least of all the man with a Black skin.

In the face of this, the Government's timidity was almost unendurable. They played up to the desires of the racial extremists, with the result that a deadlock overtook the administration. Violent laws like the Immigration Law(against British Indians and alien Asiatics) and the Natives' Land Act were indecently hurried through parliament to allay the susceptibilities of "Free" State Republicans. No Minister found time to undertake such useful legislation as the Colored People's Occupation Bill, the Native Disputes Bill,, the Marriage Bill, The University Bill, etc., etc.

"An apology was demanded from the High Commissioner in London for delivering himself of sentiments which were felt to be too British for the palates of his Dutch employers in South Africa, and the Prime Minister had almost to apologize for having at times so far forgotten himself as to act more like a Crown Minister than simple Afrikaner. They trampled under foot their own election pledges, made during the first Union General Election, guaranteeing justice and fair treatment to the Law-abiding Africans.

"The campaign, to compass the elimination of the Africans from the farms, was not at all popular with landowners, who made huge profits out of the renting of their farms to Africans.Platform speakers and newspaper writers coined an opprobrious phrase which designated this letting of farms to Africans and "Kaffir-farming". But landowners pocketed the annual rents, and showed no inclination to substitute the less industrious "poor Whites" for the more industrious Africans.

"Old Bass(Master/Boss) Marais, a typical Dutch landowner of the "Free" State, having collected his share of the crop in 1912, addressing a few words of encouragement to has African tenants, on the subject of expelling the Africans from the farms, said in the 'Taal'(Language): "How dare any number of men, wearing all tall hats and frock coats, living in Capetowns' hotels at the expense of other men, order me to evict my Africans. This is my ground; it cost me my money, not Parliament's, and I will see them banged(barst) before I do it."

"It then became evident that the authority of Parliament would have to be sought to compel the obstinate landowners to get rid of their Africans [on the White farms]. And the compliance of Parliament with this demand was the greatest Ministerial surrender to the Republican malcontents, resulting in the introduction and passage of the Natives' Land Act of 1913, inasmuch as the Act decreed, in the name of his Majesty the King, that pending the adoption of a report to be made by a commission, somewhere in the dim and unknown future, it shall be unlawful for Africans to buy or lease land, except in the scheduled African areas.

"And under severe pains and penalties they were to be deprived of the bare human rights of living on the land, except as servants in the employ of Whites - rights which were never seriously challenged under the Republican regime, no matter how the politicians raved against the Africans."

The caricaturing of the early pillars of Apartheid were deftly captured by sol Plaatjie to the extend, these seemed mild as to what was to come to be known as Grand Apartheid.

Imprisoned and Policed South African Society

Real Grand Apartheid in Black And White
Real Grand Apartheid in Black And White | Source
Apartheid in Stark Contrast: Africans crowded on one side of the train station platform, and Whites, , as shown below on the photo, occupy the rest of the platform. Apartheid in Operation
Apartheid in Stark Contrast: Africans crowded on one side of the train station platform, and Whites, , as shown below on the photo, occupy the rest of the platform. Apartheid in Operation | Source
Rigid and Rules-ridden Apartheid reality
Rigid and Rules-ridden Apartheid reality | Source

Segregation and Apartheid in Twentieth Century South Africa (Rewriting Histories) [Paperback] William Beinart (Editor)

Arrested Development: The Grandeur Of Grand Apartheid

Understanding And Revisiting Grand Apartheid

There is a lot that can be culled from Plaatjie, but for now, we will move the narrative along. It is important to note the way in which the Boers were beginning to coalesce around certain platforms, beliefs and legislated actions. In order to put the South African Apartheid rule into its proper perspective, I will utilize a bit of their past history leading to their take over of power in 1948, and what that has meant for Africans all the way to 1992, when the ANC-led government was put into power. This is the history that effects the present-day African South Africans in their confused, dazed and in total disarray, as we see them today. I will finally look at the drug culture infesting and destroying so many South africans.

I have cited at length from Plaatjie because he gives us an earlier version of how Apartheid was cobbled together when the Union of South Africa was formed in 1912. The land Act, and many other Laws and Bills he is talking abut, took shape during these times, and now below, we go much more deeper into how it arose like an evil Sphinx in 1948.

Brian Bunting Writes:

"For 100 years after the landing of van Riebeeck(whom we have touched on a bit above), the colonists evolved their way of life in isolation. Often living on the level of bare subsistence, little different from that of the indigenous inhabitants(of which I contend at this juncture to assert that they were self-sufficient and doing very well), they developed powers of self-sufficiency and an independence of outlook which was contradicted only by their status as slave-owners.

Their lives were on the whole grim, unending struggle to survive in the face of a multitude of human and natural obstacles. The Bible was the fountain of their faith(Of which most of them could not even read it-but had it read to them-Gail Gehardt delves much more deeper into this topic). An occasional visit to Cape Town, and occasional quarrel with authority, were the only diversions in an otherwise bleak existence.

"Then there erupted into their experience two factors which were to shatter the basis of their whole society. The first was their meeting with the African people of Eastern Cape around Fish River, in the middle of the eighteenth century. The second was the annexation of the Cape by the British in 1795 as a by-product of the Napoleonic wars. Conflict with African peoples and with the British has been the core of Afrikaner [tortured] consciousness[and logic-if ever there was one].

"The resentment and resistance which the Dutch colonist had always displayed towards the 'interference' of the company in the old days was reinforced when the British al at once became the masters. For the British did not merely bring a foreign presence, they also brought with them foreign ideas - about government, about relations with Africans, about the treatment of servants and slaves, about independence of the magistracy, about language rights. The famous Great Trek of the 1830s had many causes, but not the least of them was Dutch hatred of British rule and racial policies [and I might add, their not being able to wrap their heads around the fact that they had to be equals with slaves and Africans].

"The Dutch desire to be rid of British rule was not merely the manifestation of a spirit of independnence. It was also prompted by the wish to continue to own slaves, and to be able to discriminate between White and non-White(African people and other ethnic groups as demonstrated by laws they past against the British Indians and the Asiatics above and expounded upon by Plaatjie), to re-establish the patriarchal relationship between master and servant which had existed from the time of Van Riebeeck and which now looked like being destroyed forever. The new republics which were set up in the Orange "Free" State and the Transvaal enabled the Dutch to refashion for themselves their old way of life(as described above). A similar attempt in Natal was crushed by the British, who wanted to retain control of the port of Durban and the hinterland.

"The Boer Republics were seldom free of British harassment and intervention. From the time of their establishment to the end of the nineteenth century there were constant clashes, culminating in the outright annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 and what the Afrikaners today call the First War of Independence in 1880, which resulted in the restoration of the territory to Boer control.

"But the respite was short-lived. The discovery of diamonds in Kimberley in 1867 and of gold on the Witwatersrand in 1886 transformed the imperialist attitude towards the South African interior. From being something of a liability and a burden, South Africa now became the land of opportunity and profit. Capital, adventurers, and entrepreneurs poured into the country from abroad and made their way to the diamond diggings and the goldfields. The Railway line snaked north. Britain strengthened her military and political position on the flanks of the republics, and Rhodes began his machinations which culminated into the Jameson Raid of 1895.

"War was now inevitble. Boer independence was incompatible with imperialist ambitions i Africa. The overt cause was the status and rights of the Uitlanders(Foreigners)- in the Transvaal to whom President Kruger refused to give the franchise.But no matter what concessions Kruger might have offered, the British were by this time determined on a show-down. the open clash broke out in 1899, and the peoples of South Africa were swept into a maelstrom.

"For the Boers, the war was the climax to 'a century of wrong,' a century of British expansion, oppression, and meddling which had finally goaded them beyond the limits of endurance. There rose up before them, and they fought the memory of the past, of the colony which had been annexed, of the slaves which had been freed, of the Slagter's Nek Rebellion and its martyrs, of the battle of Majuba, of the thousand and one defeats and humiliations to which they had been subjected since the British presence established itself in South Africa.

"For a while they had been able to escape from British Rule into the security of their own republics, but now these were threatened with destruction.Everything for which they had lived and struggled was endangered - their freedom, their language, their possessions, their racial supremacy, their very existence as an independent people with their god-given right to manage their affairs and their chattels as they pleased(thus the birth of the "Colored people came about-of course, since the mid seventeenth century). The people of the two republics(Boers) felt that the cup of their bitterness was too full to be borne. They threw themselves into the the struggle feeling themselves ready to die than submit.-That is why we get to learn about the Anglo boer War.

It was never a fair fight. Against the might of the greatest imperial power in the world, the Boers could pit no formal military apparatus whatsoever. ... Their force consisted of some thousand volunteers hastily rounded up, poorly organized and equipped, and lacking in discipline. After a few initial successes, the main Boer forces were crushingly defeated by the British troops with a few months of the outbreak of the war. Thereafter, the Boer remnants carried on activity as guerillas under the leadership of Smuts, Botha, and Hertzog for a further two years before they were compelled to acknowledge defeat at the Peace of Vereeniging." This was when the formations of an Apartheid state took shape, and Plaatjie has ably discussed it above.-

Marikana: Voices from South Africa's Mining Massacre Paperback by Peter Alexander (Author) , Thapelo Lekgowa

The Operations of the Past Apartheid Government-No, These are the operatives of the New ANC Governments police
The Operations of the Past Apartheid Government-No, These are the operatives of the New ANC Governments police
The Slaughter Of the Miners in Marikana, by the police controlled and serving the ANC, South Africa
The Slaughter Of the Miners in Marikana, by the police controlled and serving the ANC, South Africa

Minority Protection in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Human Rights, Minority Rights, and Self-Determination (Perspectives on the Twentieth Century) [Hardcover] Kr

Raw Apartheid: African Aprtheidized Induced Hangover

How history teaches one to see that the very same suffering the Afrikaners were suffering above from the English, today we find the Africans in South Africa in the very same situation, even after they are now 'supposedly' free to rule themselves, but have been set up to reject their languages, cultures, customs, traditions, music and dances in favor of European and American Cultural Imperialism and have become excellent copy-cats of foreign languages and cultures that are not their own.

This is a travesty, and our contemporary intellectuals are enamored by the possibility and ability of their being fluent in all things foreign, and cast away and reject/ignore their language-and instead, are assiduously working fervently to sound-like, become(culturally or otherwise) European and not work work toward enhancing and upgrading what is originally their culture, history, languages, customs and the whole bit. This will be dealt with in-depth below in this Hub. So, we look much more deeper as to what happened to the Boers in the time period being discussed above. We learn further from Bunting that:

"To the true Afrikaner nationalist, however, accommodation with Milnerism was impossible. The weaker ones among them might seek security in a spiritual surrender, but the majority were never reconciled. How could the [concentrations] camps and the devastation be forgotten? How can the memory of the lost republics be allowed to fade? How could the present policies of the British ever be acccepted" 'The language of the conqueror in the mouth of the conquered is the langage of slaves,' President Steyn of the "Free" State had said. Both in the Transvaal and in the Cape, the Afrikaners established their own schools so that their children could be brought up in the ways of their fathers."

Now, this is interesting because since the Africans of South Africa became "voters" but still not free, were not able to build their own schools and educate their own children in the ways of their fathers-instead, they are being bamboozled by the "New Rainbow" nation fiction, they opted to send their children to be taught in the schools built for White children, and with a whim and whimsical hope, hoped that their children will be 'better' "edumacated" (as I term) and also 'miseducated' by the 'supposedly' "Private" and "Prestigious" White schools, that the devastating result of this commitment by African people has begun show-and it is is breaking down the African family.

African children today are out of sync in terms as to their own identity, culture and the whole shindig. They do not know their own languages(Africa Mother Tongues), are ignorant of their own culture customs, traditions and history, and have been made to believe that they are not African(Lessons they imbibed within these White institutions) and this has created dysfunction and disaster within the African communities, collectives and nations. The schools in the African Townships and milieu have been neglected and are worse-off now than they were under Apartheid. This will be further elaborated later in the Hub-the 'effects and affects of Grand Apartheid on Contemporary Africans of Mzantsi. We further learn from Bunting that:

"The division in the ranks of the Afrikaners had first revealed itself at the Vereeniging, where Smuts and Botha had been keen, but Hertzog reluctant, to sign the peace treaty. Afterwards Smuts and Botha had taken the lead in seeking accommodation with the British, while Hertzog remained resentful and suspicious. Nor was Hertzog an isolated individual. He stood for the majority of his people, as later events were to show.

C.M. van den Heever noted: "The Afrikaner feasts, his religious outlook, his family life clashed with this other civilization, and he retired into his shell at the ridicule that was poured upon him. He felt a stranger in his own 'land', and hatred and a sense of frustration welled in him."

This could have been and is still being said and felt/experienced by the majority of Africans in the African nation of South Africa. If, then, the Boer can write into history their being 'enslaved' and 'indoctrinated by the by the British, when they grabbed power, later on, they implemented the same measures against Africans, and went a step further, as the photos attest above, So should and can Africans do with their story(History. Tell it in such a way that it uplifts the african people and give them something to hang their hope on.. So that, according to Bunting:

"It was not just a question of culture. There was a fundamental difference over the treatment of non-Whites. The British, since 1854, had a constitution overtly without color-bar in the Cape, and their attitudes were projected northwards immediately after the war. Hertzog 'was never to forget the scene in the Bloemfontein Post Office, where he saw his own people struggling with a strange language among colored persons and natives'(Bunting's italics).

"Perhaps the greatest humiliation of their conquest for the Afrikaners was their enforced helplessness while attempts were made to break down the color-bar(Apartheid or 'separate development, as it was called in those days). True, the attempts were not very vigorous. The British did nothing to extend political rights to the non-white(Africans and other ethnic groups), after the war, and the extension of 'passes'(Identification books for Africans), the color-bar franchise, job reservation on the mines, and anti-Indian/Asian legislation were were features of their rule just as their were features of the Afrikaner's. Nevertheless, the tendency towards fusion of cultures in an integrated society was something that the Hertzogites couldn't stomach.

Although Smuts and Botha with their followers accepted the British offer,they forgot about the republics and endeavored to create a larger unity between both the Boers and the British. "But for Hertzog, the outlook was different. He knew that a great nation could could cooperate with a smaller without having any sense of danger, but that the smaller could preserve itself only by vigilance, care, and if necessary, by isolation."(Van den Heever)

"Seventy years earlier, the Boer could escape from his conflicts by embarking on the Great Trek. But after the Anglo/Boer War, he could only reitre into himself and wait for his opportunity" the Boers went about forming many institutions like Institutes for Language Association in Cape Town, the Afrikaanse Taalgenootskap in Pretoria, and many and similar organizations in Potchefstroom and Bloemfontein. And in 1909 formed the S.A. Akademie voor Taal, Letterre en Kuns(S.A. Academy for Language, Literature and Culture) in order to maintain both forms of the language - Dutch andAfrikaans- and to draw up spelling rules for Afrikaans. In this way, the Second Language Movement which developed at this time can be considered a direct consequence of the Boer War, a form of compensation for defeat.

"The "Bitter-enders" among the Afrikaners never accepted the finality of defeat and looked forward to the time when, through internal schism or external intervention, they would be able to re-establish the Boer republics. A German journalist who interviewed Hertzog for the Tagliche Rundschau wrote:

"Hertzog believes that the fruit of the three-year struggle by the Boers is that their freedom, in the form of a general South African Republic, will fall into their laps soon as England is involved in a war with a Continental power.' This provides a clue to a Afrikaner nationalist thinking and action during both the First and the Second World Wars."

They are still clamoring fro their own state, today in South africa, and the African people need to study this history and know who and what they are dealing with here.

Apartheid in South Africa Laws, History: Documentary Film - Raw Footage

The Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Apartheid, Democracy [Paperback] Nigel Worden


In the year 1857, however, the synod of the Dutch reformed Church(DRC), decided to erect separate church buildings for Africans and for Whites, thus introducing "segregation' into the Church (Christian Institute, 1971). Although the term "Apartheid" did not exist at this time).

The term, "Apartheid" first appeared in a book by a DRC theologian, G. Cronje, in 1942. In his book, the argument was evidenced by the fat that 'He" chose Israel as a special people. From this it can be deduced that God not only wanted separation. He wanted it to be total-that is, absolutely no mixing of races." (Cronje)

To support his argument, Cronje turned to the Scriptures. He cited a few paragraphs for this purpose. these were:

Deuteronomy 3:8:

When the most High gave nations their inheritance, when He" divided the sons of man, 'He' fixed their bounds according to the numbers of the son of God. ...

Acts I:26:

From one single stock 'He' not only created the whole human race so that they cold occupy the entire earth but, 'He' decreed how long each nation should flourish and what the bounds of its territory should be.

A third citation was from Genesis II, the story of the Tower of Babel. According to the Dutch theologians, sinful men tried to go against the Will of God, which is "separateness" ("Apartheid", by creating unity and homogeniety of the human race God toppled the plan by causing confusion among the builders of the tower so that they ended up speaking different languages and, therefore, could no longer understand one another. 'He' then divided the nations and distributed them all over the world."(Cronje) In the practical and real concrete terms and practical terms of the situation in South Africa, in those times, this meant 'separating' Africans from Europeans.

Cronje was not the only theologian in the DRC who supported his "Apartheid ideology with scriptures, we come across P. J. Myers who wrote:

"We Boer [Afrikaner] people, entered into a covenant with God so as to maintain ourselves as God's people; to honor our separate calling as God's ordination, to fulfill it to the glory of God."

The Afrikaners called themselves a 'nation' and this figured more prominently in Afrikaner thinking and was used, as will be see, to defend the privileged position of Whites in South Africa. the Boers insisted that "separateness" was not possible if there was a mixture of blood, according to these Afrikaner theologians, as was clear in the writings of G. Eloff when he stated:

"The maintenance of the Boers' tradition of racial purity must be protected at all costs and in every effective way as a sacred pledge entrusted to us by our predecessors as a part of God's plan for our people. Any movement, school or individual that offends against this tradition must be dealt with effectively by the authorities as a "race-criminal."

Several years down the historical timeline, Cronje echoed the same theme and sentiments thusly:

"The more consistently the policy of Apartheid could be applied, the greater would be the security for the purity of our blood and the surer our unadulterated European racial survival. ...The racial policy which we Afrikaners should promote must be directed to the preservation of racial and cultural purity. this is because it is according to the Will of God and also because with the knowledge at our disposal it can be justified on practical grounds."

It is quite clear for me, as a historian, that, having up to this far been writing about the development and the evolution of the Boer ideology, that these Boers wanted and were defending White supremacy and privilege through use of the Scriptures to their impressionable, hapless and gullible polity.

It is also clear that they used other sources besides the Scriptures to support their Apartheid Ideological leanings. In 1940, J.D. Vorster, who later became a leading figure in the DRC, cited Adolf Hitler as his authority. This is what he told his followers and listeners"

"Hitler's Mein Kampf shows the way to greatness-the path of South Africa. Hitler gave the Germans a calling. He gave them a fanaticism which causes them to stand back for no one. we must follow his example because only by such a holy fanaticism can the Afrikaner nation achieve its calling."

When this statement was made, Hitler was at the hight of his glory. The Germans were at that time believed that their "Thousand Years' Reich" was nigh. By the time the elections were held in south Africa, in 1948, the DRC had played its role by educating its flock about the need for Apartheid. Daniel Malan, in 1915, while he was still a pastor of one of the churches in the DRC, made the following statement:

"The State controls the Church, and, conversely, the Church controls the State, for it is necessary for a man to become a leader in religious affairs before he can become of any political importance. As a result of this custom, the politicians are necessarily the most active Church members."

This was a prophetic statement for Malan, since he became the first Afrikaner Nationalist Prime Minister in 1948 and introduced the policy and practice of Apartheid to South Africa. Attention is called to the fact, contained in the remarks cited, that it is difficult to distinguish between the DRC and Nationalist Party.

Blind Faith - South Africa(Or Is It?)

A History of South Africa, Third Edition Paperback by Leonard Thompson

The Apartheidizers Come Into Power: Boere Mag /White Power (Power)

Apartheid Program of Action

The "Program of Principles," which the Nationalists used a s a basic document for the 1948 election campaign, contained the following statement"

"As a basic principle of its attitude towards Natives(Africans) and Coloreds, the Party recognizes that both are permanent part of the country's population, under the trusteeship of the European race. It is strongly opposed to any attempt that might lead to the mixing of European and non-European bloof. It also declares itself in favor of territorial and political segregation between Europeans and non-europeans in general and in residential, and as far as practicable, in the industrial spheres."(Gwendolyn Carter)

As soon as they grabbed power, the nationalists embarked on a program that would transform Apartheid from an ideology into a living reality. One must note that they actually carried out what the had for many years said they do if elected into office.(Some of it has been covered above). Leslie Rubin, who briefly commented About Apartheid legislation in the following manner:

"Since the present Government came to power in South Africa in 1948, a body of legislative enactments has come into existence designed to give effect to the new policy of Apartheid.. Hundreds of laws have been passed by Parliament; thousands of regulations, proclamations and government notices have been issued under those laws.

"In addition there are numerous by-laws made by the municipal councils of the cities and towns throughout the country. All these combine to institute the legal apparatus which regulates the daily lives of more than four-fifths of the population of south Africa, that is, the 20-million(then) Africans.

The process for total Apartheid has not diminished even today as we I am onto this Hub. The videos posted above/and below attest to that fact.

Apartheid Established

Among the many points of view that marked the debate on racial policy in the early days of the Union, one was to emerge to shape the future of the country. This was the view of the hard-line Afrikaners. Yet, in the early 1900s, the Afrikaners were perhaps the least strong of South Africa's White groups. Already economically weak before their defeat in the Anglo Boer-War, many had lost their farms businesses in the fighting. Although they outnumbered the British, they formed a new class of poor Whites who flocked to the mines and cities in search of work.

The fact that the hard-line Afrikaners emerged to lead the country and shape its policies within fifty years of the War can be traced in part to their strong sense of independence and tradition. They rode to power on the crest wave of Afrikaner Nationalism-a tide of feeling that was both anti-British and Anti-African.

Apartheid's supporters also justified this rigid, all-encompassing segregation with a practical theory: It would be in the best interests of all the races if each developed separately, according to its own traditions and in its own area. That could only happen if contact between the races was kept at a minimum. In practice, however, Apartheid did far more to halt development for Africans and Coloreds than it did to further it.

Three central laws were passed quickly. the first required everyone in the country to be classified in one of the three racial groups-Whites, Native(Africans), or Colored (including Indians and Asians, who later were classified as a separate group). The goal of this was to prevent people from "passing" from one racial group to another if their appearance made it possible; all people over sixteen had to carry identification documents showing their race.

A second law barred marriage between Whites and people of other races. In 1957, this law was backed up by another one that forbade "immoral acts" between Whites and people of other races. On occasion, even a kiss led to criminal charges. The punishment could be as much as seven years in prison.

The third law was the Group Areas Act of 1950, a highly complex piece of legislation that gave the government power to declare which racial group might live where. Throughout South Africa, and especially in the cities, areas were marked out for Africans, Coloreds, and White occupation. In many cases, this law forced people to move out of homes they had lived in for years, simply because the area had suddenly been declared "for Whites Only(see the pictures of these signs above).

Years later, Hendrik Verwoerd-a National Party politician who was one of the architects of Apartheid and who served as Prime Minister-explained their position this way:

"It is a very simple and perfectly clear situation. If we eliminate the "Bantu"(African) from our political life ... then the position is that we have a White majority in South Africa(meaning no franchise was given to Africans under Apartheid), and two minority groups [Coloreds and Indians]. If the Minority group becomes the tail that wags the dog because it happens to hold the balance of power between tow equally strong parties, a colossal injustice is done towards the majority of the people, because it then means that the minority rules the the majority."

Meanwhile, apartheid was also being applied to Africans. Here, the idea was to separate Africans from the rest of the society altogether. They would be ruled by local 'chiefs' in segregated areas, under White trusteeship. This plan was built on the earlier laws that had set aside 'reserves' and made the government the 'Supreme Chief" of Africans; and, again, there was a theory to justify it.

Said one government Minister: "The Natives(Africans) of this country do not belong to the same 'tribe' or 'race'. They have different languages and customs. We are of the opinion that the solidarity for the 'tribes' should be preserved and they they should develop along the lines of their own 'national character' and 'tradition'. It was fitting that this development should take place on the 'reserve, he aded, because "that is where the eventual home of the "natives"(Africans) will be, and there they will have to learn to govern themselves."

Separating Africans along "tribal" lines wasn't simply a matter of respect for traditions, however.It also allowed Whites to foster divisions among Africans, so that their resistance to apartheid was weakened, and this further divided Africans amongst themselves, which is what is happening today in South Africa. This strategy has had far reaching ramifications and effects that it is the modus operandi of Africans in Mzantsi today-very much segreagated along the 'tribal' lines as invnted and implemented by the Aparthid minions throughout the years-to date.

The Death Of Apartheid - The Whites Last Stand

De Klerk on Apartheid: "I haven't apologized for the original concept" (Separate but equal)

The Sociology of Drug Trafficking and Drug Traffickers: A Perspective from South Africa [paperback] Smart Otu

High, Dry And Drugged: South Africans Facing The Drug Scourge

The one other thing that I am now going to discuss is Drugs. According to Bhekissa Mncube: "President Jacob Zuma has declared drug and alcohol abuse as the enemies of South Africa’s freedom and democracy, saying that alcohol and drug abuse in particular "are slowly eating into the social fibre of our communities”.

Addressing scores of young people during the 37th commemoration of National Youth Day held in Newcastle in KwaZulu-Natal Province on Sunday, he said a salient point in this struggle for a better life was the fight against drugs and substance abuse; the fight against crime and gangsterism; the fight against child and women abuse; the fight against teenage pregnancy and truancy as well as the fight against mob justice and xenophobia.

Lesego Ngobeni submitted this piece:


Gauteng Premier Nomvula Mokonyane has promised to give the young people of Ennerdale access to economic opportunities to deter them from abusing drugs and alcohol.

“If we don’t deal with the issue of drugs then you won’t have the skills and the talent to look after the economy, lead this province and be a responsible citizen.”

Mokonyane visited a youth development centre in the area with the members of her executive council (MECs) and their heads of departments on Wednesday afternoon. She promised to shut down more ‘lolly lounges’.

'Lolly lounges' are houses used as drug dens where gangs often lure young girls, enticing them with free tik and other illegal substances. The girls are expected to have sex with the men and boys at the houses.

Mokonyane had a stern warning for the area's drug dealers: “We’re breathing down your neck and taking the fight back to you because any child is my child.”

She vowed to intensify the fight against drugs across all communities.

The premier said she was passionate about combating drug abuse because her own son, Afrika Mkhize, was a recovering drug addict.

"I'm not doing it for me alone. I'm doing it for other mothers too."

Earlier this month, the premier led a prayer march as part of the broader intervention programme to address issues around drug abuse, child abuse and domestic violence.

He lamented that the youth had become slaves of drugs such as Nyaope, whoonga, tik and Kubar amongst others. Others are slaves to alcohol abuse.

He said according to the second South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008, Western Cape, Gauteng, Free State and North West Provinces reported the highest alcohol consumption rates by the youth while Limpopo and Western Cape Provinces were the only provinces where more female students than male students had used alcohol in their lifetime.

He said alcohol abuse among young people was usually a gateway to the use of harmful substances.
“Drug and substance abuse have serious implications for the millions of citizens because they contribute to crime, gangsterism, domestic violence, family dysfunction and other forms of social problems,” he noted.

The president told the gathering he had visited Eldorado Park in Soweto township in Johannesburg recently and listened to horrific tales of young people who rob their own families in order to obtain money for drugs.
“I have heard tales of children as young as eight years old who are now addicted to drugs. I have heard tales of young girls who are molested in drug dens, or lollie lounges,” he said.

He said: "We must declare drug traffickers and those who run illegal alcohol outlets that sell alcohol to children the enemies of our freedom. They should be ashamed of running businesses that destroy children, the youth and many families."

What is discussed above, I have broken it down in many ways below. Drugs, alcohol and prostitution are really devastating the South Africa population.

South African Police display some of the drugs in use today in South Africa
South African Police display some of the drugs in use today in South Africa | Source
Graph shows Use of all types of Drugs today in africa
Graph shows Use of all types of Drugs today in africa | Source
Drug Mule from South Africa caught with Drugs hidden in her Dreads...
Drug Mule from South Africa caught with Drugs hidden in her Dreads... | Source
Heroin Sized in Kenya
Heroin Sized in Kenya | Source
Global Seizure os Heroin and Morphine, 2010 (countries and territories reporting seizures of more than 100 kg)
Global Seizure os Heroin and Morphine, 2010 (countries and territories reporting seizures of more than 100 kg) | Source
Cannabis prevalence and use from 2010 to date...
Cannabis prevalence and use from 2010 to date... | Source
Use of Amphetamine-type stimulants (excluding "ecstasy") in 2010 to date
Use of Amphetamine-type stimulants (excluding "ecstasy") in 2010 to date | Source
Prevalence of Cocaine Use by country and Use in 2010 to date
Prevalence of Cocaine Use by country and Use in 2010 to date | Source
Drug usage continues to be a pervasive problem in South Africa. This is especially true in impoverished areas of the country. Overall drug usage has increased by 600% in the last decade. A relatively cheap street drug known as Whoonga or Nyaope has h
Drug usage continues to be a pervasive problem in South Africa. This is especially true in impoverished areas of the country. Overall drug usage has increased by 600% in the last decade. A relatively cheap street drug known as Whoonga or Nyaope has h | Source

Africa And The Pandemic of Drugs

Before going concretely deep into the Drug problems besieging South Africa, I would like to post an article by Melinda Ozongngwu, and I will in the final analysis, after posting the drug problems article on Mzantsi offer my impression on the Article of Melinca Ozongwu, as part of the installment of discussing this serious issue in South Africa.

"With the pros of economic development come some cons, and as African economies boom, one of the cons that’s recently been reported in the UNODC’s (UN's Office on Drugs and Crime) latest World Drug Report is the increase in drug trafficking and in drug use in Africa. The data on drug use in Africa is limited, but according to drug officials from the African States that reported to UNODC, there has been a substantial increase in the use of all illicit drugs since 2005. This is obviously a worrying trend, particularly as most African countries do not have comprehensive drug-treatment programmes or infrastructure in place to handle the fallout.

"We are used to reading about the involvement of Africans in the international drug trade, but more often than not the reports are about African drug mules arrested or sentenced to death in places like Thailand and China, countries where penalties for drug use and trafficking are amongst the most severe in the world. In 2011, for instance, A South African woman was executed 3 years after she was arrested and charged with possession of 3kg of methamphetamine, despite a pardon request from President Zuma.

Her family disputed the charge that she was a drug mule, but then most families do, especially when it seems the person would have had other opportunities to make money - they were educated or they were employed – or simply because they cannot imagine a loved one taking such risks. Uganda, my country, currently has 22 people on death row in China, and there are just over 600 South Africans in prisons abroad for trafficking offenses.

Their profiles and circumstances vary, but the vulnerability of the ‘mule’ is a constant. Unaware of the health dangers involved in transporting ingested condoms full of drugs, unaware even of the market value of the drugs they are smuggling or potential legal consequences, more and more African are becoming long term tenants in jail cells all over the world. The effect of these reports is that for most Africans, the drug business is something that we assume happens elsewhere, not in Africa..

"Less monitored, and hence less documented, is the trafficking of drugs in and through Africa. The traditional hubs of Latin America, Mexico and countries in Southeast Asia have all had clamps placed on what were once open and easy drug trading portals. Consequently, the traffickers have had to develop new routes, and they’ve been shifting the routes straight to us. The US Drug Enforcement Administration and the Pentagon have now identified Africa as a new frontier in narcotics smuggling. Becoming a route for drug trafficking is a big enough problem in itself, but drug trafficking and drug use usually go hand in hand, and as mentioned above, drug use in Africa is on the rise.

There is no such thing as a country that is simply a transit country, for the very simple reason that the drug trafficking organization first pays its network in product, not in cash, and is constantly looking to build a greater market, eventually the transit country becomes a major consumer nation, and at that point they have a more serious problem.” - William R. Brownfield, Assistant Secretary Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs"

"When people in Africa think about drugs, the first thing they think of is cannabis. For good reason: it is the most commonly used drug on the continent, particularly in West and Central Africa, with a higher annual prevalence than the global average. This is followed by ATS (amphetamine-type stimulant). Cocaine use is reportedly high in West and Central Africa and Southern Africa, and it is speculated that increasing trafficking of cocaine through the coastal countries of West Africa is leading to an increase in cocaine use in that part of Africa.

"The increase in heroin seizures in Africa point to expanding markets for this drug, too. In 2010, heroin seizures increased most notably in Egypt (from 159 kg in 2009 to 234 kg), in Kenya (from 8.5 to 35 kg in 2010), in Nigeria (from 104 to 202 kg) and in Tanzania (from 7.9 to 191 kg). Mirroring the increase in seizures, there are reports of the emerging use of heroin and injecting drug use, particularly in Kenya, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania, and it is estimated that there are 1.78 million injecting drug users in sub-Saharan Africa.

"As you can see from the maps, drug use in Africa is lower than it is in Europe or America, but in Europe and America you will find a strong network of accessible rehabilitation programs providing support, treatment and information for users and their families. Governments make laws to deter people from drug use, but accept that some will choose to use drugs anyway because it's fun until it gets out of hand, so they invest in such programmes and fund research into education, treatment and support.

"Basically, there is a plan to deal with the problem. But this isn’t yet the case in Africa. Most African countries don’t have a single national rehabilitation centre, let alone private rehabilitation facilities. The taboo surrounding drug use and addiction sometimes finds users who want to kick their habit habit resorting to witchdoctors and pastors. If addiction is not seen as a ‘curse’, it is seen as a crime requiring punishment rather than a problem that needs addressing via treatment.

"Trained professionals, imperative for dealing with drug abuse and underlying issues, are hard to come by. As one leading psychiatrist in Kenya dedicated to removing stigma from mental health issues and drug abuse treatment states, "there are countries in Africa where there is not even a single psychiatrist to five or six million people." It's a lack of expertise that doesn't bode well for the prospects of adequate addiction-treatment infrastructure in the short term.

"Over the past two years, the US has pumped $50 million into the West African fight against drug smuggling, and they've done so because Africa is being used as a transit route for drugs that eventually end up on US soil. We, too, have to protect what is happening on our soil. More valuable than donations is information, and what we're learning is that our inadequate response to drug smuggling, and our criminalisation of drug use, will probably lead to more corruption and an increase in HIV infection.

We're also learning that our drug laws (for traffickers) may be too lenient. We have a serious problem on our hands. Illicit drug use and trafficking may be relatively new problems for Africa, but drug use can no longer be seen as "un-African". Coming late to the party, we have the world to learn from. We know from America's war on drugs, for instance, that criminalising citizens and filling prisons is not the solution.

It also means we know what to expect if drug use continues to rise and drug smuggling gets out of hand. The only question now is do we have the will to do anything about all that we are learning? Are we going to do anything with the information?

The article I have penned and posted below shows some signs what come communities are doing about this scourge and what is still happening to to others in the country of south Africa, specifically. The picture posted above are from the article by Melinda.

Injection of drugs has become a common affair  amongst addicts in South Africa today..
Injection of drugs has become a common affair amongst addicts in South Africa today..
Three years ago, Sipho Molefe (not his real name) was a normal 16-year-old boy — an athletic, easygoing high schooler who was well liked among his peers in rural South Africa. Today, Sipho is unemployed, gaunt, and mired in a life of crime outside Du
Three years ago, Sipho Molefe (not his real name) was a normal 16-year-old boy — an athletic, easygoing high schooler who was well liked among his peers in rural South Africa. Today, Sipho is unemployed, gaunt, and mired in a life of crime outside Du
People have been hospitalised after a bad batch of ecstasy pills (not pictured) hit Adelaide's streets at the weekend. A BAD batch of ecstasy in circulation on the weekend caused users to strip and swim in the Torrens, lick floors, rub themselves on
People have been hospitalised after a bad batch of ecstasy pills (not pictured) hit Adelaide's streets at the weekend. A BAD batch of ecstasy in circulation on the weekend caused users to strip and swim in the Torrens, lick floors, rub themselves on

Chemical And Drug Warfare in South Africa

A Police Reporter Ben Hyde wrote

"A BAD batch of ecstasy in circulation on the weekend caused users to strip and swim in the Torrens, lick floors, rub themselves on the road and - in one case - act like a chicken in a taxi, police revealed today.

"A total of 21 were taken to hospital over the weekend displaying overdose symptoms suspected to be from the bad ecstasy tablets.

"One man, 21, remains in the Royal Adelaide Hospital in a critical condition.

"SA Police Superintendent Anthony Fioravanti said emergency services were particularly busy in the city on Saturday night.

""Police and health services had a busier than usual night as a result of reports people had taken ecstasy tablets that were from a bad batch," he said.

"The normal effects of ecstasy are a feeling of euphoria, heightened arousal and an emotional effect and an increase in body temperature.

"While some of these effects were evident, there was an increase in aggression, rather than a feeling of euphoria.

"This resulted in an increase of reported fights in the city and had the illicit drug users displaying psychotic, extreme and bizarre behaviour."

"Among the bizarre behaviour witnessed in the city on Saturday night was:

A PERSON stripping down and swimming naked in the river Torrens.

A PERSON licking the floor of a nightclub.

PEOPLE disrobing and rubbing themselves on the bitumen.

A PERSON acting like a chicken in the back of a taxi.

"They were extreme and bizarre behaviour," Supt Fioravanti said.

Early on Sunday, police arrested a man, 21, at North Adelaide and charged him with trafficking a controlled drug.

He was allegedly in the possession of 33 ecstasy tablets and $900 cash and he has been bailed to appear in court at a later date.

Among the drugs seized were three varieties of ecstasy - Green Mitsubishi, Pink Superman and Yellow Ferrari.

These pills are currently being analysed.

"We do not know if the overdoses that occurred are linked with the drugs that he sold," Supt Fioravanti said.

"We do know that there have been a number of different ecstasy tablets taken but not all those were the same as those that we found in the possession of the male offender.

"From what we've been told so far, we believe that they have been purchased from nightclubs within the CBD, however we haven't ascertained where all of them were purchased at this point."

Supt Fioravanti said Saturday was a particularly violent night in the city.

"I was talking to one of the patrol Sergeants and they just said that there were a lot more fights than they normally have," he said.

"While they didn't count how many they were, they just realised there was a lot more happening."

The 21 people affected were a mix of men and women predominately aged 18-25.

Supt Fioravanti said drug dealers were preying on young users in nightclubs.

"We will be continuing with our high visible presence," he said.

"We will be running dog operations, which we do within the CBD anyway and we will definitely be increasing the number of police in the city to try and deal with this incident."

South Australian Ambulance Service operations manager Anthony Pryzibilla said crews were kept very busy in the city.

"It was a particularly busy night in the CBD across the whole area as a result of a whole range of different things - assault, drug taking as well as alcohol intoxication," he said.

We do get a lot of transports out of the city to the hospitals as a result of assaults, alcohol and drug taking.

"When there are increases and spikes in this it just puts further burdens on our resources."

Mr Pryzibilla said the health dangers of ecstasy ranged from overheating and dehydration through to seizure and even death.

He said the bizarre behaviours reported in the city were not entirely uncommon.

"Ecstasy has a chemical compound in it that produces a hullicenegen effect so it can result in a range of different behaviours so it's not unusual that the behaviours that have been reported have been linked to ecstasy," he said.

Mr Pryzibilla said users or friends of users should not hesitate to call an ambulance.

"If one of your friends has taken ecstasy and you're concerned about them and they are displaying abnormal behaviours don't hesitate to call triple-0," he said.

"You don't need to be fearful that the police will attend when you call triple-0.

Mr Pryzibilla said police would only attend a call out if there was a death or if the ambulance crew requested them because of fears for their safety."

South Africans Losing TheWar On Drugs
South Africans Losing TheWar On Drugs | Source

Drugs, Sports and Corruption en vogue

Then we have the issue of Drugs which was addressed by Mgeve(now banned from FB) in the following manner:

A Contemporary historical Event In Real Time

Tales From The Oppressed And Wretched Of Mzantsi

The article below, "THE ORLANDO EAST DRUG SAGA; POLICE MEET WITH LOCAL COMUNITY OF ORLANDO" was posted by a very well known and prolific Fb'er who eventually got banned from Facebook for reasons still mysterious and unclear. When "Mgeve Ixwa" had his Wall Up, she was a constant thorn and critic of the ANC-led government, and a champion of the poor people's struggle and she had a way of capturing the essence of the suffering Africans without the usual clap-trap-crap Jabberwocky and pretentious verbiage and tired jargon one sees here on Facebook in many instances and regular interaction, but Mgeve Ixwa kept it real, simple and straightforward.

What "Mgve Ixwa" was doing and had done(as in writing) was frame the concrete conditions of the Africans of South Africa in stark and and bold relief revolutionary terms of their decrepit inhuman existence and historical narrative, in terms of his writing style, context and content. He was on the cutting edge of a new Mzantsian with a sound grasp as to the material condition of Africans in South africa on the ground, street, Townships and the African people(also had a legion of White people as her followers and 'friends.'), and she was the most natural and intelligent observer of the 'coping' people have to do and deal with in the face of the Drug scourge scouring their families, communities, Townships.

She captured the hard-core reality as it played itself out in front of her and the nation of began to ask questions and propagate and disseminate the real nitty-gritty down-basic issues that hound and still harass the poor Africans of Mzantsi today. She was their mouth piece, reporter, spokesman and propagator of their causes without compromising her writing style nor watering down the issues that people faced and are still facing today.

She called and told of it as is-and as it unfurled itself in real time-and she made it with oodles of Township feel, flair and poignancy. She never colored nor couched his narrative or tried to emulate anyone or steal some lines from somewhere to cobble-up the type of writing she did. She was the megaphone of the African people of Orlando, Soweto and Mzantsi as a whole, and a legend in the folklore and FB Wall posters that affected action, albeit paltry, in moving, changing and shaking things .

What the effects and affects her writing activism did was made the local police take notice, to the extend that a station commander wrote on her answer block acknowledging the things she was talking about in the article below-aand promised to take action. What I can garner from such an event is that Facebook, if used intelligently and strategically, can move the african people's struggle forward. What she managed to do, which is still to be picked up by the users of Facebook from South Africa, was how to ply and apply the idea in our struggle today with her writing style.

She did not write theories about the media, but took the media that she had at her exposure and rigged it such it yielded and by her constant pounding it by posting stinging articles of the calibre if one below results and she got reaction from the authorities-in this case she used the tTownship yarn and day to day realities, she was was observing, which she crafted into the article below to not only make Africans aware of their situation, but sort-of embarrass the police officials to take action because as this article exploded in the Viral Media Datasphere, the PR office of the police force throughout Soweto went into action and something was being done at last... for now, though...

The erudition she brought to the FB post and articles, are still unsurpassed to this day here on Facebook. She was also a constant and harsh critic of the Facebook 'goons, police, and 'trolls', 'spooks',[in some cases attacked Corporations like Monsanto, etc, and she used some of the jargon and verbiage that disturbed a lot of people, and she to castigated and exposed the fakes, charlatans and quislings who were betraying the peope.

She did not only attack the officialese that were running the country down, she also provided very in-depth and well-researhed pieces that were educive to the the army and collective masses and polity of the poor of Mzantsi, of which she was a champion and ardent servant without let-up.

This did not endear her to the 'powers-that-be' who saw her potential and her being dangerous to the present state of the use of the media in South Africa today, more specifically, how she exploited the new media and its technologies, and this was what the presently ANC-led government could not 'ignore' as they did other issues raised by many people on FB. They also monitored her and government officials and parliamentarians were signing in up on her page just to read what she posted or listened to the music she was video-jaying here on the FB Walls, for all races, but was more focused on the people of South Africans this article below shows.

The point she was raising and addressing were live events that were part and parcel of life as lived in Orlando and the actions that were taken or not taken, and through caricaturing the article in the manner she did, she struck an official nerve. These then are the lessons we got from Mgeve Ixwa, that is, in order for one trying at "understanding the media", how one should ply, apply, effect and affect the media to create and make possible change through action. Facebook is a weapon we should learn, understand and know how to manipulate and make it work for us. We have real stories in our midsts and collectives and polities dotting the South African landscpae.

These new merging and emerging media and mediums with the gizmos need to be put to work in relaying and propagating our reality, not as TV or some media moguls and and minions and spin doctors dictate, but what it should say to the world about our plight and struggle and people-of which the messaging and propagation should be dictated and controlled by.

I am going to be posting an update and expand on what Mgeve Ixwa had started and achieved and will be giving a much more extensive background as to understanding Mgeve Ixwa's background by telling a bit of the history of Orlando East and its activism over the decades. Sobukwe cut his revolutionary teeth in Orlando East, although he lived in Mofolo(another Township of Soweto). Mgeve Ixwa and some of us were raised in a very revolutionary and activist environment in Orlando East, and I will give also the emerging contemporary short history of organizations that are shaping up throughout Orlando East today.

I hope that those who had the opportunity to read Mgeve Ixwa's posts, will appreciate her handy-work below, and remember her for the effort she was making in making us understand the present-day technologies, their gizmos, technique and spin, so that we can do likewise, but in this case, as Mgeve did passionately and also intelligently did, for our people and ourselves as we try to build a nation(I have posted articles on this issue here on my Wall and other Pan Africanist and so forth Walls.

Mgeve Ixwa and her writing are important for the Africans of South to begin to pick up the patch work of stories nd events in contemporary South Africa, and if writing about the history of South africans today, could be well advised to follow in the step of such writers as Mgeve Ixwa to being to compose and rewrite an also recreate the history of AAfricans in South Africa from yesteryear to date. Part two and a sequel to the article of Mgeve will be posted as the second part of the Update on the drug crisis in South Africa and then some.


"The most Brilliant article that I have read here in a very long time. Its long, but every bit is worthwhile reading. The power of the Facebook as a virtual 'meme' and 'zine' spreader is apparent in this article. ............. Just by posting on several Walls on the FB, and the quick police response indicates that the authorities are listening-in, and for those of them that are conscious, they have decided to begin to do the right thing."
(The Facebook Blurb was posted from and for Mgeve Ixwas Facebook Wall by Faried De Bruyns)
Mgeve Ixwa
When I started to surreptitiously enquire and start digging into the Drugs problem amongst the locals, I noticed their reluctance to really talk about this issue. Some feared for their lives, and others just took a passive approach and mostly did not want to even talk about it. But drug peddling and the constant traffic was increasing dramatical every three or four minutes of squads of youth walking zombie-like to the drug pen/den. The condition of these boys, girls and grown ups caught up in the drug swirl and haze was still ongoing and was still raising ire of the community each day.
The other thing I got to know was the fact that some of the neighbors were in the pay of (the Drug wholesaler dealer) and were ratting on their neighbors who dared question this activity, or reported to 'Maponya' and his menacing henchmen/boys who was saying and doing what countered his interest/trade. Some neighbors have had their houses burnt down or beaten to pulp because when they called the police,and if the locals complained aboutthat the police would tell Maponya as to who was it that snitched on him.
The locals also complained that Maponya had some hired thugs used to terrorize and pummel anyone they considered a foe to their enterprise. It all led to the fear that gripped the local collective that was when the people started telling me that they would like that something should be done because at that juncture, they did no have many options, in fact, none whatsoever, to deal with this social malaise. They went on to tell me that if ever there was something that could be done to contain this menace, they might be able to talk and take action.

So I decided to piece together the sparse details I was able to collect and post on the few Walls I had access to and they did receive some fired-up response. This Article was reposted for the benefit of those who had not seen, and I had just gotten access to various FB sites I could not get in the post to all and everybody. But there is something that makes me think, believe and say that the top honchos in government follow us on FB and they 'follow' up on what the people are talking about.

Prior to my posting the aforementioned post, there was absolutely nothing the police were doing, of which they only 'visited' Maponya's house to make pretend, maybe arrest a few lackeys, and if he happens to be around(Maponya) was also hauled to jail and in a few hours he would hit the streets again and resume his illicit trade with great abandon this time.. But ever since I made the post on FB about the gangrene decimating the poor, I think the authorities feared that their image will take a hit, and I think the bosses within the government sent a memo to their underlings to take care of this situation as quickly as possible.

Four days ago, the police had mounted a humongous raid on some of the houses adjacent and closer to Maponya's house and this time they took everybody(young girls and boys-teens) to jail. The locals knew this was the way in which the police have acted and operated in the past, so there was nothing new. The only difference this time was that the number of the police that came was much bigger than before, and this left the locals baffled. Nonetheless, they swept away everybody, and within a few hours, the business of drug selling resumed and was operating like nothing had happened a few hours ago.

This really got to the people who were incensed and wondering how long this charade and farce was going to end. After the police raid, there was a total lull in police activities, and the business picked up with a very rapacious pace- and this time, drug dealing, trafficking and consumption came back with a vengeance, and locals were left feeling forlorn, dreary and destitute- they felt that their police and government have betrayed them like before, so, why should they care.

Then, the police organized a meeting with the locals through 'word-of-mouth' that they will hold a meeting with them in an open space that lies between the Ditawana Lower Primary School and the Anglican Church in Orlando on the 22 of April. The meeting started at 2 pm in the afternoon until 5.30 pm in the evening. The police had come in full force, and this time, the residents of Orlando showed up, and formed a motley crew of about 200 people.

The meeting was heated, yet cordial and the inhabitants of Orlando were demanding the arrest or taking of the life on Maponya, The Police seemed to have come prepared for the crowd which was oozing with anger and venting. Some were offering information as to where he shacked throughout the Township of Soweto in several domiciles they named and some even gave the addresses as to his whereabouts in those houses he lived.

Then the talks between the police and the residents took on a more affirmative and positive turn. The Police(here I will not state the things that were agreed upon in any particular order) and the locals agreed that the Drug Problem was very serious and that the police will work with the community to: - Create Patrol groups made entirely of the trusted people in the community and they encouraged the people to sign up and volunteer.

The Police and the people agreed that these volunteers needed to be paid, and that the residents of Orlando should each fork-out R10.00 a month and this will go into paying the patrolling volunteers; - Some residents were impressed that this will also create job opportunities and enhance their safety and erase the drug trade;

The police suggested that this patrolling entities will have to wear some type of uniform, have torches and whistles; - Because the inhabitants of Orlando had complained that some of the traffic was coming from the adjacent Diepkloof township, the police and the people resolved to have constant patrols on the tar road that divides both townships;

This came from the talk the Township folks were vehemently saying that crime was high-housebreaking, assault, homicide and general criminal behavior had become the norm- so that, whenever they chased these thugs, they would run back into the Township of Diepkloof- so that, and it was it was now agreed-upon that all residents coming into Orlando from Diepkloof will be stopped, frisked and questioned. -

The Police suggested to the people that this organization has to work within the law, and will be required to be made legal and will operate under the auspices of the Police Station of Orlando and the civic and street blog groups- that is, liaise with the police as to their performance and operations- and this should be done once a month; also, -

It was also proposed that this group, which will also be closely monitored by the local block associations and civic organizations, will have to make meeting with the locals to report on their progress; - Some suggested that the monthly payments that will be eked out the poor inhabitants should not be banked(and the locals were totally opposed to the idea of banking, but to be paid out in cash to the patrollers to avoid scams and such like thing when money is involved(this is till going to be fleshed-out by the residents and their respective organizations- but the consensus is behind the idea of avoiding banking); -

The executive that was chosen would be required to hold meetings with the Police on monthly basis in the Police station and with the communtiy once a month; - Mr. Maduna, who is the Chief of the Community Policing(CPF) Forum for the greater-Soweto offered to help and suggested that the patrollers needed to be registered and made legal so that the patrollers can be insured.

There was also a discussion as to when the patroller could start doing their job-it was agreed upon, based on the advice by Mr. Maduna that they should start immediately(though few days left that they should get paid- and amongst the residents. Some suggested that the inhabitants of Orlando should pay, by the end of the month, their R10.00 so that the patrollers should get paid, rather than wait to start working at the end of the month.

The police counseled that the people must be careful not to report lies (because personal grudges and other disagreements they might have with their neighbors), because doing so would result in the perpetrators being arrested ; - If the residents report any type of drug dealing, the police assured the residents, and the police mount a raid and find it to be true, there will be a reward of R40.000.00.(A gasp could be discerned coming from the crowd)

The police offered this as an incentive to make the residents report crimes of drug trafficking and the like, and they were beginning to build trust from and with the police- this the police offered so that they can have cooperation with the local people in matters of crime and so forth, and be able to establish a better rapport with the locals;.

The police were participating fully, by answering questions from the people who really seemed concerned with patience, advices, encouraging people to come or phone them immediately and that they are prepared to help since the residents are the ones seeing and living with this scourge, and the felt that they needed to upgrade their policing within the collective-along with the help and cooperation with the local Orlando sector and peoples.

The police advised the locals to make sure that they set a date and appointment so that the Cops will know when that the date is set up, they can arrange to meet specifically with this community and patrol groups, since they the police, they pointed out, are working in various hot-spots around the Township and Soweto- this they thought would enable efficiency and quick response to the community needs; and, one of the Sergeants offered to personally attend to the Orlando locals of the area of drug dealing and Orlando as a whole because he wants to do a personal follow-up on all reported crimes in the area affected and the whole township, with the intentions of "cleaning" these drug Dens and Businesses;

Now, this morning, there seems to be a change that has occurred from the meeting yesterday which was held from 2 pm to 5 pm in the afternoon, and this change being that one is now beginning to see the patrollers in their newly created positions and areas- there is action and a different atmosphere that presented itself, and those who were working for some time on this issue of drug possession, dealing and use amongst the residents, along with those who signed and joined yesterday, have begun to carry-out their scouting and their patrolling duties duties around the townships have begun their routines- which is going to be a 24/7/365 shift.

People are standing in groups, and those that did not sign-in yesterday are coming in droves and offering to sigh-up and be part of the newly created defensive and patrolling operation now underway as of the writing of this post. There is now a certain exuberance and an air of expectancy pregnant with hope and the possibility of stability that has been forged between the Local community and their local police force; people who live in the immediate block or in it, were not clearly represented at the meeting with the police. Maybe this was due to the fear that they have been living under, so they were fearing the repercussions that would follow as has been the form in the past.

But this morning, one sees the block residents offering themselves up to signing and to be part of this operation, and their realization that they have just been empowered and some modicum of normalcy is beginning to manifest itself as I am standing here and taking it all in. The power of the Facebook as a virtual 'meme' and 'zine' spreader is apparent in this article. What has happened here is that a single article, which was seen by the authorities who desperately want to adjust their image of community policing and effectively clamp down on drug dealing, has taken a life of its own, and I have a sneaky suspicion that they saw the post.

The police's prompt response and addressing the community head on, and making sure that prompt action and delivery was afforded the local, along with guaranteed safety, has set the local communal adrenaline flowing and is now steroidical in its impact and affect/effect of and for the whole community. Just by posting on several Walls on the FB, and the quick police response indicates that the authorities are listening-in, and for those of them that are conscious, they have decided to begin to do the right thing. As for the community, they are still stumped by this positive reaction and some still remain leery and distrustful.

The only thing that perplexes them less, this morning, is the immediate response and affect this is having on the community. the sort of feel like they are now in-charge. The use of the FB begun to get the ball rolling for the Poor and huddled masses, and has injected a spirit of 'doing for oneself', an air of the self , self-dependency, actualization, self realization, self awareness and communal unity and community self-edification, as human beings and people of Mzantsi.

If the FB can be used in many creative ways, that speak truth to power and tell the people the truth all the time, and the results are amazing when the people recognize and see the power they can have given the present situation they are dysfunctionally steeped-in, this helps move forward the revolution and change.
This is a teachable moment for all to begin to realize that the FB is a tool for mass mobilization and action. Action is amongst and within the toiling masses. Immersing oneself and embedding ones work within their milieu, helped bring together a technological gadgets and gizmos, and the demands and needs of the masses to work in tandem.

It is good to give people material and reading material online, but it is more enthralling to work with all types of the poor, being them and among them, listen and make mental and observational notes, talk to various individual in order to get the overall mood and feel of public opinions and discourse.

There is a lot of practical work that is gained from such inside work with the poor, in the process one develops a language that is easy to understand for the armies of the poor, and this helps the worker to be able to be accepted, protected and known by the masses. I have always believed in the intelligence of the masses, it is just that there are no books written about how to get them into meaningful hands-on participation and change. Practicing democracy is not theory when it comes from the mass mind and amorphous society we call the people of Mzantsi.

There are issues that Affect Africans and other ethnic in different and same ways at the same time. To sift through "what ought to be done", as Lenin asked, is to go down dirty into the communities, societies that are infected with these issues which inhibit and destroy their humanity. I am not waxing philosophical here, but working with and amidst our people is the most revolutionary thing that most of us can do. We are living today in a technological and result-based and orientated society.

If we are to compete in the world that is fast changing every six months, we cannot afford to be always trying to catch up with the lost six months that we have even lost count as to how far back we are retreating and regressing into oblivion and maybe extinction? (Just wondering).

The approach to changing and making life better for South Africans cannot be found outside South Africa. The people of the country themselves are better molders, movers and shakers of their own destiny. Any ideas that come from outside, should be culled in order to customize to local and national needs. We can read and listen to all speakers from the world about the suffering of other people(which is a good thing- or theories of revolution or change- all good), but it is the actual being-there-and-doing and applying tactics and strategies that benefit the poor, and who in turn will make it possible for anyone working for their concerns to be well catered for-listened to and their actions they propose to to the masses are carried out to the letter-word-wise and action-wise by a whole collective of poor Africans.

We cannot play the game of Ostrich-head-in-the-sand approach... this indeed is shirking our responsibilities as a people. The Facebook should become a revolutionary tool for change, for all, and for the "Good of All South Africans". But if we are to start within and around our people, as I did with your own, that is good enough too; I think the mannerisms and patterns of social interaction and inter-ethnic relation can be tested and experimented with as in getting all well-informed about how we begin to create a new society- shed-off the carcass of the Dead Apartheid order and regime, and begin developing inter-ethnic visits amongst different people, not as tourist, but as South Africans.

Anyone knows or does not know about the story of the Rugby Team, the Bulle(Bulls) who came to play in Orlando Stadium for the first time, would be well served if they wee to refresh theimselves. The Bulle stadium stadium was shut down, in the White suburbs so that they had to move their final match elsewhere, and Soweto, specifically, Orlando East was picked for the match.

This was due to the fact that the highways and stadiums were being prepared for the World Cup, that the Bulle and their Fans came to Soweto(Orlando), got stuck on the Soweto highway(because of construction)- left heir cars on the side of the road and walked through the Townships(Diepkloof, Noordgesig and into Orlando); white fans with their families, children, uncles, grandma's, wives, girlfriends, boyfriends you name it, was there and walking barefoot in and around the township headed for the stadium.

As they walked through the Township street, en masse and en-route to the stadium, what they witness and was done for them in Orlando, they stepped into the ululating sounds made by the locals, of the Township of Orlando East.
This was one of the most strangest sights and forms of communal interactions ever seen in South Africa to date: thousands and thousands of White people walking in all streets available in all around Orlando East as they headed to the stadium. This has never ever happened.

That White people in hundreds of thousands of their group marching into an all African Township, and the White fans were 'really taken aback by the reception and the cordial welcome and greetins and hands-clapping for them, by the African local people of Orlando East, as they passed through in different streets they have never known existed nor had ever set their foot there, until now.

Meanwhile, the Township residents were standing on the side of the streets, of top of their roofs, hailing and clapping and hollering- in a greeting and happy way, waving and whistling and talking in a bantering back and forth way with the many passing White people, shaking hands with the locals, hugging and all of them carrying-on like that- that I say, in the history of the land and peoples of south Africa, nothing like that ever happened.

In fact, the residents of Orlando were saying that "we never had nor saw the World Cup Fans in our Township, but we had our World Cup, better than any, with the fans of the Rugby club who came to Orlando Stadium on that day". The White Rugby fans and the players were giving out cash to young kids, that after the match, the fans went into the township full force. Instead of heading back to their cars parked by the roadside of the Soweto Highway, most of them they spilled into the "Kasi"(Township of Orlando East and some others into the one called Orlando West.

They were entering and seated in the "Mekhukhus" eating and drinking whatever was offered to them by the residents; dancing and 'braaing' and drinking and having uninhibited fun, learning the language of the people on the spot, others were given African names and so forth that I say, there are possibilities even if there are not as we speak at present, of fashioning a better and new South Africa-this incident and scene gave people a perfect example as to how to begin to handle themselves and social interaction with other ethnic group..

There were a few incidences of violence, but it was the Africans who made sure that did not happen in the large scale than it should up to that point. There are pictures of White people having been robbed and beaten up, but in turn the locals caught up with the perpetrators and beat the hell out of them.

The Bulles adopted Orlando Stadium as their Rugby field and have been donating toward the education of some African kids, that I say, in our current state of racal tensions, calmer minds and people with revolutionary ideas of a new type of social engineering should be given the platform to air and try-out their new ideas on how to ameliorate the racial implosion that is about to blow off. The people of Orlando are feeling and beginning to see a new day with renewed hope and courage.

This is but one of the many things we can do as two people or a group, at times alone to affect positive change and encourage less racial tensions. As our African culture teaches us that "Respect' ("Hlompho/Inhlonipho") is the key to racial harmony- if that possibility is still here in Mzantsi. "Only as equals, can respect become manifest in a country like South Africa.
We are better off as a people realizing and learning this concept of "Ubuntu"(so overused and over-marketed and emptied of its cultural value, customary essence, traditional application, and practice as a rite of balancing social relation, creating and enhancing respect as the first order of the day, and also respecting other humans and human.)

But has a liberating value of practicing it in recognition of the humanity of the self and that of others. The people of South Africa, especially Africans, have to begin thinking about how to really work with the masses in order to succeed in trying to improve, develop and launch the Poor into this new millennium that is still young. For now, the people of Orlando are trying to pick up the pieces, and for those who do not really know Orlando East, it is about time you visited the residents there, as I said, not as a tourist, but as neighbors would visit each other..

There's a lot to learned from Soweto and the Soweto's throughout Mzantsi; there is no more need for us to be entrapped by the past legacy of Apartheid. I am not going to allow what was done to me and our African people dictate nor control my being and thinking. I prefer to work to see to it that our people's need to be seen by all and sundry as to their Human face and grace and as Human beings-be made into a reality. I do not ask nor beg anyone to do this, but doing it will in the process will reset the present state of life as it exists here and now- this is what I have to say and will be going back to the locals and observing further what is happening since they have started to pick up the shattered and broken pieces...

Drug Dealers, Manufacturers Plus The Police Corruption

Police raided a drug den in Orlando East, Soweto, and arrested six people on Monday. The illicit laboratory was allegedly used to make Mandrax tablets. Gauteng police spokesperson Capt Katlego Mogale said the raid followed a tip-off from the public.
Police raided a drug den in Orlando East, Soweto, and arrested six people on Monday. The illicit laboratory was allegedly used to make Mandrax tablets. Gauteng police spokesperson Capt Katlego Mogale said the raid followed a tip-off from the public. | Source

Nyaope Decimating Orlando East

The narratives below are an attempt to put the present-day popular community struggles in the Townships in proper context and perspective and the role Drugs are playing within the community

This activities are not really known to many because we are too busy being busy. some lame opportunists like to say "Kuya Sheshwa"(Things are moving fast) so that, under that deluded false and fictive belief that it is so, nothing gets done, and everyone is in a hurry to get the next Rand/Dollar(some no more say they want the rand, they specifically state that they are after the Dollar)-because people are now paying close attention to the Dollar/Rand market exchange rate. There are many things that are happening and geared towards individual up-liftment and attaining a status, whatever-means-it-takes, that his has overshadowed and discarded into the rubbish bin of irrelevancy and all that is the people's culture, history, customs, traditions, sacred rites and their practices, African languages, Music, Dance and a whole host of other Cultural war frontal attacks and other much more insidious and obfuscated counter-revolutionary techniques and tactics in a dangerous covert-war-presented as 'low-intensity-warfare to the pundits and observers/Writers/Bloggers, but in reality it is a fully fledged all out War on the peoples institutions, culture, history, image, identification, soul, spirits mind and hearts that needs to be addressed here.

Civil Street Committees Redux

Some of the of the activities that are beginning to take shape here in the Townships are the Civil Street committees which were the modus operandi during the Apartheid War in its full attack on the unarmed and defenseless African people inside of South Africa. These street committees came about and played a key role in the process of the people liberating themselves from the dreadful yoke of Apartheid concentration camp induced and created existence. The organization had their success and failures, but they have remained in the mind and historical memory of the people as a whole. So that, with the rise in rapes, murders, criminal activity and other crippling maneuvers we have to face, the people are now using their past by recasting it in the same or differentiated mode of the days of the wrathful Apartheid outfit.(Which has morphed into the ANC/Multi-National/-Corp-World Bank financial ogres-and this will be discussed in full detail in an upcoming post).

With the coming of "Nyaope", which is decimating and wiping many generations of the African People, as has been witnessed first-hand here in Orlando East, and have posted articles written about it by the locals and some already banned FB'ers, that, the people have now begun to work and build up on the street committees, and they are taking shapes from a couple or single household giving their sons and friends a duty to patrol the streets and certain area-boundaries(small areas but strategic. these then, in some parts of Orlando East have taken a street committee form and organization which holds monthly and at times, emergency meeting amongst their members and the families involved.

The Police in Orlando East had form CPF(Community Policing forums, which liaised with the community and handled local community grievances, disputes and other such like matter. Our local office has already set up a court system in some adjacent building of the whole Office complex to deal with all sorts of court required procedures, and this is somewhat right in the heart of the Townships, so that it has become an institutions which is not really doing badly, but could be better.

Now, when the locals who are forming these civil patrolling and defense entities, they are no more getting any cooperation from the police if reviving the CPFs because these enabled the locals to patrol their streets and areas, and they got some payment, now this time the locals are told that there might not be money to pay the patrollers, and this effort has really been tried in many instances I have Posted about from an article written by Mgeve, which I will repost for those who did not see it). In that article, Mgeve gives us the sneak-preview as to how matter went down or up during the one of the few times the police dealt openly and prepared to do anything with the local people. This died off of because there were no funds coming from the local residents of Orlando East to finance this effort. The same move has been tried and is still being tried, and hope that the police read this and move up on it, to connect with the police in order to begin to restore order and stamp our the drug plague devastating the core of our communities.

So, the residents have begun to plug-in these formations and they are gradually picking up steam, and I will be posting more about the progress that will have been done by the, For now, they are still in their baby-stage, and the residents have to face the reality of constant hunger and bleakness which is the results of many Years of Apartheid and the present dysfunctional social engineering that has characterized the present ruling government. I caught an article posted by Master Key Rwantsane here on FB(Check Wall) wherein he cites what Cabral has to say castigating the African National Elite...

Despite the shenanigans of the African elite here in Mzantsi, they are too busy looting the public coffers and unaware of or ignoring the motion of the restless and disgruntled armies of the poor masses who are gelling, recollecting and bringing their historical memory as to how they resisted the harshest condition-and why they should and can do the same with the present government they have elected. This is a slow-going process for now, but it has a tendency of gathering steam and creating long and damaging impact and results, and in the long run, and gathers very fast, too., this help them learn how to continue struggling by coming together around many similar old and new issues that are confronting them in their communities.

Basic Mix in preparing Myaope-Marijuana(Dagga) and heroines

Nyaope – a concoction of cheap grade heroine, detergents, rat poison, and even occasionally ARV’s (HIV anti-retroviral medication) is highly addictive and relatively cheap– $2.50. The psychoactive drug creates the initial feeling of euphoria, followe
Nyaope – a concoction of cheap grade heroine, detergents, rat poison, and even occasionally ARV’s (HIV anti-retroviral medication) is highly addictive and relatively cheap– $2.50. The psychoactive drug creates the initial feeling of euphoria, followe | Source


"NYAOPE"/"Whoonga": The Killer Designer/Homemade Killer Drugs Consuming Africans of Mzantsi...

This is the topic that was picked up on earlier in 2012 by an FB'er called Mgeve, and I had made a promise that I will pick up the cudgel since she was banned from FB. This is a very serious issue which has received scant attention or totally ignored by the African South African pundits here on the Walls of FB. It is a fact that the drug has decimated families, youth and elderly people. It has left destruction and ruin in the townships throughout Soweto, but in this case, I will focus on Orlando East.

Drugs like Cocaine and Mandrax pills started proliferating in the Township around the early eighties and has now become a pandemic throughout different communities of Africans, Coloreds and Whites. In Orlando East(Soweto), the inhabitants have been watching with dread and fear as their youth became zombies, sick, and died from this drug-which, when imbibed, makes its victims froth at the mouth and tear-up incessantly, walking unsteadily-zombie-like walk and creates an ever increasing crave, leading to all sorts of crime that has this drug-besieged Township of Orlando teetering on the brink of lunacy and genocide.

This is a problem which has been thus far so utterly ignored that the residents of Orlando, rallied by the members of the CPF(Community Police Forum which was formed by the local Orlando station police force) along with and run by the local residents-who patrol and try to keep crime at a low minimum. On the second Major Saturday of August 2013, a coalition of local Orlando residents, Their CPF Team and several policemen in their cars descended on the drug dens dotting the Township in each and every street. Let me give a background of this drug epidemic as penned by Eleanor Hall:

"Heads-Up On Nyaope"

"The South African government is warning that drug abuse could pose an even bigger threat to its young people than the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

It says drug use has increased by 600 per cent in the last decade.

Drug dealers are even using AIDS drugs and rat poison to make highly addictive narcotics.

As Sally Sara reports from Johannesburg.

(Sound of car horns)

SALLY SARA: We're standing on a street corner in the township of Alexandra.

It's not just any corner. This is where Nelson Mandela used to live, but less than 50 metres from his old house, teenagers are smoking drugs.

One glassy eyed 16-year-old giggles and says he doesn't have much respect for the former president.

BOY: Mandela (laughs) because Mandela didn't buy me anything. I want a car (laughs).

(Sound of music)

SALLY SARA: The local drug is called Nyaope. It's a mixture of dope, heroin, rat poison and cleaning products.

Sometimes it's also laced with anti-retroviral AIDS medication.

Linda Twala is a local funeral director and community campaigner in Alex.

LINDA TWALA: This drug Nyaope when you use it is dangerous. Some of the children that been using this stuff, they are now hopeless. I mean, they are damaged, if I may put it that way.

SALLY SARA: In the early 2000s Mr Twala buried some of the thousands of young victims of the AIDS epidemic. Now, it's the victims of drug violence.

LINDA TWALA: The drug problem is even worse, because I am worried about our children.

SALLY SARA: Earlier this week, South African police minister, Nathi Mthethwa, said drugs could be an even bigger threat to the nation, than the AIDS pandemic.

The government estimates that illegal drug use has increased by around 600 per cent in the past decade and costs the South African economy $2 billion a year.

But, there's another cost that's even more devastating.

(Sound of door opening)

KHOSI SITHOLE: This is where the incident happened. He was in his bed. He was asleep.

SALLY SARA: Members of the Mazibuko family open the door of a small, neat room. It's not much bigger than a double bed.

A sister, mother and grandmother are sitting on a mattress on the floor.

This is where 25-year-old Sifiso Mazibuko was shot dead, as he slept last Thursday night.

KHOSI SITHOLE: This is the room that he was staying in, this very room where he was shot in his bed. He was just starting his life, actually, 'cause he was still very young. And yeah, unfortunately it's always the good ones who suffer the most. I mean, my brother was... my brother was, you know, he was somebody you could be proud of.

SALLY SARA: Sifiso had a job, a child and a future, but he was allegedly killed by teenagers high on Nyaope. They wanted his television, but took his life instead.

His sister, Khosi Sithole says the drug problem is so bad in South Africa, many people are living in fear, instead of freedom.

KHOSI SIFISO: I'm not free. I'm afraid. That is not freedom. I don't think this is the South Africa our parents fought for. Our parents fought for us so that we can be anything and everything that we wanted to be. This is not freedom.

SALLY SARA: Young South Africans have inherited a different kind of freedom.

They are free of apartheid but shadowed by unemployment, crime and economic inequality.

Funeral director, Linda Twala is worried about the future of the next generation of young South Africans.

LINDA TWALA: You know a child is a child. No child wants to be a thug at the age of 14, 15, but, they don't even know how many people they've killed. And this stuff is dangerous.

(Sound of people singing)

"Community Action and and Exhumation of Crime/Drugs" - Drug Ground Zero Soweto and Durban and Cape Town....

As the article above aptly shows we take note on this part of the article that the same sound of singing, became protestations when the coalition I had described above descended onto to the drug houses and dens within Orlando East. A very disturbing picture began to emerge.

The Jo'burg Metro police gave permission to to the marchers,a nd provided the police force, and it was explained to the marchers that the agreement, and permission to approach the drug dealers was given. With placards and a huge number of people began advancing to the 'known' Drug dens, and those who sold from street corners or shop stoops.

The people went to the houses, containers used as phone phones booths and other illicit activities including the selling of "Nyaope"; The mob advised the police that the Zimbabweans, Nigerians, Pakistanis, and some Colored[along with locals] should be arrested and searched for drugs. In some houses in Orlando East, they found drugs on the bodies of Old grannies, who were used as carriers.

Heading the large group was Councilor Matlaka(Councilor of Dube), along with 8(eight) police cars, about 15 policemen ant eh CPF patrollers were about 30, and the rest of the group consisted of a large number of undisclosed members of the local resident. Five young boys were arrested and were found to have drugs on their persons. Some of these dealers were women who had come from the rural areas and were very secretive as to who their suppliers were. Others were resistant to the ob but caved in when they saw the mob's menacing bearing and intent.

In the part of the Township called "Roma"[which is still Orlando East], two houses were searched and drug paraphernalia was found; they also found a lot of stolen IDs and Marijuana in bags, along with credit cards and guns. Some of this stuff was found under the beds in some of these houses, or carelessly strewn all ver the dirty and unkempt houses.

In another areas of Orlando around a store called "Goodluck" several houses were without owners, and all sorts of evil and illicit and sordid activities have been taken place in plain sight and nobody could anything about it.. In one "Pink" Big House, the occupants tried to run away, but were apprehended had had on their person both 'Nyaope' and Marijuana and two guns.

Maponya - (The Nyaope Potentate whose fiefdom is Orlando East)

In the area around the Grounds and Tennis Courts(Known Generally as 'Escort'(Still in Orlando East) is the headquarters of the Nyaope sales. Hoards of youth and well-off middle class Africans, along with cops(who are in the pay of a guy, Mgeve, in her article, identified as "Maponya"), has in his employ, his grandmother, and siblings-the Police and local ANC honchos. One of the 'carriers' who serves his customers on his behalf, was found with six plastics bags and she was in a close to comatose state..

The locals who were in the march, alerted the police that Maponya's grandmother had all the drugs hidden in her body, underneath her clothes. She was very rude and arrogant and dared the police to touch. She was arrested and searched on arrival in that the police station On seeing what's happening, Maponya attempted to escape, put on a disguise but the citizens saw to it that he was apprehended.

When he was brought into the parked police cars, he insisted that he should sit in the front with the police driver. All the time he was wagging his finger and berating the police, and none responded to his charade. From this incident it was apparent that the Police Commander and his side-kicks(police grunts) were in the pay of this lilliputian drug potentate.

The community, who have been seeing the police and other people of note come to buy or get paid by him over a period of time, lost their cool. They threatened to riot and demanded that Maponya be put in the back of the squad car with all other arrestees. Eventually he was put in the back with all other small-time drug dealers, and he was clearly miffed about this and he carried on his protestations.

What got him off the hook, was the directive the police said that he could not be arrested if he did not have any drugs on him. Those who worked for him refused to snitch or rat out on him. They all denied having received or brought this stuff from him-and the junkies were intimidated into denying that he supplied or sold them the "Nyaope".. This technicality, help set him free and he was released without being charged.

The crowd moved to an area in Orlando too, called 'Paramount', and they went into the ramshackle shacks filling up the yards of most houses in Orlando, and in them they found and routed drug dens , prostitution harems, and 3 people were arrested there-considered to be the main bosses. As far as one can tell, "Nyaope" is sold in each and every street in Orlando East.

The denizens of Orlando were disgruntled and felt betrayed, because everyone knew who(Maponya) was really distributing drugs wholesale in the Township, and he walked scot-free, due to a flimsy technicality in the law so that, in the end, the people wanted the Minister of the Police, Mrs. Raphiyega and the government to become involved.

The people finally decided to call a meeting in a week of two, to report back to the community these events, and have decided to take the case to the Provincial government and they want the Premier to take this case over.
Most of those residents who partook in the raid, have to go around the Townhsip armed. this saga will be updated very soon.

"Drug And Chemical Warfare On the People Of Mzantsi"

Below I will link an article which no longer talks about "Nyaope, but "Whoonga" which is a potent and highly addictive mixture of Marijuana, heroin, and HIV Medications. The same with "Nyaope" and other concoctions, which also include the life-saving pills for HIV-Aids, and literally makes waste of the users and death, sickness, crime, homicide, rape and so forth have spiked. This is a crisis, and it needs to be addressed aggressively, or we stand to loose not only generations, but a whole nation of people high on home-made designer drugs which are decimating communities throughout South africa with unequaled impunity.

Until the day we Africans of Mzantsi stop thinking of and for our individual selves only, until they day we Africans of Mzantsi say enough is enough; and, until we come to our senses and go and see for ourselves what I am talking about or everyone is writing about what these drugs are doing to us, our people, relatives and communities[Nation], we will forever be in our cocoons and do nothing, and we are clearly facing something more dangerous than HIV AIDs(Which is still battering and wiping the core of our communities), we will in the end taken-snuffed by the genocide we are now facing. There is more to the story as to how these drugs came into the country, and I will be writing an article tracing the origins of this scourge and addiction.

We are really much better than this, lest we forget that.... We can all 'wax political' to our egos content.. But this, is not going away, instead, it is threatening our very existence as the indigenous of the country of South Africa... We are in the clutches of a very dangerous and deadly grip of a drug epidemic whose likes has never been seen before in our country. We need to begin to help ourselves and come to these communities and route the drugs and dealers consistently and brutally, or it is they, as we are seeing, who will run our Townships(they already are) or either its us who will have the finally say, and control and run our townships and communites... Whither Mzantsi.....

Whoonga Drug Use on the rise in Natal and heading towards Gauteng areas
Whoonga Drug Use on the rise in Natal and heading towards Gauteng areas | Source

Whoonga- the Drug

Three years ago, Sipho Molefe (not his real name) was a normal 16-year-old boy — an athletic, easygoing high schooler who was well liked among his peers in rural South Africa. Today, Sipho is unemployed, gaunt, and mired in a life of crime outside Durban, where he and untold others have been gripped by a drug known as "whoonga" — a potent and highly addictive mixture of marijuana, heroin, and, most shockingly, HIV medications.

"He has lost a lot of weight. He was a very fit and strong boy, and now he is thin and is sick," Sarah, Sipho’s mother, said through a translator in an email to The Verge. Sarah, 42, asked that her real name not be disclosed in this report, for fear of reprisal from local gang members and whoonga dealers. "He cries and hits his head when he cannot get whoonga ... He now steals my money, and has sold all his clothes just for the drug."

Antiretroviral (ARV) medications have played an enormous role in Stemming the spread of HIV across the globe, but when crushed up and smoked as whoonga, they can destroy lives. Users say the street drug creates intense feelings of ecstasy and euphoria — at least some of which may be attributable to the ARV drug efavirenz, according to new research.

This high comes at an enormous cost. According to experts, prolonged use can lead to stomach ulcers, internal bleeding, and excruciating withdrawal symptoms. When Sipho doesn't get his fix, his mother says, he can turn into a monster.

"He becomes mad," Sarah says. "He screams and shouts, and has hit me and my husband already when we tried to keep him at home and not go with the other boys."

Media reports have identified efavirenz as a critical component to whoonga, citing hospital robberies and anecdotes from former dealers. Known in the US by its brand name Sustiva, efavirenz is widely acknowledged as one of the most effective first-line medications in suppressing HIV, and is typically prescribed in conjunction with at least two other drugs. It's also readily available in South Africa, where the government supplies efavirenz free of charge for poor HIV patients.

Many have expressed doubts about the illicit use of efavirenz, citing inconclusive evidence on its psychoactive effects, but recent research suggests that the drug may be more potent than previously believed.

In a study presented late last month, Dr. John Schetz, a professor of pharmacology and neuroscience at the University of North Texas, found that efavirenz stimulates the same brain receptors that hallucinogens such as LSD act upon. His team's findings, currently under peer review, may explain why some efavirenz users experience side effects including night terrors, hallucinations, and suicidal depression; they may also explain whoonga's purported appeal to recreational drug users.

"The reasons patients experience these neuropsychiatric side effects are probably the same reasons people want to use [efavirenz] recreationally," Schetz said in an interview with The Verge.

He notes that further research is needed to more fully understand the impact of smoking efavirenz, as well as the drug's interactions with other substances. Based on his findings, though, he says efavirenz "almost definitely" has additive effects, enhancing the impacts of marijuana or heroin.

Quintin van Kerken, director of the Anti-Drug Alliance of South Africa, says there's no doubt that addicts are lacing marijuana and heroin with ARV medicines, though it's difficult to gauge how pervasive the practice has become. The South African government does not keep official records on whoonga abusers, and many provinces don't have the resources to conduct chemical analyses of seized supplies.

A 2011 study from the University of KwaZulu-Natal found only scant traces of ARV medicines in seized whoonga samples. But Dr. David Grelotti, a researcher at the Harvard School of Public Health, says that as a synthetic street drug, its composition likely varies according to a number of factors.

"There's probably no confusion that whoonga is abused in South Africa, but there is uncertainty because we don't really know what's in whoonga all the time," Grelotti said in an email to The Verge. "What's in whoonga probably varies depending on what's available when it is being made."

"HIV medications are added to whoonga," he affirms, "but we don't have any idea how consistently this is happening."

Whoonga use isn't as nationally prevalent as crystal meth, though the drug appears to have taken more of a foothold in South Africa’s poor and predominantly black townships — particularly in the eastern province of KwaZulu-Natal, where peddlers sell whoonga for between 20 and 40 rands a joint (roughly, between $2 and $5). More recently, it's begun spreading to the economic hub of Johannesburg, as well.

In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa's Most AIDS-stricken areas, there have been reports of dealers robbing HIV patients of their medication as they exit treatment centers, in addition to nighttime thefts of hospital ARV supplies. Others procure the drugs through less violent means, offering to purchase medications from destitute patients or corrupt hospital workers.

"Gangsters or dealers offer money to people who are HIV positive, many of whom come from poor rural areas," van Kerken explains. "And they accept it, because at the end of the day, they need to feed their families. It’s very much a poverty issue."

Experts say hospital robberies and patient muggings have thus far had little effect on AIDS drug supplies. As of 2009, an estimated 5.6 million South Africans were infected with HIV, more than any other country. In recent years, the government has embarked on a massive anti-AIDS campaign, expanding testing centers and subsidizing medical costs for its poorest citizens.

Cathy Vos, national coordinator for the government-funded South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (SANCA), acknowledges that hospital robberies have occurred in recent years, though she describes them as "isolated incidents." She also expresses skepticism about the psychoactive effects of efavirenz, arguing instead that dealers may have successfully tricked addicts into believing the drugs boost the high they get from whoonga — a sort of underworld experiment in placebo marketing.

But whoonga may still pose a fatal risk for those using it. Late last year, Grelotti coauthored an article in The Lancet, in which he argued that efavirenz abusers could soon become resistant to the drug. Should they later contract HIV, any treatment may be rendered ineffective.

"Resistance to efavirenz can develop relatively easily," Grelotti explains, saying such resistance "could compromise the whole treatment."

As he and others are quick to point out, efavirenz abuse should not be seen as a reason to abandon the drug altogether. It remains one of the most effective HIV treatments available, and one of the cheapest. Whereas doctors in the US could easily switch to alternative medicines, those in South Africa and other developing nations don’t have many other options.

"We must take great care not to blame patients for this problem," Grelotti says, noting that doing so would only exacerbate the stigma from which many HIV patients already suffer. "We should instead double our efforts to provide people with the care that they need."

He and others say doctors should be more stringent about handing out efavirenz, and that further research is needed to more fully understand the scope of its abuse. Until action is taken, the Molefes and other whoonga-stricken families can do little more than urge addicts to seek rehabilitation, and hope for the best.

"The family are scared of him. We all are," Sarah says of her troubled son. "He sometimes does not come home for many days. We worry and ask God to bring him back."

Wild Life, Drug Trafcking and Arms Trade-Premier Economy Not Benefiting Africans

Profits from the wildlife trade appear to fund terrorist cells in unstable African countries, and the industry is closely linked to the drugs and arms trades, says the WWF
Profits from the wildlife trade appear to fund terrorist cells in unstable African countries, and the industry is closely linked to the drugs and arms trades, says the WWF | Source

Basic Nyaope

The Basics of Nyaope(which, some people claim, is mixed with ore than the contents shown up here)
The Basics of Nyaope(which, some people claim, is mixed with ore than the contents shown up here) | Source

The Scourge of the Drug Called Nyaope

Here I will post an article by Palsh Ghosh titled:

Nyaope: Cheap Drug Cocktail Ravaging Black Townships of South Africa

In a nation already beleaguered by high rates of unemployment, poverty, HIV infection, violent crime and rape, the poor black underclass of South Africa is dealing with yet another crisis that is ravaging their communities – an epidemic involving a cheap drug cocktail comprising heroin, marijuana and other elements like rat poison, cleaning detergents and even crushed-up pills used in treatments of AIDS patients.

This bizarre drug mixture is called “nyaope” – which is extremely addictive like crack cocaine – and has been destroying the lives of youths in black townships like Soweto outside Johannesburg for about the past eight or nine years, according to reports in both European and South African media. The white powder also provides a very cheap high – about $2 per hit.

"I was studying but then I quit because of the drugs. I dropped out of school at 14," a 16-year-old female drug addict in Soweto named Thuli told BBC. Another nyaope user declared: "I must smoke this thing; it's our medication. We can't live without it. If I don't smoke, I will get sick.” Nyaope is primarily the drug of choice in Gauteng Province (which includes Soweto and Johannesburg). However, a similar drug cocktail called “whoonga” is found in the city of Durban in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.

Older addicts, who started out with softer drugs like marijuana, now say that teenagers are jumping in right into the harder stuff, like nyaope. Tragically, like most hard-core drug addicts, nyaope users must rely on theft, even from their own already-impoverished families and neighbors, to finance their debilitating habit. A 28-year former drug addict named Luthando Bulelani in the township of Springs, also near Johannesburg, explained to The Atlantic the toll of drug abuse in his community. "[Drug addicts] will use violence, rape, and [robbery] to get their hit,” he said. “If necessary they'll even kill. Some young men will become rent boys [gay escorts] or even turn to prostitution to feed their addiction." He added that nyaope has become an integral part of many township-dwellers’ daily lives – and rejects the notion that black South Africans are turning to cheap synthetic drugs for the same reason that youths in economically ravaged Greece are. “Nyaope is part of everyday culture in the townships. We're not in austerity, we're in poverty," he said.

Ironically, the South African government has yet to classify nyaope as an illegal substance, making it difficult for the courts to prosecute dealers and users. "It may sound like a volatile concoction, but it's not always known whether heroin is in a [nyaope] joint, or what is [in it] at all, and it's [therefore] harder to control. You can arrest someone on the assumption that they might be taking heroin, but you can't prosecute someone for a concoction of legal substances," Johanna Sehgume, a nurse and drug consultant in Duduza, Guateng, explained to The Atlantic.

Global Girl Media reported that the typical nyaope user is between the ages of 13 and 19, who have little money at their disposal and eager to experience the sudden rush and euphoria provided by the drug. The anti-Aids component of nyapoe is believed to deliver to the user a “hallucinogenic high.” There have been reports of drug addicts raiding HIV treatment facilities in order to steal the anti-retroviral drugs and even stories of AIDS patients selling their pills to desperate nyaope users.

Channel 4 News of Britain reported that there are at least “tens of thousands” of nyaope addicts across South Africa. In response to the growing crisis, the South African government said it will seek to deal with the problem by establishing more treatment centers. "[We are] funding a lot of non-profit organizations that are dealing with the drug issues," Lumka Oliphant, spokesperson for the state’s Department of Social Development, told BBC. "Our communication campaign has heightened, so people know the consequences of drugs and so that our children are educated, as they are the ones the drug dealers are targeting."

Existing treatment centers are already overwhelmed with people seeking help and woefully under-staffed and under-funded. "Soweto is a very big area and I have only four social workers," said Ananias Mbewe, director of the South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence [Sanca] in Soweto. "If I had sufficient funds I'd be able to employ new social workers and to retain the ones I have, especially the young ones. We must join hands again substance abuse.”

South African youths who become entangled in drug addiction find themselves trapped in a nightmarish existence compounded by extremely high joblessness (as much as 60 percent in some townships), low education attainment and hopelessness leading to criminal activity. South African Police Services estimated that 60 percent of all crimes in the country are somehow linked to drugs. A drug dealer bragged to the Daily Maverick of South Africa: “They come from all over. These boys just love nyaope. Girls too, but girls are reluctant to come and buy for themselves so they prefer to send the boys. There are girls, however, who do not mind coming here to buy.”

Both Sehgume and Bulelani hope the government quickly classifies nyaope as an illegal drug. “Having a prosecution process in place means that it will be easier for addicts to seek treatment, as they can be referred to us by the police," the nurse said. Bulelani implored the government to act fast on pushing through changes in the law. "Nyaope is a killer,” he said. “In my eyes, the situation is worse than the current unemployment, HIV and AIDS crisis put together.”

Protest Post-Marikana Massacre

A country known for its brutal apartheid policies from 1948-1994, South Africa is still reeling from Thursday, August 16th’s violent episode between police officers and striking miners. Specifically, police officers resorted to the use of barbed wire
A country known for its brutal apartheid policies from 1948-1994, South Africa is still reeling from Thursday, August 16th’s violent episode between police officers and striking miners. Specifically, police officers resorted to the use of barbed wire

Contemporary And Popular Struggles In South Africa Today

There are some things we really are not speaking about clearly concerning the state and condition of our Africans people here in Mzantsi. there are many things that are happening in the local communities that are not really talked about. People are coming to certain realization and awareness about the decrepit and inhuman existence that we are now lining in since the supposed-death of Apartheid, of which we are not fooled, is still well and alive. Those of us who have bee fighting it for years, know that as a fact and are constantly and consistently fighting it not here on FB or TV, and other White owned media, but deal with it from from the the ground and areas we live in. talking here on Fb is easy, doing what we are now doing, is very tough and at times discouraging. It is the energy that is given by the different large number of people that we keep on going on and working the change as dictated by the community, and letting them begin to take hold of the steering wheel of this struggle that has bee going on now for over 400 years, and has not abated.

In the areas me and my cohorts work in there are no theories nor books, but practical and useful information is what is required. These people and communities I am talking about here do not have access to FBs and computers and the know that having the Internet in their phones, means buying these 'expensive' name brand phones(likely to be be mugged for using them) and the rates of ever owning these phones are prohibitive and these people can hardly put food on the table. But guess what, most people do own these phones, and as to how the manage to finance them is still a mystery, and most of them do won them. but, that is not the thrust of this article, which is more concerned with the changing ground and communities where I live. We never give them full coverage because most os us a waxing political and otherwise and many do not live in these Townships/Ghettoes and come only to have fun or attend funerals and the like.

Firstly, I dislike and never allowed myself to be boxed-in into any category except one, I am an African, and that's it. I do not belong to any party, organization or ideology except for the fact I am clear that I am an African, and ask no permission from anyone to be so and being one. Having said that, the efforts that are going on are premised-upon and based on individual commitment and nothing else is asked of anyone. If there is anything to be gained by the collective in these efforts, it is shared communally. No one cares who the other is in terms of political leanings or belies, but the underlying spirit which is commonly found amongst the residence of Orlando is that of ""Saamwerking"(Working together).

The narratives below are an attempt to put the present-day popular community struggles in the Townships in proper context and perspective

This activities are not really known to many because we are too busy being busy. some lame opportunists like to say "Kuya Sheshwa"(Things are moving fast) so that, under that deluded false and fictive belief that it is so, nothing gets done, and everyone is in a hurry to get the next Rand/Dollar(some no more say they want the rand, they specifically state that they are after the Dollar)-because people are now paying close attention to the Dollar/Rand market exchange rate. There are many things that are happening and geared towards individual up-liftment and attaining a status, whatever-means-it-takes, that his has overshadowed and discarded into the rubbish bin of irrelevancy and all that is the people's culture, history, customs, traditions, sacred rites and their practices, African languages, Music, Dance and a whole host of other Cultural war frontal attacks and other much more insidious and obfuscated counter-revolutionary techniques and tactics in a dangerous covert-war-presented as 'low-intensity-warfare to the pundits and observers/Writers/Bloggers, but in reality it is a fully fledged all out War on the peoples institutions, culture, history, image, identification, soul, spirits mind and hearts that needs to be addressed here.

Civil Street Committees Redux

Some of the of the activities that are beginning to take shape here in the Townships are the Civil Street committees which were the modus operandi during the Apartheid War in its full attack on the unarmed and defenseless African people inside of South Africa. These street committees came about and played a key role in the process of the people liberating themselves from the dreadful yoke of Apartheid concentration camp induced and created existence. The organization had their success and failures, but they have remained in the mind and historical memory of the people as a whole. So that, with the rise in rapes, murders, criminal activity and other crippling maneuvers we have to face, the people are now using their past by recasting it in the same or differentiated mode of the days of the wrathful Apartheid outfit.(Which has morphed into the ANC/Multi-National/-Corp-World Bank financial ogres-and this will be discussed in full detail in an upcoming post).

With the coming of "Nyaope", which is decimating and wiping many generations of the African People, as has been witnessed first-hand here in Orlando East, and have posted articles written about it by the locals and some already banned FB'ers, that, the people have now begun to work and build up on the street committees, and they are taking shapes from a couple or single household giving their sons and friends a duty to patrol the streets and certain area-boundaries(small areas but strategic. these then, in some parts of Orlando East have taken a street committee form and organization which holds monthly and at times, emergency meeting amongst their members and the families involved.

The Police in Orlando East had form CPF(Community Policing forums, which liaised with the community and handled local community grievances, disputes and other such like matter. Our local office has already set up a court system in some adjacent building of the whole Office complex to deal with all sorts of court required procedures, and this is somewhat right in the heart of the Townships, so that it has become an institutions which is not really doing badly, but could be better.

Now, when the locals who are forming these civil patrolling and defense entities, they are no more getting any cooperation from the police if reviving the CPFs because these enabled the locals to patrol their streets and areas, and they got some payment, now this time the locals are told that there might not be money to pay the patrollers, and this effort has really been tried in many instances I have Posted about from an article written by Mgeve, which I will repost for those who did not see it). In that article, Mgeve gives us the sneak-preview as to how matter went down or up during the one of the few times the police dealt openly and prepared to do anything with the local people. This died off of because there were no funds coming from the local residents of Orlando East to finance this effort. The same move has been tried and is still being tried, and hope that the police read this and move up on it, to connect with the police in order to begin to restore order and stamp our the drug plague devastating the core of our communities.

So, the residents have begun to plug-in these formations and they are gradually picking up steam, and I will be posting more about the progress that will have been done by the, For now, they are still in their baby-stage, and the residents have to face the reality of constant hunger and bleakness which is the results of many Years of Apartheid and the present dysfunctional social engineering that has characterized the present ruling government. I caught an article posted by Master Key Rwantsane here on FB(Check Wall) wherein he cites what Cabral has to say castigating the African National Elite...

Despite the shenanigans of the African elite here in Mzantsi, they are too busy looting the public coffers and unaware of the motion of the restless and disgruntled armies of the poor masses who are gelling and bringing their historical memory as to how they resisted the harshest condition, and how they are beginning to come together around many similar and new issues that are confronting them in their communities.

Selling Out of The People's Struggle

Precisely what the elected officials are peddling
Precisely what the elected officials are peddling | Source

It is very easy for me to write about Apartheid as executed by the Boers in South Africa. It has become more harder and confusing to write about Post-apartheid South Africa, for none exists. I think the hardest part is acknowledging the African government in power is the Enemy of Africans in Mzantsi. There is ample truth and proof of which I have provided some above. At this juncture, in order to make my point more concrete before writing my synergized synthesis, I would like to defer to an article written by Karl Beck(Southern Africa Projects Director) which elucidates matters concerning the ANC-led government in this manner:

"After a smooth start in the early post-apartheid period, South Africa’s ruling party, the African National Congress (ANC), is increasingly afflicted by contradictions between its idealistic principles and the baser behaviors of many of its officeholders. These behaviors currently include threats to institute tighter controls over the judiciary and the ANC’s civil society critics, especially the independent media. A discernable trend toward intolerance of judicial brakes on executive power, and also toward a general aversion to any criticism of executive policies and actions, raises troubling questions about the future of democratic governance in South Africa.

The South Africa chapter of Human Rights Watch’s 2012 World Report states that the country “continues to grapple with corruption, growing social and economic inequalities, and the weakening of state institutions by partisan appointments and one-party dominance.” The 2011 Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance shows that although South Africa ranks fifth overall among African governments, its scores have consistently declined over the past five years, with a significant reduction in scores for rule of law, accountability, and participation. Freedom House’s Freedom of the Press report downgraded South Africa from Free to Partly Free status in 2010. With the recent passage in the National Assembly of a bill aimed at prohibiting public access to information about many decisions and acts of government officials, the downward trajectory appears set to continue. In South Africa and elsewhere, many people who were inspired by the liberation of the country from apartheid are asking with concern, “What’s happening?”

Unfortunately, nearly two decades after the end of apartheid, South Africans’ racial differences continue to define their politics. In terms of high political philosophy and statements directed to foreign audiences, the ANC represents itself as multiracial and committed to the “Rainbow Nation.” However, party leaders demand unwavering support from black South Africans, routinely reminding such voters who liberated them from white domination. Indeed, the sufferings of the liberators in apartheid-era jails and foreign refugee camps have been likened to the Crucifixion, and President Jacob Zuma is fond of saying that the ANC will govern “until Jesus comes.” The ANC’s sense of historical entitlement to perpetual rule, and acquiescence to this conceit by a majority of the 80 percent of South Africans who are black, keep the ANC in power and constitute major obstacles to the development of a mature South African democracy. With no real chance of losing power, elected and appointed officeholders too often ignore the obligations of public service and accountability. Regrettably, many ANC leaders seem to view the operation of get-rich-quick schemes for themselves and their allies as the key role of successful politicians.

The Democratic Alliance (DA), the official opposition in the National Assembly and the only opposition party that can effectively challenge the ANC in at least a few provincial and local elections, enjoys majority support among South Africa’s nonblack minorities—the mixed-race “coloureds,” whites, and Indians. The DA serves an important purpose in exposing the ANC’s mistakes and crimes, but, absent the advent of genuine nonracialism in South African society, the DA’s 20 percent racial base of support offers scant promise that it might someday rule South Africa.

During the lengthy struggle for South Africa’s liberation, the ANC was supported by the Soviet Union, and many ANC leaders were educated in Soviet universities. The central position of the Communist Party in Soviet governance became a model for the ANC’s consolidation of power in South Africa. The supreme body in South African politics is the ANC’s National Executive Committee (NEC), which when fully constituted has 88 members, elected every five years by local ANC chapters. Starting with the first universal suffrage elections in 1994, direct election of local and provincial government officeholders and National Assembly members was replaced with a proportional rolls or party-list system that gives party leaders strong powers of promotion and control over elected officials. The rolls system has effectively made the members of the ANC NEC the real rulers of South Africa. As the ANC Youth League president told an audience of South African business leaders, “The South African government is only a subcommittee of the ANC.”

Entitlement has spawned arrogance among some ANC leaders who were once fighters for justice and human rights. When 79 members of the National Assembly were exposed in the media for cashing in airline tickets that had been purchased for official travel and pocketing the reimbursements from a travel agency, the ANC’s majority in the assembly allocated public funds to purchase the travel agency’s account ledgers and sequestered the evidence. This action blocked further public scrutiny and any chance that the culprits could be held accountable in a court of law. It is unfortunately only one example of the ANC’s accustomed practice of giving its wrongdoers official protection as long as they remain in good standing with the party leadership. A number of ANC leaders have been implicated in the misappropriation of government funds, and some have reportedly been involved in crimes including influence peddling, drug smuggling, human trafficking, and murder. Yet prosecutions are rare. When asked to estimate the number of corrupt officials now serving jail sentences, prominent attorney George Bizos replied, “Fewer than the number of my fingers.”

Meanwhile, national development and the delivery of services to citizens have lagged despite ANC leaders’ earnest campaign promises. Health and education systems have especially suffered from government neglect, and widespread dysfunction in local governments has prompted public demonstrations, which in some places have been countered with police violence. These problems have been compounded by the ANC’s policy of “deployment,” whereby the selection of candidates for government jobs at all levels is inordinately influenced by the candidates’ perceived loyalty to the ANC rather than by the possession of requisite professional qualifications.

With the National Assembly and most national, provincial, and local government bodies largely under ANC control, the Zuma government is presently targeting private media and the independent judiciary as elements that allegedly require increased executive supervision. It is worth noting that not long after the wife of the minister of state security (intelligence) was convicted, amid extensive media coverage, of drug smuggling, the same minister was leading the ANC’s effort in the National Assembly to muzzle the media through passage of secrecy legislation. Many South Africans are asking whether the secrecy bill is primarily intended to shield government leaders and their families from public scrutiny and prevent detection of their wrongdoing. Separately, President Zuma and other ANC leaders are promoting the initiation of an as-yet-undefined mechanism to officially “review” Constitutional Court judgments. Zuma has complained publicly that Constitutional Court judges place themselves above the National Assembly, whose members, according to his logic, must be supreme because they have been “freely elected by the people.” Both initiatives are assaults on South Africa’s status as a constitutional democracy.

A further cause for concern is the effort by “traditionalists” within the ANC to vest judicial powers in hereditary chiefs and transform assemblies of chiefs, together with tribal elders, into courts of first instance for 14 million rural South Africans. Such traditional courts would operate under procedures and customs that in most tribal groups preclude authority roles for women and would involve practices that conflict with South Africa’s liberal constitution. One glaring example is the precept in tribal domestic law that a woman is a minor in the custody of her husband and his family. In some tribal groups, women are even prohibited from entering the place in a village where the chief sits with elders. If a woman seeks to address the chief, she must shout her statement from a distance or send a man to make the statement on her behalf. Another concern relating to the allocation of judicial powers to chiefs is the influence they would have over the legal status of persons residing in their areas of jurisdiction. Those out of favor with a chief could be denied identity documentation, and their rights as citizens, even the right to vote, could be abridged. A similar system has been used in Zimbabwe by the ZANU-PF party of President Robert Mugabe to limit the number of registered voters.

In the ANC, closing ranks against outsiders is considered an imperative, but in fact there is declining comity among members. Prominent ANC provincial leaders and extraordinarily rich party power brokers jockey for advantage, and some of their methods are quite brutal, with incidents of physical assault on the increase. In December 2012, the ANC will hold a conference to elect the party president and ultimately the next South African president. Zuma, still in his first terms as party and state president, is facing a revolt by powerful factions that want to displace him and his allies so as to gain greater access to positions and resources for themselves.

Zuma’s future could also hinge on a March 20 ruling of the Supreme Court of Appeal, which ordered the national prosecutor to show the DA documents related to the prosecutor’s 2009 decision not to pursue 783 corruption charges against Zuma. The Supreme Court found that the DA has standing to demand the documents in the public interest. The charges involved an arms deal during the presidency of Thabo Mbeki, when Zuma was vice president, in which foreign suppliers of weapons, ships, and airplanes had bribed senior South African officials. The man who served as Zuma’s go-between with the arms dealers has already been convicted for facilitating the bribery of Zuma. However, shortly before he became president, Zuma succeeded in having the legal proceedings stopped, citing evidence that the prosecutor had manipulated the timing of his case to improve the political prospects of Mbeki, then Zuma’s principal rival. But the charges against Zuma have not been judged on their merits, and if the Supreme Court decision eventually opens the door for a trial, Zuma’s position as president might become untenable. Within days of the March 20 judgment, the justice minister, an ardent Zuma ally, moved to add the Supreme Court to the executive branch’s review of judicial decisions, which had initially targeted only the Constitutional Court. This response has been viewed by most commentators as a raw expression of pique.

At present, South Africa risks entering an antidemocratic spiral from which it would be difficult to escape. The Southern Africa region, of which South Africa is the wealthiest and most powerful country, includes seven states whose ruling parties have been in power without interruption since independence. During 2012, these parties’ cumulative years of incumbency will reach 237. The South African contribution is the smallest at 18 years. Although the region includes regimes ranging from dictatorships to democracies, there is a perceptible drift in even the more liberal states toward authoritarianism and impatience with the messy inconveniences of political pluralism and a free society.

South Africa is widely viewed as the flagship of both Southern Africa and sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. The present incremental weakening of representative and accountable government in the country therefore has both national and continental implications for human rights, the rule of law, and the quality of governance. Corruption, which is both an agent and a beneficiary of the erosion of democracy, is a potent threat to economic development and the alleviation of poverty. A South African government that continues to accommodate corruption while hacking away at independent institutions will serve neither the legitimate interests of South Africans nor the hopes of millions of others that South Africa might lead the continent toward a better future.

Cartooned Corruption in South Africa

“Corruption is a cancer in every country but in ours it is exacerbated by a sense of entitlement linked to a sense of deprivation from the past, as well as unintended consequences of BEE, such as fronting and the misapplication of affirmative action.
“Corruption is a cancer in every country but in ours it is exacerbated by a sense of entitlement linked to a sense of deprivation from the past, as well as unintended consequences of BEE, such as fronting and the misapplication of affirmative action. | Source
The capacity of the state is deeply uneven. There are pockets of excellence, notably the Treasury, SARS, the IEC and the Reserve Bank, but there is a marked lack of capacity in several government departments at the coalface of service delivery. The a
The capacity of the state is deeply uneven. There are pockets of excellence, notably the Treasury, SARS, the IEC and the Reserve Bank, but there is a marked lack of capacity in several government departments at the coalface of service delivery. The a | Source

Cracked Mirrors: Visons of Fear-The Rule Of the Quisling Slave Drivers

"In The Shock Doctrine, I investigated how, in the case of post-apartheid South Africa, key demands for economic justice were sacrificed in the name of a smooth transition. Here is that chapter.

Mzantsi Speak: The Age of Confusion and Genocide

This is the time now, well, beginning in 1994, that the destruction of African people went into full swing. And it is is in this times that we need to keep it 'real'. We need to begin to understand that what we lay down now, will be useful for future generations. Since the ANC-led government took over, the situation of African people has deteriorated in a way the ordinary folks never saw coming. To date, as of writing of this Hub, we have a very fluid and deteriorated situation and conditions that nothing is workig. Nothing is advancing the Africans in Mzantsi, and they have been made now more ignorant, jobless, drugged, repressed, diseased, oppressed, pushed hither-and-tither by many nations and people whose interests is to rob them blind.

The Ruling ANC has created these conditions; it has allowed the concretely reality of Africans to fester and eat itself up. The AN has not ruled nor led Africans of Mzantsi, instead, it has made sure that that it rules in such a way that its polity is weakened and rendered useless and ineefective. They, the ANC, have razed Bantu Education to the ground and built nothing in its place and stead. The level of literacy promotion, propagation and construction. They have created voluntarism and part time monthly or weekly jobs for those who manage to be 'accessed' into the ANC, then the job. They have opened the gates from the airports to the country's borders and letting-n all who wanted to come and achieve their dreams at the expensive of the local populace; some of these foreigners found their way to the Concentration camps called Townships. Therein they set up their wares: drugs , guns, poaching wild animals.

The same government has denied and short-changed their voters(Africans) by providing shoddy or non-exisant; the health services are inundated with the poor delivery for the locals, and catering of foreigners; same as the institutions of higher learning , favor those who are not the people of Mzantsi, and the locals are ignored and/or told to 'pull themselves by their own bootstraps' by those they have elected into power.. Those who own and create jobs, and who happen to be mostly Europeans, those from North Africa, Asians, have no respect of the locals, in many ways, and want to be treated with seriousness, whereas they in turn disrespect and hurl all sorts of abuse at the locals, is one of the fiction that has been created for these foreigners-who, in one end of the mouths decry the fact that Africans in South Africa are Xenophobic, and yet, when one looks at the the way they operate their businesses and other such endeavors, they take care of their own countrymen and women. One never finds any South African employed by the in places like Downtown Johannesburg.

The Ways of Quislings

They(The ANC), on coming into power in 1994, left intact the most important part, which was and is still economic apartheid, which is reinforced by the ANC. Mzwanele observes: " I think we are being designed like the United States; divided by class, which generally means race. Since democracy, little has changed. Wealthy white farmers continue to control more than 80% of the land, and their existing property rights are guaranteed in the new Constitution{People or readers should heck-out the Freedom Charter]. Out of 22,000 land restitution cases, only a handful have been settled. Ramaphosa and others have spoken a great deal about "black empowerment" as a "philosophy"for the new South Africa. What this really means is the inclusion of a small group of black in South Africa's white corporate masonry, which is overseen by the power of five companies dominating the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. This co-option allows foreign and South African companies to use black faces to gain access to the ANC establishment. One new executive stated it this way: "I am the black ham in the white sandwich." This is still true of the newly crated African petit-bourgeoisie today in South Africa.

Given that Africans have lost their national consciousness and compass, we find people like Chinweizu writing in the following manner: "Having lost a clear and detailed sense of our identity, we have naturally also our ability to create a point of view of the world strictly our own. With our scrambled sense of reality we have forgotten how to see things in terms of our separate and concrete interests. We behave as if the interest of the West were necessarily our own, as if the western point of view were the one and only valid one. Worse still, we behave as if it were some sort of betrayal to discover and insist on our point of viewing the world. One of the most devastating legacies of our satellization to the West is that our culture has become eccentric. Instead of being Afrocentric in our thoughts and actions, we are Eurocentric. What Europe does we automatically assume as the standard we must imitate in order to appear civilized. As a result, we have lost the ability to define ourselves. We gladly accept every ridiculous definition of what we are supposed to be, so long as it is proffered by the West. Without a strong sense of ourselves, we accept whatever the West wants us to believe about our past. We even refuse to define our cultural and political constituency for what it is - Africa, Black Africa. But that is indeed our pan-African constituency, a constituency defined by our separate history, our separate historical situation."

Chinweizu continues to inform us as follows: "Along with our delusions of freedom goes another - the delusion of respectability. We think our participation in the spotlighted drama of international conferences a sign of worth. We think our respectability has something to do with being admitted to the United Nations, or with the customary manners of protocol when even a weak lunatic must be accorded every formal respect lest the strong should feel ridiculous in talking to him. We have to wipe from our eyes all delusions of freedom if we are to see clearly our way to real freedom." (Chinweizu)

We should also pay attention to the fact that large corporate control and monopoly over production and distribution diminishes representative government by limiting the range of productivity, distribution and range of ideas available to citizens. One of the acts taken by the Apartheid regime to wrest the historical realities of Africans, was to work towards wiping it out of the historical memory and conscience of African using various means and will be discussed below. The ANC made sure Africans suffered severe amnesia , delusions of grandeur, fear and so, as present way of life.

Statistically Governing Failures Of The ANC

Naomi Klein offers and provided the following list of how living conditions for South African blacks now are much worse than they ever were during Apartheid:

- since 1994 under ANC governance, the number of people living on less than a $1 a day has doubled from two to four million;

- but the numbers of very wealthy Blacks driving around in expensive motor cars and living in the up market homes has risen. But are they adding value to the economy with their mainly political appointments at all levels with high salaries and jobs through affirmative action laws in Private industry? We think not, especially as there are in many cases three people doing the same job than under Apartheid;

- the unemployment rate has more than doubled to 48% from 1991-2002;

- the value of the South African currency has plummeted since the ANC took power. In the last 18 months the Rand has devalued against the Euro by nearly 40%. So not only has the number of jobs fallen, but the earnings do not buy anywhere as much as under Apartheid. But the ANC do not seem to mind as they increase their salaries and bonuses to compensate;

- only 5,000 of more then 35-million black South Africans earn over $60,000 a year; Mainly affirmative action appointments and promotions to all levels of government with salaries several times higher that the far fewer people that did the work under Apartheid;

- The ANC government has built 1.8 million (seriously ramshackle, tiny) new homes while two-million South Africans have lost theirs. Just about all the homes built under Apartheid are still standing solidly[that does not mean they are any good for African people, too];They were build by black laborers under mainly white supervision[some had no foundations, the occupants had to build it- they also did not have internal heating or sink water, with a toilet outside]. There is a scandal in SA now where thousands of occupants of the new homes built under the ANC supervision are literally falling down and mortgagees (bondees), are refusing to pay their monthly installments until they are properly repaired. An impossible task.[see the New RDP housing provided for by the ANC which people complain is crumbling on them]

- nearly one million South Africans were evicted from farms in the first decade of the 'democracy' : evicted by black, newly empowered farmers who were given 'redistributed farmland.; Many of the farms are producing 30% of what they did under the white owners, many of whom had been there [illegally?] for generations. And it is not an education problem, it is due to attitude and will power to work and succeed(The Boer Farmers exploited African farm laborers like slaves). Some farms like the one in Zebediela were given to the new owners which fell into zero by the end of the year, was one of the largest citrus fruit farm in the southern hemisphere.

- the shack -dweller(slum) population grew by 50% due to untrammeled migration from the rest of Africa; Previously under Apartheid, squatting was not allowed, so many Africans lived on their own land, which was 13% of the land mass, grew their own food and built their own "Rondavel houses". Because Apartheid viewed their birth rate as unsustainable, they engaged them in covert and overt warfare in an effort to diminish the population by giving them second rate health care, but now the health system, under the ANC, is worsening and returning to the worst times of health pre-Apartheid and the words and repressive times during Apartheid. AIDS and other diseases, violent crimes, poverty, psychiatric and social ills, among the few, are keeping the African population in check.

- in 2006, one quarter of the entire South African population [and to date], still lives in shacks without running water or electricity. When the ANC came to power, the African masses were allowed to move to the cities where they thought the homes and jobs they had been promised by the ANC would quickly appear, but they were in the main used by the ANC to populate areas where their votes could ensure whites were unable to represent their old constituencies. Now the cities are crowded with unhealthy shacks, many criminals are booming, and the are many ordinary people who are bitter that there is no work, and many Africans who have migrated into South africa from the North of Africa cause resentment amongst the locals;

- The HIV/AIDS/TB infection rate is about 20% of the entire population - and the Mbeki government shamefully denies the severity of the crisis and did little to alleviate it- consequently millions have died, and millions more are on generic antiviral medicine, and still, the number of those dying daily is rising and not abating;(but Zuma has managed to get retrovirals into thehands of the sick, to date)

- the average age life expectancy in South Africa had dropped by 13 years since 1990; this is more or less the same throughout Africa when whites left;

- 40% of all SA schools have no electricity; neither do most of the businesses and homes for hours at a time(as alluded to above). There is desperate need for new power stations but the SA government thought that new stadiums for FIFA Soccer World Cup held in 2010, from June to July, more important, as well as diverting cash for new hospitals for the same(one can see this in the newly upgraded Baragwanath Hospital, in Soweto, New highways and other useless infrastructure which does not serve nor address the poor masses needs);

- 25% of the 46-million-plus people in South Africa have no access to clean water and most who do can't afford the cost; and the population has been swollen by the estimated 3million Zimbabweans who have fled their home country, by Nigerians who are acknowledged drug dealers and scam artists and other Africans from countries that are are looking with hope towards SA. The respect and acknowledgement by these foreigners needs to be studied thoroughly, i.e., the relations with the local Africans, without any bias or distortions;

- 60% of all the people have inadequate sanitation, and 40% have no telephones[most people in, this includes Africans who supposedly have no phones, have and use cell phones as an alternate to the house phones].

The stats above give us a sense of what is really happening in South Africa and to the Africans there, who are becoming more agitated with ANC rule.

Arrested and Corrupted Developed Underdevelopment

Arrested Underdevelopment and Bleak Stagnation
Arrested Underdevelopment and Bleak Stagnation | Source
The Press has been covering the issues of corruption and this is one of the many write-up circulating in the Newspapers of South Africa
The Press has been covering the issues of corruption and this is one of the many write-up circulating in the Newspapers of South Africa

Arrested Development, Democracy, Freedom and African Underdevelopmentn

Reconciliation means that those who have been on the underside of history must see that there is a qualitative difference between repression and freedom. And for them, freedom translates into having a supply of clean water, having electricity on tap; being able to live in a decent home and have a good job; to be able to send your children to school and to have accessible health care. I mean, what’s the point of having made this transition if the quality of life of these people is not enhanced and improved? If not, the vote is useless.
—Archbishop Desmond Tutu, chair of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2001

Before transferring power, the Nationalist Party wants to emasculate it. It is trying to negotiate a kind of swap where it will give up the right to run the country its way in exchange for the right to stop blacks from running it their own way.
—Allister Sparks, South African journalist

In January 1990, Nelson Mandela, age seventy-one, sat down in his prison compound to write a note to his supporters outside. It was meant to settle a debate over whether twenty-seven years behind bars, most of it spent on Robben Island off the coast of Cape Town, had weakened the leader’s commitment to the economic transformation of South Africa’s apartheid state. The note was only two sentences long, and it decisively put the matter to rest: "The nationalisation of the mines, banks and monopoly industries is the policy of the ANC, and the change or modification of our views in this regard is inconceivable. Black economic empowerment is a goal we fully support and encourage, but in our situation state control of certain sectors of the economy is unavoidable."
History, it turned out, was not over just yet, as Fukuyama had claimed. In South Africa, the largest economy on the African continent, it seemed that some people still believed that freedom included the right to reclaim and redistribute their oppressors’ ill-gotten gains.

That belief had formed the basis of the policy of the African National Congress for thirty-five years, ever since it was spelled out in its statement of core principles, the Freedom Charter. The story of the charter’s drafting is the stuff of folklore in South Africa, and for good reason. The process began in 1955, when the party dispatched fifty thousand volunteers into the townships and countryside. The task of the volunteers was to collect "freedom demands" from the people—their vision of a post-apartheid world in which all South Africans had equal rights. The demands were handwritten on scraps of paper: "Land to be given to all landless people," "Living wages and shorter hours of work," "Free and compulsory education, irrespective of colour, race or nationality," "The right to reside and move about freely" and many more.4 When the demands came back, leaders of the African National Congress synthesized them into a final document, which was officially adopted on June 26, 1955, at the Congress of the People, held in Kliptown, a "buffer zone" township built to protect the white residents of Johannesburg from the teeming masses of Soweto. Roughly three thousand delegates— black, Indian, "coloured" and a few white—sat together in an empty field to vote on the contents of the document. According to Nelson Mandela’s account of the historic Kliptown gathering, "the charter was read aloud, section by section, to the people in English, Sesotho and Xhosa. After each section, the crowd shouted its approval with cries of ‘Afrika!’ and ‘Mayibuye!’ The first defiant demand of the Freedom Charter reads, "The People Shall Govern!"

At the time of its drafting, the charter was viewed by some in the liberation movement as positively centrist, by others as unforgivably weak. The Pan-Africanists castigated the ANC for conceding too much to white colonizers (why did South Africa belong to "everyone, black and white?" they asked; the manifesto should have demanded, as the Jamaican black nationalist Marcus Garvey had, "Africa for the Africans.") The staunch Marxists dismissed the demands as "petty bourgeois:" it wasn’t revolutionary to divide the ownership of the land among all people; Lenin said that private property itself must be abolished.

What was taken as a given by all factions of the liberation struggle was that apartheid was not only a political system regulating who was allowed to vote and move freely. It was also an economic system that used racism to enforce a highly lucrative arrangement: a small white elite had been able to amass enormous profits from South Africa’s mines, farms and factories because a large black majority was prevented from owning land and forced to provide its labour for far less than it was worth—and was beaten and imprisoned when it dared to rebel. In the mines, whites were paid up to ten times more than blacks, and, as in Latin America, the large industrialists worked closely with the military to have unruly workers disappeared.

What the Freedom Charter asserted was the baseline consensus in the liberation movement that freedom would not come merely when blacks took control of the state but when the wealth of the land that had been illegitimately confiscated was reclaimed and redistributed to the society as a whole. South Africa could no longer be a country with Californian living standards for whites and Congolese living standards for blacks, as the country was described during the apartheid years; freedom meant that it would have to find something in the middle.

That was what Mandela was confirming with his two-sentence note from prison: he still believed in the bottom line that there would be no freedom without redistribution. With so many other countries now also "in transition," it was a statement with enormous implications. If Mandela led the ANC to power and nationalized the banks and the mines, the precedent would make it far more difficult for Chicago School economists to dismiss such proposals in other countries as relics of the past and insist that only unfettered free markets and free trade had the ability to redress deep inequalities.

On February 11, 1990, two weeks after writing that note, Mandela walked out of prison a free man, as close to a living saint as existed anywhere in the world. South Africa’s townships exploded in celebration and renewed conviction that nothing could stop the struggle for liberation. Unlike the movement in Eastern Europe, South Africa’s was not beaten down but a movement on a roll. Mandela, for his part, was suffering from such an epic case of culture shock that he mistook a camera microphone for "some newfangled weapon developed while I was in prison."

It was definitely a different world from the one he had left twenty-seven years earlier. When Mandela was arrested in 1962, a wave of Third World nationalism was sweeping the African continent; now it was torn apart by war. While he was in prison, socialist revolutions had been ignited and extinguished: Che Guevara had been killed in Bolivia in 1967; Salvador Allende had died in the coup of 1973; Mozambique’s liberation hero and president, Samora Machel, had perished in a mysterious plane crash in 1986. The late eighties and early nineties saw the fall of the Berlin Wall, the repression in Tiananmen Square and the collapse of Communism. Amid all this change there was little time for catching up: immediately on his release, Mandela had a people to lead to freedom while preventing a civil war and an economic collapse—both of which looked like distinct possibilities.

It was this attitude that gave the ANC a unique opportunity to reject the free-market orthodoxy of the day. Since there was already widespread agreement that corporations shared responsibility for the crimes of apartheid, the stage was set for Mandela to explain why key sectors of South Africa’s economy needed to be nationalized just as the Freedom Charter demanded. He could have used the same argument to explain why the debt accumulated under apartheid was an illegitimate burden to place on any new, popularly elected government. There would have been plenty of outrage from the IMF, the U.S. Treasury and the European Union in the face of such undisciplined behaviour, but Mandela was also a living saint—there would have been enormous popular support for it as well.

We will never know which of these forces would have proved more powerful. In the years that passed between Mandela’s writing his note from prison and the ANC’s 1994 election sweep in which he was elected president, something happened to convince the party hierarchy that it could not use its grassroots prestige to reclaim and redistribute the country’s stolen wealth. So, rather than meeting in the middle between California and the Congo, the ANC adopted policies that exploded both inequality and crime to such a degree that South Africa’s divide is now closer to Beverly Hills and Baghdad. Today, the country stands as a living testament to what happens when economic reform is severed from political transformation. Politically, its people have the right to vote, civil liberties and majority rule. Yet economically, South Africa has surpassed Brazil as the most unequal society in the world.

I went to South Africa in 2005 to try to understand what had happened in the transition, in those key years between 1990 and 1994, to make Mandela take a route that he had described so unequivocally as "inconceivable."

Negotiating In "Bad Faith: The Selling Off The Struggle Of Africans In Mzantsi

The ANC went into negotiations with the ruling National Party determined to avoid the kind of nightmare that neighbouring Mozambique had experienced when the independence movement forced an end to Portuguese colonial rule in 1975. On their way out the door, the Portuguese threw a vindictive temper tantrum, pouring cement down elevator shafts, smashing tractors and stripping the country of all they could carry. To its enormous credit, the ANC did negotiate a relatively peaceful handover. However, it did not manage to prevent South Africa’s apartheid-era rulers from wreaking havoc on their way out the door. Unlike their counterparts in Mozambique, the National Party didn’t pour concrete—their sabotage, equally crippling, was far subtler, and was all in the fine print of those historic negotiations.

The talks that hashed out the terms of apartheid’s end took place on two parallel tracks that often intersected: one was political, the other economic. Most of the attention, naturally, focused on the high-profile political summits between Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk, leader of the National Party.

De Klerk’s strategy in these negotiations was to preserve as much power as possible. He tried everything—breaking the country into a federation, guaranteeing veto power for minority parties, reserving a certain percentage of the seats in government structures for each ethnic group—anything to prevent simple majority rule, which he was sure would lead to mass land expropriations and the nationalizing of corporations. As Mandela later put it, "What the National Party was trying to do was to maintain white supremacy with our consent." De Klerk had guns and money behind him, but his opponent had a movement of millions. Mandela and his chief negotiator, Cyril Ramaphosa, won on almost every count.

Running alongside these often explosive summits were the much lower profile economic negotiations, primarily managed on the ANC side by Thabo Mbeki, then a rising star in the party, now South Africa’s president. As the political talks progressed, and it became clear to the National Party that Parliament would soon be firmly in the hands of the ANC, the party of South Africa’s elites began pouring its energy and creativity into the economic negotiations. South Africa’s whites had failed to keep blacks from taking over the government, but when it came to safeguarding the wealth they had amassed under apartheid, they would not give up so easily.

In these talks, the de Klerk government had a twofold strategy. First, drawing on the ascendant Washington Consensus that there was now only one way to run an economy, it portrayed key sectors of economic decision making—such as trade policy and the central bank—as "technical" or "administrative." Then it used a wide range of new policy tools—international trade agreements, innovations in constitutional law and structural adjustment programs—to hand control of those power centres to supposedly impartial experts, economists and officials from the IMF, the World Bank, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the National Party—anyone except the liberation fighters from the ANC. It was a strategy of balkanization, not of the country’s geography (as de Klerk had originally attempted) but of its economy.

This plan was successfully executed under the noses of ANC leaders, who were naturally preoccupied with winning the battle to control Parliament. In the process, the ANC failed to protect itself against a far more insidious strategy—in essence, an elaborate insurance plan against the economic clauses in the Freedom Charter ever becoming law in South Africa. "The people shall govern!" would soon become a reality, but the sphere over which they would govern was shrinking fast.

While these tense negotiations between adversaries were unfolding, the ANC was also busily preparing within its own ranks for the day when it would take office. Teams of ANC economists and lawyers formed working groups charged with figuring out exactly how to turn the general promises of the Freedom Charter—for housing amentites and health care—into practical policies. The most ambitious of these plans was Make Democracy Work, an economic blueprint for South Africa’s post-apartheid future, written while the high-level negotiations were taking place. What the party loyalists didn’t know at the time was that while they were hatching their ambitious plans, the negotiating team was accepting concessions at the bargaining table that would make their implementation a practical impossibility. "It was dead before it was even launched," the economist Vishnu Padayachee told me of Make Democracy Work. By the time the draft was complete, "there was a new ball game."

As one of the few classically trained economists active in the ANC, Padayachee was enlisted to play a leading role in Make Democracy Work ("doing the number-crunching," as he puts it). Most of the people he worked alongside in those long policy meetings went on to top posts in the ANC government, but Padayachee did not. He has turned down all the offers of government jobs, preferring academic life in Durban, where he teaches, writes and owns the much-loved Ike’s Bookshop, named after Ike Mayet, the first non-white South African bookseller. It was there, surrounded by carefully preserved out-of-print volumes on African history, that we met to discuss the transition.

Padayachee entered the liberation struggle in the seventies, as an adviser to South Africa’s trade union movement. "We all had the Freedom Charter stuck on the back of our doors in those days," he recalled. I asked him when he knew its economic promises were not going to be realized. He first suspected it, he said, in late 1993, when he and a colleague from the Make Democracy Work group got a call from the negotiating team who were in the final stages of haggling with the National Party. The call was a request for them to write a position paper on the pros and cons of making South Africa’s central bank an independent entity, run with total autonomy from the elected government—oh, and the negotiators needed it by morning.

"We were caught completely off guard," recalled Padayachee, now in his early fifties. He had done his graduate studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. He knew that at the time, even among free-market economists in the U.S., central bank independence was considered a fringe idea, a pet policy of a handful of Chicago School ideologues who believed that central banks should be run as sovereign republics within states, out of reach of the meddling hands of elected lawmakers. For Padayachee and his colleagues, who strongly believed that monetary policy needed to serve the new government’s "big goals of growth, employment and redistribution," the ANC’s position was a no-brainer: "There was not going to be an independent central bank in South Africa."

Padayachee and a colleague stayed up all night writing a paper that gave the negotiating team the arguments it needed to resist this curveball from the National Party. If the central bank (in South Africa called the Reserve Bank) was run separately from the rest of the government, it could restrict the ANC’s ability to keep the promises in the Freedom Charter. Besides, if the central bank was not accountable to the ANC government, to whom, exactly, would it be accountable? The IMF? The Johannesburg Stock Exchange? Obviously, the National Party was trying to find a backdoor way to hold on to power even after it lost the elections—a strategy that needed to be resisted at all costs. "They were locking in as much as possible," Padayachee recalled. "That was a clear part of the agenda."

Padayachee faxed the paper in the morning and didn’t hear back for weeks. "Then, when we asked what happened, we were told, ‘Well, we gave that one up.’" Not only would the central bank be run as an autonomous entity within the South African state, with its independence enshrined in the new constitution, but it would be headed by the same man who ran it under apartheid, Chris Stals. It wasn’t just the central bank that the ANC had given up: in another major concession, Derek Keyes, the white finance minister under apartheid, would also remain in his post—much as the finance ministers and central bank heads from Argentina’s dictatorship somehow managed to get their jobs back under democracy. The New York Times praised Keyes as "the country’s ranking apostle of low-spending business-friendly government."

Until that point, Padayachee said, "we were still buoyant, because, my God, this was a revolutionary struggle; at least there’d be something to come out of it." When he learned that the central bank and the treasury would be run by their old apartheid bosses, it meant "everything would be lost in terms of economic transformation." When I asked him whether he thought the negotiators realized how much they had lost, after some hesitation, he replied, "Frankly, no." It was simple horse-trading: "In the negotiations, something had to be given, and our side gave those things—I’ll give you this, you give me that."

From Padayachee’s point of view, none of this happened because of some grand betrayal on the part of ANC leaders but simply because they were outmanoeuvred on a series of issues that seemed less than crucial at the time—but turned out to hold South Africa’s lasting liberation in the balance.

Altered and False Democracy Accepted by The ANC

What happened in those negotiations is that the ANC found itself caught in a new kind of web, one made of arcane rules and regulations, all designed to confine and constrain the power of elected leaders. As the web descended on the country, only a few people even noticed it was there, but when the new government came to power and tried to move freely, to give its voters the tangible benefits of liberation they expected and thought they had voted for, the strands of the web tightened and the administration discovered that its powers were tightly bound. Patrick Bond, who worked as an economic adviser in Mandela’s office during the first years of ANC rule, recalls that the in-house quip was "Hey, we’ve got the state, where’s the power?" As the new government attempted to make tangible the dreams of the Freedom Charter, it discovered that the power was elsewhere.

Want to redistribute land? Impossible—at the last minute, the negotiators agreed to add a clause to the new constitution that protects all private property, making land reform virtually impossible. Want to create jobs for millions of unemployed workers? Can’t—hundreds of factories were actually about to close because the ANC had signed on to the GATT, the precursor to the World Trade Organization, which made it illegal to subsidize the auto plants and textile factories. Want to get free AIDS drugs to the townships, where the disease is spreading with terrifying speed? That violates an intellectual property rights commitment under the WTO, which the ANC joined with no public debate as a continuation of the GATT. Need money to build more and larger houses for the poor and to bring free electricity to the townships? Sorry—the budget is being eaten up servicing the massive debt, passed on quietly by the apartheid government. Print more money? Tell that to the apartheid-era head of the central bank. Free water for all? Not likely. The World Bank, with its large in-country contingent of economists, researchers and trainers (a self-proclaimed "Knowledge Bank"), is making private-sector partnerships the service norm. Want to impose currency controls to guard against wild speculation? That would violate the $850 million IMF deal, signed, conveniently enough, right before the elections. Raise the minimum wage to close the apartheid income gap? Nope. The IMF deal promises "wage restraint." And don’t even think about ignoring these commitments— any change will be regarded as evidence of dangerous national untrustworthiness, a lack of commitment to “reform,” an absence of a "rules-based system." All of which will lead to currency crashes, aid cuts and capital flight. The bottom line was that South Africa was free but simultaneously captured; each one of these arcane acronyms represented a different thread in the web that pinned down the limbs of the new government.

A long-time anti-apartheid activist, Rassool Snyman, described the trap to me in stark terms. "They never freed us. They only took the chain from around our neck and put it on our ankles." Yasmin Sooka, a prominent South African human rights activist, told me that the transition "was business saying, ‘We’ll keep everything and you [the ANC] will rule in name. . . . You can have political power, you can have the façade of governing, but the real governance will take place somewhere else.’" It was a process of infantilization that is common to so-called transitional countries—new governments are, in effect, given the keys to the house but not the combination to the safe.

Part of what I wanted to understand was how, after such an epic struggle for freedom, any of this could have been allowed to happen. Not just how the leaders of the liberation movement gave up the economic front, but how the ANC’s base—people who had already sacrificed so much—let their leaders give it up. Why didn’t the grassroots movement demand that the ANC keep the promises of the Freedom Charter and rebel against the concessions as they were being made?

I put the question to William Gumede, a third-generation ANC activist who, as a leader of the student movement during the transition, was on the streets in those tumultuous years. "Everyone was watching the political negotiations," he recalled, referring to the de Klerk–Mandela summits. "And if people felt it wasn’t going well there would be mass protests. But when the economic negotiators would report back, people thought it was technical; no one was interested." This perception, he said, was encouraged by Mbeki, who portrayed the talks as "administrative" and of no popular concern (much like the Chileans with their "technified democracy"). As a result, he told me, with great exasperation, "We missed it! We missed the real story."

Gumede, who today is one of South Africa’s most respected investigative journalists, says he came to understand that it was in those "technical" meetings that the true future of his country was being decided—though few understood it at the time. Like many people I spoke with, Gumede reminded me that South Africa was very much on the brink of civil war throughout the transition period—townships were being terrorized by gangs who had been armed by the National Party, police massacres were still taking place, leaders were still being assassinated and there was constant talk of the country descending into a bloodbath. "I was focusing on the politics—mass action, going to Bisho [site of a definitive showdown between demonstrators and police], shouting, ‘Those guys must go!’" Gumede recalled. "But that was not the real struggle— the real struggle was over economics. And I am disappointed in myself for being so naive. I thought I was politically mature enough to understand the issues. How did I miss this?"

Since then, Gumede has been making up for lost time. When we met, he was in the middle of a national firestorm sparked by his new book, Thabo Mbeki and the Battle for the Soul of the ANC. It is an exhaustive exposé of precisely how the ANC negotiated away the country’s economic sovereignty in those meetings he was too busy to pay attention to at the time. "I wrote the book out of anger," Gumede told me. "Anger at myself and at the party."

It’s hard to see how the outcome could have been different. If Padayachee is right and the ANC’s own negotiators failed to grasp the enormity of what they were bargaining away, what chance was there for the movement’s street fighters?

During those key years when the deals were being signed, South Africans were in a constant state of crisis, ricocheting between the intense exuberance of watching Mandela walk free and the rage of learning that Chris Hani, the younger militant many hoped would succeed Mandela as leader, had been shot dead by a racist assassin. Other than a handful of economists, nobody wanted to talk about the independence of the central bank, a topic that works as a powerful soporific even under normal circumstances. Gumede points out that most people simply assumed that no matter what compromises had to be made to get into power, they could be unmade once the ANC was firmly in charge. "We were going to be the government— we could fix it later," he said.

What ANC activists didn’t understand at the time was that it was the nature of democracy itself that was being altered in those negotiations, changed so that—once the web of constraints had descended on their country—there would effectively be no later.

A year later, people still stunned and shocked after the Marikana Massacre. Farlam Commission stalled while exploitative conditions continue in The Mines
A year later, people still stunned and shocked after the Marikana Massacre. Farlam Commission stalled while exploitative conditions continue in The Mines

The Shock of the Base

"The new convert is always more zealous at these things. They want to please even more," remarked the Durban-based writer Ashwin Desai when we met to discuss his memories of the transition. Desai spent time in jail during the liberation struggle, and he sees parallels between the psychology in prisons and the ANC’s behaviour in government. In prison, he said, "if you please the warden more, you get a better status. And that logic obviously transposed itself into some of the things that South African society did. They did want to somehow prove that they were much better prisoners. Much more disciplined prisoners than other countries, even."

The ANC base, however, proved distinctly more unruly—which created a need for yet more discipline. According to Yasmin Sooka, one of the jurors on South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the discipline mentality reached into every aspect of the transition—including the quest for justice. After hearing years of testimony about torture, killings and disappearances, the truth commission turned to the question of what kind of gestures could begin to heal the injustices. Truth and forgiveness were important, but so was compensation for the victims and their families. It made little sense to ask the new government to make compensation payouts, as these were not its crimes, and anything spent on reparations for apartheid abuses was money not spent building homes and schools for the poor in the newly liberated nation.

Some commissioners felt that multinational corporations that had benefited from apartheid should be forced to pay reparations. In the end the Truth and Reconciliation Commission made the modest recommendation of a one-time 1 percent corporate tax to raise money for the victims, what it called "a solidarity tax." Sooka expected support for this mild recommendation from the ANC; instead, the government, then headed by Mbeki, rejected any suggestion of corporate reparations or a solidarity tax, fearing that it would send an anti-business message to the market. "The president decided not to hold business accountable," Sooka told me. "It was that simple." In the end, the government put forward a fraction of what had been requested, taking the money out of its own budget, as the commissioners had feared.

South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission is frequently held up as a model of successful "peace building," exported to other conflict zones from Sri Lanka to Afghanistan. But many of those who were directly involved in the process are deeply ambivalent. When he unveiled the final report in March 2003, the commission’s chairman, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, confronted journalists with freedom’s unfinished business. "Can you explain how a black person wakes up in a squalid ghetto today, almost 10 years after freedom? Then he goes to work in town, which is still largely white, in palatial homes. And at the end of the day, he goes back home to squalor? I don’t know why those people don’t just say, ‘To hell with peace. To hell with Tutu and the truth commission.’
Sooka, who now heads South Africa’s Foundation for Human Rights, says that she feels that although the hearings dealt with what she described as "outward manifestations of apartheid such as torture, severe ill treatment and disappearances," it left the economic system served by those abuses "completely untouched"—an echo of the concerns about the blindness of "human rights" expressed by Orlando Letelier three decades earlier. If she had the process to do over again, Sooka said, "I would do it completely differently. I would look at the systems of apartheid—I would look at the question of land, I would certainly look at the role of multinationals, I would look at the role of the mining industry very, very closely because I think that’s the real sickness of South Africa. . . . I would look at the systematic effects of the policies of apartheid, and I would devote only one hearing to torture because I think when you focus on torture and you don’t look at what it was serving, that’s when you start to do a revision of the real history."

Reparations in Reverse

The fact that the ANC dismissed the Commission’s call for corporate reparations is particularly unfair, Sooka pointed out, because the government continues to pay the apartheid debt. In the first years after the handover, it cost the new government 30 billion rand annually (about $4.5 billion) in servicing—a sum that provides a stark contrast with the paltry total of $85 million that the government ultimately paid out to more than nineteen thousand victims of apartheid killings and torture and their families. Nelson Mandela has cited the debt burden as the single greatest obstacle to keeping the promises of the Freedom Charter. "That is 30 billion [rand] we did not have to build houses as we planned, before we came into government, to make sure that our children go to the best schools, that unemployment is properly addressed and that everybody has the dignity of having a job, a decent income, of being able to provide shelter to his beloved, to feed them. . . . We are limited by the debt that we inherited.

Despite Mandela’s acknowledgement that paying the apartheid bills has become a disfiguring burden, the party has opposed all suggestions that it default. The fear is that even though there is a strong legal case that the debts are "odious," any move to default would make South Africa look dangerously radical in the eyes of investors, thus provoking another market shock. Dennis Brutus, a long-time ANC member and a former prisoner on Robben Island, ran directly into that wall of fear. In 1998, seeing the financial stress the new government was under, he and a group of South African activists decided that the best way they could support the ongoing struggle was to start a "debt jubilee" movement. "I must say, I was so naive," Brutus, now in his seventies, told me. "I expected that the government would express appreciation to us, that the grassroots are taking up the issue of debt, you know, that it would reinforce the government taking up debt." To his astonishment, "the government repudiated us and said, ‘No, we don’t accept your support.’"

What makes the ANC’s decision to keep paying the debt so infuriating to activists like Brutus is the tangible sacrifice made to meet each payment. For instance, between 1997 and 2004, the South African government sold eighteen state-owned firms, raising $4 billion, but almost half the money went to servicing the debt. In other words, not only did the ANC renege on Mandela’s original pledge of "the nationalisation of the mines, banks and monopoly industry" but because of the debt, it was doing the opposite—selling off national assets to make good on the debts of its oppressors.

Then there is the matter of where, precisely, the money is going. During the transition negotiations, F.W. de Klerk’s team demanded that all civil servants be guaranteed their jobs even after the handover; those who wanted to leave, they argued, should receive hefty lifelong pensions. This was an extraordinary demand in a country with no social safety net to speak of, yet it was one of several "technical" issues on which the ANC ceded ground. The concession meant that the new ANC government carried the cost of two governments— its own, and a shadow white government that was out of power. Forty percent of the government’s annual debt payments go to the country’s massive pension fund. The vast majority of the beneficiaries are former apartheid employees.

In the end, South Africa has wound up with a twisted case of reparations in reverse, with the white businesses that reaped enormous profits from black labour during the apartheid years paying not a cent in reparations, but the victims of apartheid continuing to send large paycheques to their former victimizers. And how do they raise the money for this generosity? By stripping the state of its assets through privatization—a modern form of the very looting that the ANC had been so intent on avoiding when it agreed to negotiations, hoping to prevent a repeat of Mozambique. Unlike what happened in Mozambique, however, where civil servants broke machinery, stuffed their pockets and then fled, in South Africa the dismantling of the state and the pillaging of its coffers continue to this day.

The Charter Of Freedom: Or Was it? Another Betrayal of the Africans by The ANC

When I arrived in South Africa, the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Freedom Charter was approaching, and the ANC had decided to mark the event with a media spectacle. The plan was for Parliament to relocate for the day from its usual commanding home in Cape Town to the far more humble surroundings of Kliptown, where the charter was first ratified. The South African president, Thabo Mbeki, was going to take the occasion to rename Kliptown’s main intersection the Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication, after one of the ANC’s most revered leaders. Mbeki would also inaugurate a new Freedom Charter Monument, a brick tower in which the words of the Charter had been engraved on stone tablets, and light an eternal "flame of freedom." Adjacent to this building, work was progressing on another monument, this one called the Freedom Towers, a pavilion of black and white concrete pillars designed to symbolize the charter’s famous clause that says, "South Africa belongs to all those who live in it, black and white."

The overall message of the event was hard to miss: fifty years ago, the party had promised to bring freedom to South Africa and now it had delivered—it was the ANC’s own "mission accomplished" moment.

Yet there was something strange about the event. Kliptown—an impoverished township with dilapidated shacks, raw sewage in the streets and an unemployment rate of 72 percent, far higher than under apartheid—seems more like a symbol of the Freedom Charter’s broken promises than an appropriate backdrop for such a slickly produced celebration.

As it turned out, the anniversary events were staged and art-directed not by the ANC but by an odd entity called Blue IQ. Though officially an arm of the provincial government, Blue IQ "operates in a carefully constructed environment which makes it look and feel more like a private sector company than a government department,” according to its very glossy, and very blue, brochure. Its goal is to drum up new foreign investment in South Africa—part of the ANC program of “re-distribution through growth."

Blue IQ had identified tourism as a major growth area for investment, and its market research showed that for tourists visiting South Africa, a large part of the attraction is the ANC’s global reputation for having triumphed over oppression. Hoping to build on this powerful draw, Blue IQ determined that there was no better symbol of the South African triumph-over-adversity narrative than the Freedom Charter. With that in mind, it launched a project to transform Kliptown into a Freedom Charter theme park, "a world-class tourist destination and heritage site offering local and international visitors a unique experience"—complete with museum, a freedom-themed shopping mall and a glass-and-steel Freedom Hotel. What is now a slum is set to be remade "into a desirous and prosperous" Johannesburg suburb, while many of its current residents will be relocated to slums in less historic locales.

With its plans to rebrand Kliptown, Blue IQ is following the free-market playbook—providing incentives for business to invest, in the hope that it will create jobs down the road. What sets this particular project apart is that, in Kliptown, the foundation on which the entire trickle-down apparatus rests is a fifty-year-old piece of paper that called for a distinctly more direct road to poverty elimination. Redistribute the land so millions can sustain themselves from it, demanded the framers of the Freedom Charter, and take back the mines so the bounty can be used to build houses and infrastructure and create jobs in the process. In other words, cut out the middleman. Those ideas may sound like utopian populism to many ears, but after so many failed experiments in Chicago School orthodoxy, the real dreamers may be those who still believe that a scheme like the Freedom Charter theme park, which provided handouts to corporations while further disposessing the neediest people, will solve the pressing health and economic problems for the 22 million South Africans still living in poverty. After more than a decade since South Africa made its decisive turn toward Thatcherism, the results of its experiment in trickledown justice are scandalous:

    • Since 1994, the year the ANC took power, the number of people living on less than $1 a day has doubled, from 2 million to 4 million in 2006.
    • Between 1991 and 2002, the unemployment rate for black South Africans more than doubled, from 23 percent to 48 percent.
    • Of South Africa’s 35 million black citizens, only five thousand earn more than $60,000 a year. The number of whites in that income bracket is twenty times higher, and many earn far more than that amount.
    • The ANC government has built 1.8 million homes, but in the meantime 2 million people have lost their homes.
    • Close to 1 million people have been evicted from farms in the first decade of democracy.
  • Such evictions have meant that the number of shack dwellers has grown by 50 percent. In 2006, more than one in four South Africans lived in shacks located in informal shantytowns, many without running water or electricity.

Perhaps the best measure of the betrayed promises of freedom is the way the Freedom Charter is now regarded in different parts of South African society. Not so long ago, the document represented the ultimate threat to white privilege in the country; today it is embraced in business lounges and gated communities as a statement of good intentions, at once flattering and totally unthreatening, on a par with a flowery corporate code of conduct. But in the townships where the document adopted in a field in Kliptown was once electric with possibility, its promises are almost too painful to contemplate. Many South Africans boycotted the government-sponsored anniversary celebrations completely. "What is in the Freedom Charter is very good," S’bu Zikode, a leader of Durban’s burgeoning shack dwellers’ movement, told me. "But all I see is the betrayal."

The Myopic View: Seeing As Far as the Nose and Eyelids

In the end, the most persuasive argument for abandoning the redistribution promises of the Freedom Charter was the least imaginative one: everyone is doing it. Vishnu Padayachee summed up for me the message that the ANC leadership was getting from the start from "Western governments, the IMF and the World Bank. They would say, ‘The world has changed; none of that left stuff means anything any more; this is the only game in town.’" As Gumede writes, "It was an onslaught for which the ANC was wholly unprepared. Key economic leaders were regularly ferried to the head offices of international organizations such as the World Bank and IMF, and during 1992 and 1993 several ANC staffers, some of whom had no economic qualifications at all, took part in abbreviated executive training programs at foreign business schools, investment banks, economic policy think tanks and the World Bank, where they were ‘fed a steady diet of neo-liberal ideas.’ It was a dizzying experience. Never before had a government-in-waiting been so seduced by the international community."

Mandela received a particularly intense dose of this elite form of schoolyard peer pressure when he met with European leaders at the 1992 World Economic Forum in Davos. When he pointed out that South Africa wanted to do nothing more radical than what Western Europe had done under the Marshall Plan after the Second World War, the Dutch minister of finance dismissed the parallel. "That was what we understood then. But the economies of the world are interdependent. The process of globalization is taking root. No economy can develop separately from the economies of other countries."

As leaders like Mandela travelled the globalization circuit, it was pounded into them that even the most left-wing governments were embracing the Washington Consensus: the Communists in Vietnam and China were doing it, and so were the trade unionists in Poland and the social democrats in Chile, finally free from Pinochet. Even Russians had seen the neo-liberal light—at the time the ANC was in its heaviest negotiations, Moscow was in the midst of a corporatist feeding frenzy, selling off its state assets to apparatchiks-turned-entrepreneurs as fast as it could. If Moscow had given in, how could a raggedy band of freedom fighters in South Africa resist such a forceful global tide?

That, at least, was the message being peddled by the lawyers, economists and social workers who made up the rapidly expanding "transition" industry—the teams of experts who hop from war-torn country to crisis-racked city, regaling overwhelmed new politicians with the latest best practice from Buenos Aires, the most inspiring success story from Warsaw, the most fearsome roar from the Asian Tigers. "Transitionologists" (as the NYU political scientist Stephen Cohen has called them) have a built-in advantage over the politicians they advise: they are a hypermobile class, while the leaders of liberation movements are inherently inward-looking. By their very nature, people spearheading intense national transformations are narrowly focused on their own narratives and power struggles, often unable to pay close attention to the world beyond their borders. That’s unfortunate, because if the ANC leadership had been able to cut through the transitionology spin and find out for itself what was really going on in Moscow, Warsaw, Buenos Aires and Seoul, it would have seen a very different picture.

Vulture Capitalists and Clients of Foreign Big Capital

It is a serious Class Warfare and the Poeple who are waging it against the poor, i.e., the leaders they voted into power, but who serve and are in choots with Big Capital
It is a serious Class Warfare and the Poeple who are waging it against the poor, i.e., the leaders they voted into power, but who serve and are in choots with Big Capital | Source

The Underdevelopment Of An African SatelliteState - The Distractions of Clientelism

It is better to look much more closely at the ANC and what happened that they should lord over post South African economic disorder and calamity caused by their Apartheid handlers, with whom they are in cahoots now, and residing int he "Deep Pockets of Local and International Finance.

“Has the ANC and its partners in the Tripartite Alliance, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the SACP betrayed their roots and sold out Black South Africa?” The massacre of miners at Marikana, and the Alliance’s callous response to the carnage, seems to answer in the affirmative. “It's as if the clock stopped in April 1994,” when state power was transferred to Black hands.

"Black economic Empowerment, was and is largely a bad joke, limited to a tiny Black elite who were rapidly co-opted into the existing White capitalist power structures."(Global Research)

The African National Congress (ANC) won a resounding victory in South Africa's first democratic election in 1994 with a host of promises that it would improve the lives of the Black majority (85% of the population). And whilst there have been gains in some areas, overall, most Black South Africans are materially worse off now than they were under Apartheid.

Hundreds of thousands of jobs have vanished; costs for the basics: electricity, water, food and rents have skyrocketed. Ironically, no longer the pariah of the world, South Africa's white minority is even better off now than it was under Apartheid (remember the 'Rainbow Nation'?). The only Blacks to have gained have been a tiny minority, many from the ranks of the (former) liberation movement and the trade unions as well as the South African Communist Party(SACP).

So what went wrong? Did anything go wrong? Has the ANC and its partners in the Tripartite Alliance, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the SACP betrayed their roots and sold out Black South Africa? Indeed, sold out the rest of Africa?

"The only Blacks(Africans) to have gained have been a tiny minority, many from the ranks of the ("Former") liberation movement and the trade unions as well as the South African Communist party."(GlobalResearch)

In the run-up to the 1994 elections, a nationwide debate (of sorts) took place, the outcome of which was a document titled Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP). Yours truly even contributed a paragraph or two on the media, privacy and freedom of information section. It doesn't advocate a socialist South Africa but it most definitely was the first practical step taken to redress the decades of Apartheid discrimination and repression. This is part of what the document had to say about the importance of the RDP (all the emphases are mine):


Our history has been a bitter one dominated by colonialism, racism, apartheid, sexism and repressive labour policies. The result is that poverty and degradation exist side by side with modern cities and a developed mining, industrial and commercial infrastructure. Our income distribution is racially distorted and ranks as one of the most unequal in the world - lavish wealth and abject poverty characterise our society.

- The economy was built on systematically enforced racial division in every sphere of our society. Rural areas have been divided into underdeveloped bantustans and well- developed, white-owned commercial farming areas. Towns and cities have been divided into townships without basic infrastructure for blacks and well-resourced suburbs for whites.

- Segregation in education, health, welfare, transport and employment left deep scars of inequality and economic inefficiency. In commerce and industry, very large conglomerates dominated by whites control large parts of the economy. Cheap labour policies and employment segregation concentrated skills in white hands. Our workers are poorly equipped for the rapid changes taking place in the world economy. Small and medium- sized enterprises are underdeveloped, while highly protected industries underinvested in research, development and training.

- The result is that in every sphere of our society - economic, social, political, moral, cultural, environmental - South Africans are confronted by serious problems. There is not a single sector of South African society, nor a person living in South Africa, untouched by the ravages of apartheid. Whole regions of our country are now suffering as a direct result of the apartheid policies and their collapse.

- In its dying years, apartheid unleashed a vicious wave of violence. Thousands and thousands of people have been brutally killed, maimed, and forced from their homes. Security forces have all too often failed to act to protect people, and have frequently been accused of being implicated in, and even fomenting, this violence. We are close to creating a culture of violence in which no person can feel any sense of security in their person and property. The spectre of poverty and/or violence haunts millions of our people.

There is no doubt that the Apartheid system left behind a gargantuan task for the newly democratized South Africa to overcome. Black “education” was limited to producing “hewers of wood and carriers of water,” thus the critical skills and infrastructure needed, especially in governance and education would, even with the best will in the world, take a generation or more to produce if the new South Africa was to redress the imbalances created by white minority rule. White rule that had created an advanced, Western state but for only 5% of the population. A bizarre setup. The only country I know of where there are locks on fridge doors to stop the servants stealing food.

But what became known as Black Economic Empowerment (BEE), was and is largely a bad joke, limited to a tiny black elite who were rapidly coopted into the existing white, capitalist power structures. A process I might add, that had already begun before the 1994 election eg, Cyril Ramaphosa, former head of NUM who became closely involved with the Oppenheimers and the Anglo-American Corporation. (An image sticks in my mind of Ramaphosa, dressed in tweeds and plus fours, fly rod in hand, hanging out with Harry Oppenheimer.)

"White rule that created an advanced, Western State but for only 5% of the population."(GlobalResearch)

At this point I should acknowledge that from 1993 through to the election of 1994, I directed the creation of the ANC's Election Information Unit, tasked with collecting and producing information for the campaign including the ANC's election programme. Indeed, I occupied a very privileged position to observe the evolution (some might say devolution) of the ANC's post-Apartheid economic and political programme.

One thing is for sure, at no point did the ANC advocate a socialist alternative in spite of the critical roles both the SACP and COSATU played in the struggle to overthrow Apartheid. Instead, both the SACP and COSATU took a back seat, deferring to the ANC's neoliberal programme, all in the cause of 'unity'. The ANC government's post-Apartheid programme couldn't even be called a social democratic one, aka postwar Britain's Labour government. But worse was to come.

The Empire's neo-liberal agenda

From the end of the 1980s it was clear that Apartheid capitalism's days were numbered. But it was also the beginning of the end for the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, the ANC's major backers. The period from around 1988 until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 was what you might call an interregnum; globally, situations were fluid, many things were possible. In South Africa a window of opportunity existed within which it was possible for progressive forces to gain an advantage. Not necessarily socialism but, as some advocated at the time, progressive structural changes could have been implemented in South Africa that would have been difficult to reverse, had the ANC had the desire to do so.

But from my observations from within the ANC's election campaign it was clear that Mbeki and those around him had already thrown in their lot, first with Tony Blair's Labour Party (major advisors in the run-up to the election) and second with Clinton's Democratic Party. The deal was done. The US even allowed South African communists such as Joe Slovo, formerly branded a terrorist, to visit the US ( I heard him talk at Hunter College in NYC in 1991).

The ANC brought Greenberg Lake onboard, the US PR company that had engineered Bill Clinton's successful election campaign, as 'advisors' (the 'Blair-Clinton axis'). Then the US National Democratic Institute (NDI), the Democratic Party's think-tank tried to get in on the act, quickly followed by the Republican Institute.

The final (literal) nail in the coffin of a potentially progressive South Africa was the assassination of Chris Hani on the 10 April 1993. Hani, had he lived, in all likelihood would have been the successor to Mandela and South Africa would have had the former Chief of Staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the military arm of the ANC as well as being General-Secretary of the SACP, as president.

"The neoliberals within the ANC didn't get it all their own way, they had to make compromises, especially over the ANC's foreign policy."

Who knows what difference it would have made but Hani was a real hero to the Black masses (anybody who attended the three days of mourning at FNB Stadium in Soweto as I did, will attest to his popularity) and clearly the major reason why he was assassinated. Hani was the last real talent produced by the generation that was led by O.R. Tambo.

But it was not to be. Global capital would not permit even the taste of a progressive South Africa to come to pass and instead it got “their man” Thabo Mbeki to replace Mandela. Who knows when the “deal” was done but Mbeki, who studied at Sussex University in the UK spent his time in exile embedded in the ANC's bureaucracy in Lusaka, Zambia, where he kept a low profile. He concentrated on creating a group of cadres close to him, all of whom traveled with him back to South Africa after the ANC was unbanned, and all went on to occupy key positions in both Mandela's and Mbeki's government.

I think what has confused many on the left is that the neoliberals within the ANC didn't get it all their own way, they had to make compromises, especially over the ANC's foreign policy. For example, on Palestine, Cuba, the invasion of Iraq, the ANC's foreign policy retained much of its pre-1994 anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist rhetoric and undoubtedly it was the role the SACP played in shaping the ANC's foreign policy that was the major reason. (A cynic might say that it's much easier to be a progressive over issues that are not in your own backyard.)

NUM, AMCU, COSATU, SACP, Marikana and the State

The tragedy at Marikana is the logical outcome of the fundamental contradiction that exists when a powerful trade union such as NUM is allied to a political party, the ANC, that is pursuing neoliberal, anti-working class policies. And in turn, because of overlapping memberships and affiliations, the SACP is also complicit in bending reality to fit a very one-sided 'alliance'.

“This incident, as well as others before it in the recent period, should send a very clear message that there is a sustained attack and offensive against COSATU in particular. The SACP has also correctly warned that where our detractors and enemies sense some divisions amongst our ranks, then they always tend to go on the offensive. It might as well be important that these and other related matters needs to be discussed at the COSATU Congress next month, including frank analyses of the strengths and weaknesses of COSATU affiliates as well as some of the threats facing the federation as a whole.

This discussion must not take the form of a lamentation or rhetoric, but must aim at concretely coming up with a programme to defend and strengthen COSATU, within the context of deepening the unity of our Alliance. Such a discussion at COSATU Congress must also concretely explore the possible relationship between, Marikana, the current global capitalist crisis, the further decline in the profitability of capitalism, and a renewed offensive to weaken the working class to defend declining levels of profits.” -- 'Our condolences and sympathies to the Marikana and Pomeroy Victims', Blade Nzimande, SACP General Secretary. Umzibenzi Online, Vol. 11, No. 30, 23 August 2012 (my emph. WB)

There's none so blind as them that won't see and while it's true that giant, transnational mining corps do all they can to exploit the contradictions that exist (that's what capitalists do), it's still no excuse to talk of "deepening the unity of our Alliance," as the SACP puts it, when COSATU is de facto complicit in supporting the ANC's neoliberal policies and all in the name of preserving an alliance that doesn't actually exist.

NUM's rival, AMCU is, to put it mildly, a heady mix of tribalism and personal rivalry fueled by a lot of desperate, hungry miners who feel betrayed by NUM and see radical, even violent confrontation with the mine owners/state as the only way to get the gains they justly deserve.

"AMCU was created in 1998 by Joseph Mathunjwa who left the NUM after he fell out with Gwede Mantashe, then general secretary of the older union [NUM]...”

"AMCU, which has grown to about a tenth of the size of NUM with 30,000 members nationally, has also attracted its own share of controversy. “Its leaders call themselves devout Christians and say life is sacred,” wrote Reuters recently. “But its 'supporters march with spears, machetes and clubs and anoint themselves with magic portions to ward off police bullets.” -- "Turmoil at South Africa's Platinum Mines", by Pratap Chatterjee, Corpwatch Blog, 23 August 2012[1]

Mantashe by the way, is now Jacob Zuma's right-hand man and Ramaphosa is on the board of mining giant Lonmin at the centre of the massacre, as are some members of the SACP also now big capitalists. The conflicts of interest abound but this not the important aspect as far as I'm concerned, it's what underpins it, spelt out by the SACP's 'analysis' above. In 1994 everything changed, except it seems the SACP's interpretation of the post-Apartheid world when the ANC ceased to be part of the liberation movement after it transformed itself into a political party that followed the Western, capitalist model.

But the ANC succeeded in keeping its liberation period partners onboard, partly because it was a party created in the middle of a struggle for state power with the then Nationalist Party, the party of Apartheid (now folded into the ANC). The ANC needed both its alliance partners onboard if it was to win the struggle with the Nats. After all, such was the following that the SACP had in the townships and COSATU-affiliated unions in the workplace, that they could have called out the masses and taken the transformation down an entirely different path had they chosen to.

"The ANC ceased to be part of the liberation movement after it transformed itself into a political party that followed the Western, capitalist model." (GlobalResearch)

Instead, believing itself not strong enough to directly overthrow the Apartheid state (at least that was the public rationale), the ANC struck a deal with the Nats. Called the Sunset Clause and authored by Joe Slovo of the SACP, it was meant to be a temporary power-sharing agreement, designed we were told, to stop a bloodbath from occurring, with Slovo arguing that there was no other choice. Not something everyone agreed with, especially the highly-placed ANC official who leaked the document to the South African Mail & Guardiannewspaper (else we would probably never had known it existed). It was also the last time there was any, even reluctant, public debate with the ANC on ANC policies.

It's difficult to see how the SACP can justify its membership of the Alliance all these years. It's as if the clock stopped in April 1994 and we are left with the bizarre vision of an SACP justifying its alliance with an ANC which practices neoliberal economic policies, on the basis of preserving unity in the face of a threat, but from what? The remains of an Apartheid state machine, long since incorporated into the ANC, or is it the other way around? In a weird way, it's a kind of Stalinism but without the socialist bit, illustrated by the fact that we have members of the SACP calling some of its opponents on the left "Anarchists"!

“The critical question is how could this have happened in 2012, 18 years into our democracy and the centenary commemoration of the ANC�s struggle for social justice and human dignity?

“The answer simply is that there has been a massive failure of leadership on all sides. The critical question is why we did not act earlier on this festering dispute that today the nation mourns?

“All they see is the obscenity of shocking wealth and the chasm of inequality growing. The platinum mines they toil in, for a pittance, yield a precious metal that makes exorbitant jewellery that adorns the necks of the affluent and catalytic converters for the expensive cars the middle classes drive. The workers live in hovels, in informal squatter camps, surrounded by poverty and without basic services. All they experience is a political arrogance of leaders who more often than not enrich themselves at the expense [of] the people. They are angry and restless.” -- Can You Hear The Thunder By Jay Naidoo, former general secretary of COSATU

Marikana is the rest of South Africa waiting to happen and in large measure it is the result of the SACP's relationship to the ANC. And being in bed with COSATU compromises the SACP's independence as much as COSATU compromises its members through its relationship with the ANC. It's a tangled web we weave, part the product of an era now vanished and part the result of Apartheid capitalism's perverted vision of reality that has created such a complex set of contradictory relationships. But then again, nobody said that making a revolution was easy.

"Is it any wonder therefore that the workers at Marikane and elsewhere are turning to a rival and more radical union."

In South Africa unionised labour constitutes about 10% of those with formal jobs, which ain't saying much, given as how perhaps as much as 40% of the population are employed in the 'informal economy' and thus are not counted or represented by COSATU or the SACP. It's trade unionism that any old time trade unionist in the UK would recognize, that of industrial capitalism complete with its 'labour aristocracy' and yet another depressing legacy of a reformist left, only this time in Africa.

Is it any wonder therefore that the workers at Marikana and elsewhere are turning to a rival and more radical union, AMCU, regardless of the fact that I have some reservations about its motives and its tactics. Will NUM respond to the challenge and return to its roots and defend its members? Or is it too compromised by its connections to the ANC government and to the mining corporations?

By not declaring their political independence from the ANC following the 1994 election, both the SACP and COSATU have, for the past eighteen years effectively blocked the development of an independent and progressive voice on the left, which in turn has let the ANC government rule pretty much with impunity when comes to domestic policies. Unity? But at what cost and to what purpose?


Chatterjee's article supplies a lot of detail about the platinum business and the global recession and subsequent drop in demand for platinum that is actually the current catalyst for the ongoing confrontations between the workers and the mining corporations, of which Marikana is the latest and the bloodiest.

Poverty and unemployment are two issues that continue to cause political instability in South Africa. What this tells us is that the country may be entering a period of political instability. Many within the middle-class are wanting to settle things
Poverty and unemployment are two issues that continue to cause political instability in South Africa. What this tells us is that the country may be entering a period of political instability. Many within the middle-class are wanting to settle things
The habitats and dwellingsWhat this tells us is that the country may be entering a period of political instability. Many within the middle-class are wanting to settle things down with good government but are unable to find the majority to do so while
The habitats and dwellingsWhat this tells us is that the country may be entering a period of political instability. Many within the middle-class are wanting to settle things down with good government but are unable to find the majority to do so while | Source

South Africa: The Most Unequal Country in the World - From Racial Apartheid To ANC Class Divisions

We will also further cull from the writings of Naomi Klein, whose insights I find relevant to understand the inner machinations of the coming of the ANC into power...

"On Saturday night, I found myself at a party honouring Nelson Mandela and raising money for his children's fund (I'm still trying to figure out how I ended there). It was a lovely affair and only a very rude person would have pointed out that the party was packed with many of the banking and mining executives who refused to pull their investments out of apartheid-run South Africa for decades.

Mr. Mandela was in Canada this week to receive the highest honour my country has to offer: he was the second person in our history to be made an honorary citizen. So only someone with no sense of timing would have mentioned that, as the Liberal government was honouring Mr. Mandela, it is ramming through an anti-terrorism bill that would have sabotaged the anti-apartheid movement on several fronts had it been in place at the time. (Many other countries are passing similar laws.)

The anti-apartheid movement here in Canada and elsewhere actively raised money for the African National Congress, which would easily have fit most anti-terrorism bills' sloppy definitions of a terrorist organization. Furthermore, anti-apartheid activists deliberately caused "serious disruption" to the activities of companies invested in South Africa, eventually forcing many to pull out. These disruptions would also have been illegal under most proposed anti-terrorism laws.

And then there is the small matter of the fact that many in South Africa insist that apartheid still exists, and requires a new resistance movement, with new disruptions. Earlier this month in London, I met Trevor Ngwane, a former ANC municipal council member, who is at the forefront of that new movement. "Apartheid based on race has been replaced with apartheid based on class," Mr. Ngwane said. "We are the most unequal society in the world."

Confronted with a country where 8-million people are homeless and close to five million are HIV positive, some try to paint deepening inequality as a sad but unavoidable legacy of racial apartheid. Mr. Ngwane says it is the direct result of a specific economic "restructuring" program, embraced by the current government, and nurtured by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

When Mandela was freed from prison, his vision was of a South Africa that offered economic, as well as democratic, freedom. Basic needs for housing, water, and electricity would be met through massive public works programs.

But as power came into the ANC's reach, writes South African Professor Patrick Bond in his new book "Against Global Apartheid" (University of Cape Town Press), enormous pressure was put on the party to prove it could govern with "sound macroeconomic policies." It became clear that if Mandela attempted genuine redistribution of wealth, the international markets would retaliate. Many within the party understandably feared that an economic meltdown in South Africa would be used as an indictment not just of the ANC, but of black rule itself.

So, instead of their policy of "growth through redistribution," the ANC, particularly under President Thabo Mbeki, adopted the cookie-cutter economic program of trying to "grow" the economy by pleasing foreign investors: mass privatizations, lay-offs and wage cuts in the public sector, corporate tax cuts, and the like.

The results have been devastating. Half a million jobs have been lost since 1993. Wages for the poorest 40 per cent have dropped by 21 per cent. Poor areas have seen their water costs go up by 55 per cent, electricity by as much as 400 per cent. Many have resorted to drinking polluted water, leading to a cholera outbreak that infected 100,000 people. In Soweto, 20,000 homes have their electricity cut off each month.

And the investment? They're still waiting.

This is the type of track record that has turned the World Bank and the IMF into international pariahs, drawing thousands to the streets outside their meetings in Ottawa this weekend, with a "solidarity protests" around the world, including one in Johannesburg.

The Washington Post recently told the heart breaking story of one Soweto resident, Agnes Mohapi, caught up in South Africa's privatization battles. The reporter observed that, "For all its wretchedness, apartheid never did this: It did not lay her off from her job, jack up her utility bill, then disconnect her service when she inevitably could not pay. 'Privatization did that' [Mohapi] said."

In the face of this system of "economic apartheid," the new resistance movement is gathering momentum. There was a three-day general strike against privatization in August, timed to shame the government during the World Conference Against Racism. In Soweto, unemployed workers reconnect their neighbours' cut off water and the Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee has illegally reconnected power in thousands of homes. They are also calling on Soweto residents to boycott their electricity payments until the prices are brought under control.

Why don't the police arrest these activists, who after all, are causing "serious disruption" (which is apparently the same as terrorism)? "Because," Mr. Ngwane says matter of factly, "when the police officers' electricity is disconnected, we reconnect them too."

People in revolt and in Distress..
People in revolt and in Distress..
It is Interesting to look at this Posted ANC and the last word "Crime" being hand-writtten to highlight the real modus opernadi of the ANC
It is Interesting to look at this Posted ANC and the last word "Crime" being hand-writtten to highlight the real modus opernadi of the ANC
There is this creeping feeling that voting for the ANC is not really worth it; the ANC has seen a decline amongst its voters
There is this creeping feeling that voting for the ANC is not really worth it; the ANC has seen a decline amongst its voters

Wretched African People's Popular Struggle Against The Class Conscious Gendarme African South African EliteThe Response of the Leaders

I have written a Hub titled "From Apartheid to Barbarism: Backwards Ever, Forward Never - "Black" Predatory Rulers and the Extinction of Africans," which has been published here on Hub pages. Recently I got to communicate with 'jeanihess' in the response column and then she sent me this speech and wanted to know what my response was. I told her to advise her readers to read the Hub I have mentioned above, and then read the speech she posted on the response column. This speech is the reason why I write articles like 'From Apartheid to Barbarism:.." because the article eloquently articulates the very things the ANC member is trying to push back on. These speechifying cadre of the ANC, utilizes the citations from the Hub mentioned above, to stay politically correct, intellectually remain visionaries, repeat the oft uttered talking points in order to win votes next next year and resume their corruption and corruptive ways-take off from where they were before the elections, and expand even more into disempowering and economically segregating amongst themselves and those who vote for them. And yet, the speech on its surface sound 'just right', but on a much deeper and narrative level, it is the same old joke, the same old lies, and corruption that is their main goal. so, this is the Speech:

. The article above discusses how and why they do. Also, the article points out to the hidden agendas carried out by the ANC government and the international and local handlers, the speech below attempts to vilify anyone who criticizes the ANC, and they are termed 'enemies' and yet what they have to say, is stolen by the very leaders who are yowling their 'crocodile tears' and carelessly calling people enemies, and using the very words that critique them as if they are the one who used them. After the cited speech, I will break it down. The article below was provided to me by 'jeanihess'

ANC Western Cape safety and security group

Sanette Smit

Anc Western Cape

3 hours ago

FRANSMAN SAYS: Enough is enough! We are fedup (gatvol)! Vote ANC! Victory over the DA is possible! We must gain victory over DA!

Speech by Marius Fransman (ANC Western Cape leader & Deputy Minister of International Relations) at the Western Cape (SACP) Provincial Launch of Red October Month in Wellington on Sunday 13th October 2013:

Notes by Anc Western Cape

FRANSMAN SAYS: Enough is enough! We are fedup (gatvol)! Vote ANC! Victory over the DA is possible! We must gain victory over DA!

Today at 3:51pm

Speech by Marius Fransman (ANC Western Cape leader & Deputy Minister of International Relations) at the Western Cape (SACP) Provincial Launch of Red October Month in Wellington on Sunday 13th October 2013:

It gives me great pleasure to be here in your midst today to celebrate Red October month. We bring you fraternal greetings and on behalf of the ANC Western Cape, we wish you success and in particular, we salute the SACP and its revolutionary leadership for always keeping the flag of the working class masses flying high and fighting those who only advanced the interests of the privileged elite.

It is for this reason that the role of the SACP is so critical in our progressive Alliance and Red October month celebrates this long legacy of putting the interests, welfare and fundamental rights of the working class first!

We are now entering two decades of intense struggle in a post democratic South Africa to transform our society and to transform organs of state to serve the agenda of the National Democratic Revolution and to carry out the prerogatives to develop a national democratic society.

We have accomplished much in the face of great odds but there still remains much to do. Our record of accomplishments over the past 19 years speaks for itself:

We built 3.3 million houses - 600 every day;

Transferred more than 500 000 state rental houses to long-term occupants;

We brought electricity to 6.5 million new households taking the total number to 10 million;

We installed 500 000 solar geysers in poor working class households;

6.5 million households now have access to water infrastructure - totalling 11.6 million households;

The same number have access to some free basic water;

7 million households of those who cannot pay for their water get 6 000 litres free each month;

11.5 million households have access to toilets - 84.3 present (that is an additional 6.5 million since 1994).

We want to say to you today, the ANC delivers and the ANC leads. We never claim that we have the panacea for all ills but our tradition is deep rooted in consulting with our people and taking the time out to listen to the elders, talk to community leaders, understanding what our people are saying and then together finding solutions that work.

There is a picture painted by the enemy that all is doom and gloom and twenty years of democracy has brought nothing but corruption, economic loss and social dysfunction. What is this doom and gloom that they are talking of? Have they not stolen enough? Have they not abused enough? Have they not lied enough? Have they not eaten enough of our flesh?

Today much of our economy still remains in the hands of a privileged mainly white few; as we commemorate 100 years of that archaic and oppressive law the 1913 Native Land Act most of our land is still locked in white ownership passed on from family to family; the best and most senior jobs in the private sector are still reserved for whites; access to high quality private healthcare and the top private schools are still beyond the reach of the average black working class family; despite our sectoral charters and amended BBBEE legislation much of industry remains either untransformed or under-transformed; and nowhere are these realities more stark than here in the Western Cape where the DA Government has reversed every area of transformation that we had made as an ANC government.

Is this the type of future we want to promise our children? Is this the type of society that we struggled for and for which many gave up their lives and for which others sacrificed sweat and tears? I therefore welcome the theme of Red October 2013: "Transform the financial sector to serve the people."

It is no coincidence that the financial services sector is one of the largest contributors if not the second largest after agriculture of the Western Cape economy. It is an economy that remains largely untransformed. This is an indictment on us as revolutionaries and it is an obstacle to advance the economic equality agenda.

The African National Congress, and its Alliance partners the SACP and COSATU are the mantle-bearers of the Freedom Charter that spells out clearly that "South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white."

This statement is no simple statement just as the Freedom Charter in all its simplicity was and still is not a just another simple statement articulating hot air. It represents the voice of our people forged into unity through bitter struggle under the most repressive conditions.

I want you to understand and reflect on the nature of this Freedom Charter, the nature of our movement and why we as the leadership of the ANC in this province chose to call our strategy a "People's Path to Power".

The Freedom Charter was collated from a charter of minimum demands made by our people. Fifty thousand (50 000) volunteers spanned the length and breadth of this country covering small villages and dorpies like Wellington, Ashton and De Doorns – everywhere - people signed the petition in great numbers - demonstrating the mass character of our movement and that the vast majority of the people of this country love the ANC.

It is for this reason that I want to make a call on the people of Wellington, the Boland and the Western Cape as a whole. We call on all our supporters to ensure that they are registered to vote. In order to do so you must have a valid South African identity document. We call on you to demonstrate that the ANC is a mass based movement that enjoys the support of the mass of our people. Now is your chance to register next year we will call on you in 2014 to make a difference by casting your ballot and making your mark next to the ANC logo.

I wanted to bring it to your attention that under the guise of freedom of expression some white folk have taken to usurping the legacy of Red October month to tell the world that whites in South Africa are being subjugated to the worst form of oppression and genocide. Their protest march was widely covered in the media on Friday and they claim: "whites have suffered since apartheid ended and Afrikaners ceded power to Nelson Mandela's African National Congress party in 1994".

In 2004 they resorted to the same shenanigans shouting wolf while chomping on the juicy leg of roasted lamb. They spread rumours that whites would be massacred and coined all types of phrases for this operation - "Operation Vula", "Night of the long Knives", "Operation white clean up", "Operation Iron Eagle", "Operation Uhuru" and yes believe it or not: "Red October campaign".

In 2004 they spread all these lies and rumours and said Mandela's death was imminent and therefore whites would be massacred."

In his wisdom Madiba quelled the rumours saying: "My health is all right, I'm doing very well. Others have said that I am on the eve of going to my grave. If that day comes, I will go and knock at the door of heaven"

He joked that when his time comes, "I will look for a branch of the ANC in that world and join it."

Nicky Falkof writing in the Daily Mavericks says: "In the case of Red October month, though, there are certain things about the campaign that merit a closer look: In her book 'Aftermath of Feminism' British Cultural theorist Angela Mc Robbie dissects the way Tony Blair's aggressively neo-liberal government co-opted the language of feminism in the late 1990’s. Part of New Labour's establishment strategy, she argues, was to draw on a vocabulary familiar...

Turncoast Lording Over South African Democracy, Rule of Lawlessness African Resistance

ANC Logo
ANC Logo | Source
President Zuma - Presently in power
President Zuma - Presently in power | Source

Examining South African Democracy.. Or Shamocracy?..

Pinocchio Strung Up And On Steroids

This is a very interesting and hypocrical utterence: "

"Such a discussion at COSATU Congress must also concretely explore the possible relationship between, Marikana, the current global capitalist crisis, the further decline in the profitability of capitalism, and a renewed offensive to weaken the working class to defend declining levels of profits.”Cosatu)The bungling ANC seems to crave the injustices of illegal Apartheid to rule and run the country. A staff member of the South African Mail & Guardian, wrote a piece from which I will excerpt this piece:


Zuma wants, through a “review” of the judiciary, pliant, homogenised Constitutional Court judges whose logic resonates with his own. He told the Star: “We don’t want to review the Constitutional Court, we want to review its powers. It is after experience that some of the decisions are not decisions that every other judge in the Constitutional Court agrees with. There are dissenting judgments we read. You will find that the dissenting one has more logic than the one that enjoyed the majority. What do you do in that case?”

The president’s office moved swiftly to dress up his in flagrante moment by releasing a statement saying his words had to be viewed in the context of a Cabinet decision in November last year to mandate Justice Minister Jeff Radebe to “conduct an assessment of the impact of the judgments of the Constitutional Court on the transformation of society in the 17 years of democracy”. And that his intentions, and that of the review, were to help address apartheid’s legacy and “contribute in shaping our evolving constitutional jurisprudence”.

There is a paucity of information about who will be involved in the review and the weight its findings will carry. But it is already drawing legal criticism.

The Black Lawyers’ Association this week noted that such action by the executive showed a lack of a basic appreciation of the tenets underlying the separation of powers. It also pointed out that even if the majority ANC managed to get 75% of the parliamentary support and support from six of the nine provinces in the National Council of Provinces required to pass a Bill to amend the Constitution and the powers of the court, it would still come up against that very same court in a challenge.

The association called the review and any subsequent attempts to make constitutional changes a “tedious exercise”. It is astonishing that the executive displays such ignorance of the rule of law and a penchant for the apartheid days of parliamentary sovereignty with its untrammelled powers, which have so scarred many South Africans."

First of all, the speech article posted above is wrong and should not have been made if any change is to take place in South Africa. It is packed with lies, fabricated talking point s and simple issues which bear no meaning to the voters, all packaged into one huge propaganda: to get people into the action of voting. Post Marikana, we read from Jay Naidoo that:


Today a community struggles to recover from a bloody confrontation that has left the crumpled bodies of 44 citizens lying in the veld, seen starkly in our lounges and across the world. It has split brother from brother and left a community divided and volatile. This is the real trial of leadership on all sides. It is a tinderbox. We do not need demagoguery that stirs explosive emotions or to engage in finger-pointing that adds fuel to the fire.

The critical question is how could this have happened in 2012, 18 years into our democracy and the centenary commemoration of the ANC’s struggle for social justice and human dignity?

The answer simply is that there has been a massive failure of leadership on all sides. The critical question is why we did not act earlier on this festering dispute that today the nation mourns?

There is growing ferment in our land. The people in our townships, rural areas and squatter camps are bitter that democracy has not delivered the fruits that they see a tiny elite enjoying. Our leaders across the spectrum are not talking to our people, they are not working with them systematically to solve their problems, in providing the hope that one day, even in their children’s lives, things will be better.

All they see is the obscenity of shocking wealth and the chasm of inequality growing. The platinum mines they toil in, for a pittance, yield a precious metal that makes exorbitant jewellery that adorns the necks of the affluent and catalytic converters for the expensive cars the middle classes drive. The workers live in hovels, in informal squatter camps, surrounded by poverty and without basic services. All they experience is a political arrogance of leaders who more often than not enrich themselves at the expense the people. They are angry and restless."

I have written several Hubs about this very issue and problem faced by the poor of South Africa, and I am still citing some sources because it is how they see things, and how I am saying the things I say, that will help the reader make up their mind about the article. I think, also, to add to this discourse, I like the way Naidoo puts the South African Real-politik into its proper perspective:


The Northwest province is ruled by the ANC, which also controls the bulk of the seats in the Rustenburg municipality. The platinum miners are the bedrock of the ANC support. The broken promises and the brazen corruption affect them directly. Criminal tenderpreneurs are flourishing in their midst. Most local authorities are dysfunctional. There is a deep-seated anger growing in the Northwest. There is a deep-seated anger growing in the country. And yet the leaders are not at the coal face. People feel robbed of their voices and powerless.

In the absence of strong, legitimate political organisation in the communities, they see violence as the only language their leaders will listen to. It’s is a vicious cycle that sees our people burning down any institution representing the state, whether a school, a library or a public building.

The security apparatus which is trained by the FBI and CIA is a motley crew of minions, goons, spooks and enforcers. These may be in the shadows, but they are already known for their handwork on all they consider their enemies or "anarchists". Basically, they indulge in fictive assailing of 'the enemy', but really not doing anything substantial forir people. Naidoo writes as follows:


A narrow law and order approach will not work in this depressing context. There is genuine anger out there that needs a political solution. I am aghast at the rapid rate at which our government had militarized the security forces and the creeping stranglehold of securocrats within the state. I wonder why our police intelligence failed so miserably to avert a disaster that threatens the country’s economic prospects. Are the securocrats in the state so occupied in searching for imaginary enemies in NGOs and civil society organisations and with passing “Secrecy Laws” that they missed one of biggest crises to face our democracy? There are important choices to be made by the government, but hard questions must first be asked. What are our priorities? What is the root cause of conflict in our society? These may be tough questions, but they are also unavoidable.

Inter-union rivalry is part of the problem. Lonmin management has recognised the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (Amcu), which claims between 20% and 30% of the workforce, for dealing with shop floor issues affecting their membership; but they have fanned the rivalry by only giving recognition to the dominant unions, the National Union of Miners (NUM) and Solidarity, in official wage bargaining structures.

When you recognise a union but exclude it from the collective bargaining negotiations around the core issue of wages, you have a recipe for disaster.

And the speech-maker of the ANC stands up in front of the would-be voter and declares that allis right, all is going according to the statistics he spews out, and everything is not "Doom & Gloom". Of course, having hired, and American PR('s):

"The ANC brought Greenberg Lake onboard, the US PR company that had engineered Bill Clinton's successful election campaign, as 'advisors' (the 'Blair-Clinton axis'). Then the US National Democratic Institute (NDI), the Democratic Party's think-tank tried to get in on the act, quickly followed by the Republican Institute."

The Pinocchio(ANC) is running smoothly from the strings pulled and manipulated by Gepeto (Greenberg Lake)

The ANC Puppet On Strings controlled by Local and International Capital

Gepteto and Pinocchio - Our Present-day ANC Government is like a puppet on many strings
Gepteto and Pinocchio - Our Present-day ANC Government is like a puppet on many strings | Source

Post-Apartheid Mental Dysfunctions and Disorders

Some of the control is through the "Consultants" that the South African government overr-elies on, and this reeks of the Americanization/Westernization of the present rulers of South Africa. SAPA reports:

"Scopa has raised a concern surrounding the government's reliance on consultants, says a report, after some departments spent billions on consultants


Chairperson of Parliament's Standing Committee on Public Accounts (Scopa) Themba Godi is concerned that government has an overreliance on consultants that could lead to a parallel state, the City Press reported on Sunday.

"We [Scopa] actually felt ... that maybe we should call the consultants to come and account because it seems like they are the ones running the show [rather] than appointed officials," he was quoted as saying.

In the financial year 2011/12, national and provincial departments spent a combined R33.7-billion on consultants. This figure excluded municipalities' use of consultants, which is now the focus of an audit by the auditor general's office.

"It has been used to financially empower a few friends here and there and an ideology has set in that for anything and everything we must just get consultants ... instead of building capacity in the public service," Godi said.

The newspaper reported that, according to the auditor general's annual reports between 2009 and 2013, the public works department paid R14-million to a consultant to record and evaluate curtains, scatter cushions and Persian rugs in three regional offices.

Other expenditure included the labour department's compensation fund paying a consultant R68-million to do the work of a chief financial officer, who was transferred because he or she could not perform their main duties.

Whilst we are at it, Zuma has allowed the French to invest $98 billion dollars in an effort to create jobs and stability. This is promoted by Ramophosa who lectured:

11 September 2013

Despite the significant progress made in transforming the South African economy, the majority of the population remains on the margins of development, says National Planning Commission deputy chairperson Cyril Ramaphosa.

The economy created too few jobs and the majority of South Africans remained poor, Ramaphosa said during a packed lecture at Wits University in Johannesburg on Tuesday night, as he outlined the proposals contained in the country's National Development Plan (NDP).

A policy blueprint for eliminating poverty and reducing inequality in South Africa by 2030, the NDP identifies the key constraints to faster growth and presents a roadmap to a more inclusive economy that will address the country's socio-economic imbalances.

Ramaphosa told academics, students and civil society organisations that the NDP was the only plan that could deliver faster as well as inclusive economic growth. He said the plan took a critical and long-term perspective of the country as it outlined ways to overcome unemployment and poverty.

To boost economic growth, the plan suggests a focus on three areas in particular, namely promoting labour-absorbing industries; growing manufacturing, financial services and telecommunications; and providing a broader social wage to enable even the poorest to have a decent living.

The plan also offers clear measures for growing agro-processing and mining and supporting small business.

Ramaphosa called on those who were criticising the plan to engage on some of the proposals and agree on a process to move forward.

"We all want what is best for our people and what is best for our country. This plan is not perfect. There is no perfect plan in the world, and where there are differences, they must be resolved."

South Africa had lower inflation and higher levels of employment since 1994, he said; the number of middle-class people had doubled to more than four-million; workers now enjoy more protection than ever before.

"We have a lot to be grateful for. The glass is not half empty but half full. We have a duty to fill that glass, and the NDP is giving us the chance to do so."

Ramaphosa said many of the unemployed people in the country lacked the skills they needed to enter certain markets. The challenge of creating meaningful jobs would forever be present, and this was the struggle "we must engage in", he said.

Now, we see all these new plans blooming and propping up, which by they way, is a couple of months away from the election of 2014 So, the Spin Doctors are working around the clock in South Africa to win the hearts and minds of the voters to vote the ANC, with all these promises, and yet yet hisotry attest differently.

Declining Voting Power

THE African National Congress (ANC) share of the vote in 2014 is expected to drop to 56.2% from 65.9% in 2009, Nomura South Africa estimates in its country view nine months ahead of the poll.
THE African National Congress (ANC) share of the vote in 2014 is expected to drop to 56.2% from 65.9% in 2009, Nomura South Africa estimates in its country view nine months ahead of the poll. | Source

The Same Old Broken Promises: Election Time Is Nigh

From reading the whole hub, from its origins, to the present-day South Africa, it is a volatile and unstable history. Every time the election nears, the operation of the government whispers closer to the ears of its polity, only to dump them and move on to much more lucrative ventures. What Hubs like these do is to highlight some very important issues like Drugs and other malfeceances that are going down as we speak.

What is also revealed by such Hubs are behind the scenes "Shenanigans" indulged into by the ruling and business elites of South Africa, absent all the time, are the teeming angry army of hungry masses who are watching all of this with envy and longing. Whilst all that is happening, the core and social fabric of the African people becomes eroded. There have been and still are many types of strikes, some a re violent and so forth. There is a lot of dissatisfaction that permeates the heartbeat of the suffering masses whenever they talk in their midst. The ruling African potentate and their handlers design what they think is good for the poor and never ever consult them. so that, they are good to bring the voting numbers to guarantee an ANC win, but they are worthless when it comes to so many other pertinent and basic rights and needs of the poor.

Just Looking at the glitz and Blitz of the NDP as presented by KPMG, one gets that gnawing feeling that one is not part of the gloss and shine of these designed sites-yet they are there to give me opportunities even if I do not have anything to invest, right now. This is the way things work here in Mzantsi today A poor people who have nothing have to be given NDP programs in order to make them be gainfully employed.. There have been programs before, but now that we are closer to voting, old tired ideas are presented as the new government operation.

Meanwhile, we know that the government is gripped by nepotism, cronyism and either one is an 'exile' or 'inzile'. Meaning, the division of wealth distribution is kept tightly within the cadre ranks of the ANC, along with their friends and relatives, that the running of the government is not only a family affair, but a disaster for the poor masses. There is a total blackout and no national discussion of the ANC policies between those pro or anti ANC. The means of communications have been given to the ANC cadres who are messing everything. As pointed out, radio broadcasting in South Africa is run by Clear Channel(the programing makes n=one feel like an America/European) in its contents and context.

We have to rebuild our past and present, so that by so doing, we guarantee our continuity and development as a people. This saga continues into another Hub with similar contemporary historical themes.

Dr. John Henrik Clarke, Dr. Ivan Van Sertima, Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan on Gil Noble

Dr Ivan Van Sertima African History Revisited Egypt & the Americas Sankofa

DR. RUNOKO RASHIDI: The Original Man - The History Of The Ancient Black Peoples

The Destruction Of Black Civilization - Dr. Chancellor Williams & Dr. John G. Jackson

More by this Author


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