Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire

GHENGIS KHAN

Genghis Khan (1162-1227) was an evil genius and tyrant, a man who not only rejoiced in slaughter, but who also commanded the killing of innocent men, women, and children as his mounted minions raped, pillaged, and plundered wherever they went. For centuries Genghis Khan has been infamous as history’s most ruthless, genocidal maniac. Genghis was a huge man with cat’s eyes, who kept a harem of hundreds of girls. He was also responsible for implementing the first alphabet and postal system among his people.  

GHENGIS KHAN
GHENGIS KHAN

THE MONGOLS

The Asiatic Mongols were the most advanced fighting machine of their time; they not only had the world’s finest cavalry soldiers---but were considered by far the most brutal. Mongol soldiers survived both winter blizzards and summer droughts. They fought tigers with their bare hands, and were indifferent to suffering of their own or anyone else’s; they were cold, unfeeling, and mechanical. These soldiers were expected to fight to the death in all circumstances, and they did without question. Each soldier kept from twelve to thirty horses. 

The Mongols featured a battlefield communication system; they used banner signals by day and flares by night. By the year 1300, the Mongols introduced gunpowder cannons, bamboo rockets, and incendiary grenades to the battlefield; they were indestructible in their acts of destruction. 

All Mongol boys were trained early in the art of mastering a bow with 150-pound tension; a bow that could be fired with deadly accuracy from horseback at a distance of 100 yards. These soldiers could ride for days without food or water, and when necessary they subsisted on blood which was drawn from the veins in their horses’ legs. 

MONGOL ARCHERS
MONGOL ARCHERS

MONGOL INVASIONS

Genghis proclaimed himself Khan (King) of the world in 1206, and within a decade he began his methodical annihilation of Muslim cities. The Mongol soldiers would hack to pieces every living person regardless of their age.  Captured royal officials would die a slow and painful death as molten silver was dripped into their eyes and ears; their torture was also the means of their execution. At the great trading city of Samarkland, Genghis slaughtered 50,000 people, and took another 100,000 as slaves. On his subsequent rampage through the countryside, Genghis burnt crops, leveled cities, and killed every living human being he encountered. He showed no mercy; he was in fact, merciless.

MONGOL INVASIONS
MONGOL INVASIONS

MONGOL EMPIRE

In 1221, the Mongols conquered the Christian nation of Georgia, killing all 70,000 of their soldiers. Next came Kiev, where Genghis butchered all 90,000 men in the opposing force.  The Prince of Kiev was suffocated to death beneath the very same banquet table on which the Mongols would enjoy their victory dinner. In both of these wars, the Mongols used the tactic of a fake retreat to draw the enemy into chasing them---thus drawing their enemy into a well planned ambush by their much larger force. The Mongolian cavalry rode for two years without ceasing; they covered a total of 5500 miles, and they conquered twelve nations in what is considered the most outstanding achievement in the history of war waged on horseback.  Hence came the legend of the Mongol’s invincibility. At that point in time, it seemed as if all of Europe would be slaughtered, enslaved, or subjugated by the Mongols. It looked as if Genghis would conquer the world. 

GHENGIS KHAN EQUESTRIAN STATUE
GHENGIS KHAN EQUESTRIAN STATUE
MONGOLS BATTLE EUROPEANS
MONGOLS BATTLE EUROPEANS

MONGOL INVASIONS OF EUROPE

Batu, Genghis’ grandson, had so completely destroyed the Bulgarian capital of Bulgar, in the year 1237 that it was never rebuilt. 50,000 people died there. Next, they attacked Russia, where they hacked civilians to pieces, indulged themselves in the rape of little girls and nuns before killing them, skinned people alive. Other victims were impaled, and some were burned. The Mongols destroyed Kiev in 1240, then the capital of the “Borderlands” (“Ukraine” in Slavic.) This splendid metropolis was reduced to a pile of skulls and bones; it was decimated, nothing more than a shell of a city, left and forgotten in the Mongol’s desire to destroy everything.

Next up for annihilation was Hungary. The Mongols slaughtered 60,000 of their soldiers on the battlefield before burning its capitals, Buda and Pest. The capitals themselves were burnt to the ground in 1241, and their citizens roasted alive on spits in the hope that they would reveal the locations of Hungary’s treasure. They then marched on to Vienna, Austria; shortly after, Mongol spies were seen in Croatia and Venice, setting off panic there as well.

The Mongol Horde also conquered Poland, where they obliterated the entire Polish aristocracy and army, as well as the Knights Templar and Teutonic Knights. They lopped the ears off the fallen to commemorate the victory; the ears filled nine enormous sacks. They burned down Moravia before inexplicably leaving Europe; every city they’d conquered had been left in ashes.

MONGOL EMPIRE 1300
MONGOL EMPIRE 1300

MONGOLS INVADE PERSIA

The Mongols had then decided that their next target would be to hit Islamic Persia. They devastated Baghdad in 1258, where they unleashed one of the biggest and bloodiest massacres known to human history. After the city surrendered, every living thing was killed including more than a million civilians. Baghdad, like the other cities, was then burnt to the ground. The caliph was sewn into a carpet, and then trampled to death by horses. Syria fell next to the Mongols.  

MONGOLS FINALLY DEFEATED

The Mongols were finally defeated in the Valley of Armageddon by the Mamluks from Egypt. The myth of Mongol invincibility was now destroyed forever, and Islam began its resurgence from the near oblivion to which the Mongols had reduced it. Since Muslims were the only people to ever defeat the Mongols on the battlefield, speculation was that perhaps God really did favor Islam.


My source for this article is the fabulous and highly recommended series "The Christians."  

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Comments 211 comments

Skulduggery Jones profile image

Skulduggery Jones 9 months ago from Basingstoke

The Mongol Empire never reached Austria and barely pierced what is modern day Poland. You also missed out that Genghis Khan and his hordes waited three days for the surrender of towns, cities and forts and that every day they waited more people would be killed until the fourth day. However if the place under siege surrendered on the first day then it was unlikely for them to die. Also once inside the Mongol Empire you were allowed religious freedom and protection, as was once said "A man could walk from one side of the Mongol Empire to the other with a gold plate upon his head, without the fear of being robbed,". Also the fall of the Mongol Empire was due to Kublai who on his death, 1294, split the Empire into four Khanates. If you are going to analyse history then please look at all aspects before jugging a famous or infamous character.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 18 months ago from Chicago Author

Dee---Thank you for you're quite pithy comments! I appreciate the visitation.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 18 months ago from Chicago Author

Wolf---I can hardly believe you equated the murderous rampages of Genghis Khan with "the British treatment of their subjects." That kind of statement can only be made by an imbecile. And yes, I absolutely consider "George Washington a hero." Anyone who doesn't is an asshole.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 18 months ago from Chicago Author

Bair---Thank you very much for taking the time to read my article and leave your insightful comments.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 18 months ago from Chicago Author

Angela---The only 'perspective' I wrote from was the Truth of what happened. My article is not 100% negative, as you say. And as for your claim, "About his killing, at that time that was the only way of survival. You kill or get killed" that is preposterous. He had to kill or be killed by people thousands of miles from his home? That is funny. You are pulling my leg, right?


Dee 19 months ago

A long and successful counter-jihad ended just in time by European slaves.


Wolf 2 years ago

This article is fairly one-sided. You are correct to point out the massacres yet you fail to point out the good Chinghis Khaan did, for example promoting religious tolerance and the meritocracy of his armies. You also point the Mongols themselves out to be almost demon-like. You fail to mention for example that Mongolian women had more rights then women of most other societies of the day. Consider where information on the Mongol conquests comes from and what bias they have. Had the shah not executed the emissaries then the Khwarezmian empire would not have had such a fate so please focus on the full story not a single side. Calling him evil and judging someone from the past on our modern moral standards is not a smart idea. I wonder if you would have described the Spanish invasion of the Americas or the British treatment of their subjects with the same one-sided view of the conqueror. I wonder if you consider George Washington a hero. He ordered he burning of Iroquois villages and killing of women and children.


Bair 2 years ago

peter

LOL what?! The only reason that other part of europe wasn't invaded is that Ogedei Khan died and all succsesors ran back to take his place. And Russia was called Garadrica - Country of Cities. Northmens(Vikings) called it like that because that land and its people were rich and prosperous. They were more advanced then Europe people. Well. After Mongol Invasion when they grounded most of them it never was called like that. And after 200 years of slavery they never recovered. And by the way. Most Mongols at that time were Muslims(After Genghis Khan death). And the only reason that Mongol Empire have fallen is that it didn't stop at conquering. The conquered territories were so large that it was just destinied to fall. When they could just settle down and build really great and longlasting Empire, they had everything for that. And most of all whom I blame for fall of Mongol people is Kublai Khan.


Angela 3 years ago

you know you cannot write it from one perspective. Your article is 100% negative. Accept it or not he is the millennium man. About his killing, at that time that was the only way of survival. You kill or get killed. And if you look carefully in historic materials he actually allowed innocent people to choose to get on his side. I think it's just wrong for you to judge a history without any good resource. Putting a whole nation's history down!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 3 years ago from Chicago Author

MikeSchultheiss— Thank you for taking the time to read my article about Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire. I appreciate your commendation and kind comments.

I very much enjoyed reading your Profile Page. We have much in common, in that we both have "been passionate about history for many years, and . . . tend to bend people’s ears about it." Like you, I read history books obsessively and incessantly, and my book collection is always growing. And I surely agree with you that "a lot of people have been poorly served as far as historical education goes." I applaud you in your endeavor to "promote enthusiasm and interest in history and the lessons that it can teach us."

Yes, you are right about the Bulgars I mentioned being the Volga Bulgars. As I mentioned in my article, "Batu, Genghis’ grandson, had so completely destroyed the Bulgarian capital of Bulgar, in the year 1237 that it was never rebuilt. 50,000 people died there." That capital city of the Eastern, Volga, or Kama Bulgars was also known as "the Great Bulgar."

I think you have made an excellent suggestion as well that I should include some coverage of the Mongol invasions of China. That had not come up in any comments as of yet. You certainly have a keen eye for history! :D

Your comments are great, insightful and thoughtful. I look forward to reading more of your writings.

James


MikeSchultheiss profile image

MikeSchultheiss 3 years ago from Eugene, OR

This is a very well-written article, and I commend you for the tremendous patience and courtesy you show those who would minimize or deny the horrendous atrocities committed by the Mongols. To those people, I should say that there is something almost indescribably revolting in the accounts of mass slaughter carried out by the Mongols: every warrior was assigned several (unarmed) captives to kill. An analogy to the Einsatzgruppen suggests itself to my mind.

A small quibble: You mentioned Bulgaria. I believe you mean the Volga Bulgars, as opposed to the Danubian Bulgars, yes?

Also, and I say this with all due respect, but I think this article would benefit from coverage of the Mongol invasions of China. They were some of the first of Genghis's conquests once he'd unified the Eastern Steppe, and the struggle with the southern Song (Sung) Dynasty lasted well into the reign of his grandson, Kublai Khan, so the later conquests there were also some of the Mongols' last. Perhaps you addressed this in the comments already, but there are ever so many of them that I opted not to read them all!

Cheers, my good sir, and I look forward to reading more of your work.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 3 years ago from Chicago Author

peter-- You surely have every right not to like my article but "self-loathing white liberal?" Really!?

I am as far from self-loathing as I could get. I am white but a liberal? Please. I am a little to the right of John Birch. :D

Anyway, thank you very much for taking the time to come by and read my article. I appreciate your visit and comments.

James


peter 3 years ago

Another self-loathing white liberal. What's with the Weird focus on Islam and the few victories and humiliations associated with Mongols limited encounters with weak fragmented Eastern European principalities (Bulgaria-give me a break). The Mongols suffered terrible losses even at their hands. The Mongols did, however, conquere most of Muslim world at that time. They were eventually defeated in eastern Europe and ran east from their superiors. I don't even want to think what France or the Holy Roman Empire would have done to them if they were actually strong enough to reach them. So maybe your article should end with some odd, misplaced comment how God must truly favor Christianity.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Kirei Kireev— Thank you very much for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate your extraordinary commentary. I am sorry that I did not respond to your remarks sooner but I have been quite sick for 2 weeks now.

I read the first ten pages of the book you kindly provided a link to and it is fascinating history. The cover art to which you made reference is stunning as well.

Are you saying that the Tatars and Mongols are one in the same?

Thanks again for your illuminating comments. I appreciate the visitation.

James


Kirei  Kireev profile image

Kirei Kireev 4 years ago

I think, primarily it must be said: unfortunately, in the official historiography there are many pro-Chinese and Persian falsifications about the origin of Genghis Khan, his native nation and his Power.

Therefore, the first thing we should know the truth about meaning of the names "Mongol" and "Tatar" (“Tartar") in the medieval Eurasia:

the name "Mongol" until the 17th-18th centuries in fact meant belonging to a political community, and was not the ethnic name.

While “the name "Tatar" was the name of the native nation of Genghis Khan … he and his people did not speak the language, which we call now the "Mongolian”…" (Russian academic-orientalist V. Vasiliev, 19th century). This is confirmed by many little-known facts from ancient and medieval sources.

Also it must be said: now very few people know that the Tatars of Genghis Khan - medieval Tatars - were one of the Turkic nations, which stopped the Chinese and Persians expansion to the West of Eurasia in Medieval centuries. Descendants of the medieval Tatars now live in many of the fraternal Turkic peoples of Eurasia - among the Kazakhs, Bashkirs, Tatars, Uighurs, and many others.

A well-grounded rebuttal of the chinese-persian myths about "incredible cruelty of nomadic mongol-tatar conquerors", and about "a war between the Tatars and Genghis Khan”, as well as a lot of from the real Tatar (Turkic) History, what the official historians hidden from the public, you can learn in the book "Forgotten Heritage of Tatars" (by an independent Tatar historian Galy Yenikeyev). On the site of Smashwords is an electronic version of this book in English – it’s easy to find on the Internet: http://www.smashwords.com/books/view/175211

An outstanding Tatar historian-scientist D. Iskhakov wrote in 2000: “the real history of Tatars, of the people in every respect historical, is not written yet”.

However, this year was published an above mentioned book by Galy Yenikeyev, about the unwritten (hidden) real history of Tatars. In this book a lot of previously little-known historical facts, as well as 16 maps and illustrations in this book.

Galy Yenikeyev presents in his works a new, or rather "well-forgotten old" information about the true history of the Tatars and other Turkic peoples. This historian wrote 5 books on History of Tatars of Eurasia, which published in Russian language in Russia (2007-2012). "Forgotten Heritage of Tatars" is the fifth book of Galy Yenikeyev, translated into English in the abridged version.

And here (on the cover of the third book of Galy Yenikeyev) you can see the true appearance of Genghis Khan. There placed his lifetime portrait: http://tartareurasia.ucoz.com/publ/knigi_enikeeva_...

Translation notes to the portrait: "...In the ancient Tatar historical source «About the clan of Genghis-Khan» the author gives the words of the mother of Genghis-Khan: «My son Genghis looks like this: he has a Golden bushy beard, he wears a white coat and goes on a white horse» [34, p. 14]. As we can see, the portrait of an unknown medieval artist in many ways corresponds to the words of the mother of the Hero, which has come down to us in this ancient Tatar story. Therefore, this portrait, which corresponds to the information of the Tatar source and to data from other sources, we believe, the most reliably transmits the physical appearance of Genghis-Khan...".


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Something— Thank you for reading my article. I appreciate your comments. I am sorry you think my article is retarded, even though you admit I "got the facts straight." I am perfectly capable of thinking for myself. My life has been filled with the study of history and relfecting upon it.

You ask: "How the hell do you or anyone else knows if he enjoyed butchering people?"

Well, unless forced to do otherwise, you can tell what a person loves by what they do.


Something 4 years ago

This is focuses too much on the negative things that the mongol empire did. We do have to consider that the mongol empire At the time was perhaps one of the most culturally diverse, technologically advanced at that time. No other place was considered as safe as the mongol empire. Also they promoted trade and freedom of religion, and introduced gunpowder to europeans which in turn allowed them to dominate the entire world. Yet somehow europeans seem to be very hateful of him. Yes genghis destroyed entire cities. But he only did so to stop the next city from resisting.

P.s this article is retarded. You got the facts straight but your assumptions about genghis khan sounds like they were written by a person who is incapable of thinking for himself, and believes everything he hears. How the hell do you or anyone else knows if he enjoyed butchering people!?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Mark Hooper— Thank you very much for tasking the time to read my article. I appreciate your extraordinary remarks.

I must say you know the history of the Mongols backwards and forwards. It was good of you to enlighten us further about this subject as you certainly have done.

And I never knew much at all about the history of Java so I am also well pleased to learn about this from you.

Amazing stuff!! Thanks again.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Trish_M— Yes I have noticed that. God ordered the deaths of the people living in Canaan for the best of reasons: they were Devil worshipers. Their demonic "god" Molech (or Baal) was fed by burning infants alive in fiery furnaces.


Mark Hooper 4 years ago

With all respect to Bbudoyono, the Mongols weren't exactly defeated in their invasion of Java in 1293. The Yuan forces that had been assembled by Kublai Khan had pretty much defeated all forces they met and sacked several cities in Java along the way.

This invasion force of 30,000 was sent to Java after King Kertanegara of Singhasari refused to pay tribute to the Yuan and branded the face of the Yuan minister-envoy (and cut off his ears).

Before this invasion force was even able to reach Java, perpetual provincial skirmishes lead to King Kertanegara's murder on the part of Jayakatwang (of the state of Singhasari. Raden Wijaya was the son-in-law of Kertanegara, but was pardoned by now controlling ruler, Jayakatwang and given the Tarik timberland of Java.

Upon hearing of the approaching Yuan forces, Wijaya aligned himself with the Mongol (and Chinese) invaders. Wijaya attacked Jayakatwang with little success and had to seek aid from the Yuan forces, pledging his loyalty to them upon this union. The Mongols fought a Java force of 100,000 men, driving many into a river where they drowned.

Jayakatwang was defeated and the Yuan forces celebrated. Wijaya invited the Yuan Generals and a small force of soldiers to his province so he could pay proper tribute and submit a letter of submission, that they never received from King Kertanegara. But, Raden Wijaya was a manipulative sabatoueur and orchestrated an ambush of this Yuan envoy. Wijaya then mounted a surprise attack against the unsuspecting Yuan camp, which had to retreat back to its ships and retreat from Java.

This expedition was considered a failure, but the Mongols never suffered a defeat in battle. It was more of a panicked retreat due to a loss of key personnel.

Also, it is important to note that this happened during the reign of Kublai Khan, not his grand-father Genghis Kahn. Kublai wasn't as much of a world conqueror as he was emperor of the Kahn Dynasty.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Mongolian— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

JabbaToz— Thank you! Thank you very much. :D


Trish_M profile image

Trish_M 4 years ago from The English Midlands

"The truth is that the Mongol soldiers would hack to pieces every living person regardless of their age. "

Had you noticed, James, that this is exactly the sort of thing that God is reported as ordering, in the Old Testament?


Mongolian 4 years ago

nuuts tovchoo the history book of mgl


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Ethan Symons— It is you who are an imbecile, and an apologist for murderous evil as well. I am sure you think Jeffrey Dahmer was simply misunderstood.

I have told the truth in my article. As I wrote, Genghis Khan commanded the killing of innocent men, women, and children as his mounted minions raped, pillaged, and plundered wherever they went.

The truth is that the Mongol soldiers would hack to pieces every living person regardless of their age. Captured royal officials would die a slow and painful death as molten silver was dripped into their eyes and ears.

At the great trading city of Samarkland, Genghis slaughtered 50,000 people, and took another 100,000 as slaves. On his subsequent rampage through the countryside, Genghis burnt crops, leveled cities, and killed every living human being he encountered.

Genghis attacked Russia, where his men hacked civilians to pieces, indulged themselves in the rape of little girls and nuns before killing them, skinned people alive. Other victims were impaled, and some were burned. The Mongols destroyed Kiev in 1240, then the capital of the “Borderlands” (“Ukraine” in Slavic.) This splendid metropolis was reduced to a pile of skulls and bones; left and forgotten in the Mongol’s desire to destroy everything.

In Hungary, Mongols burned its capitals, Buda and Pest, and their citizens roasted alive on spits. They lopped the ears off the fallen in Poland to commemorate a victory there; the ears filled nine enormous sacks.

They devastated Baghdad in 1258, where they unleashed one of the biggest and bloodiest massacres known to human history. After the city surrendered, every living thing was killed including more than a million civilians. Baghdad, like the other cities, was then burnt to the ground. The caliph was sewn into a carpet, and then trampled to death by horses.

These are the people you think so wonderful, Beelzebub. Go back into your abyss.


JabbaToz 4 years ago

genghis khaan's real name is Temujin


Ethan Symons 4 years ago

You obviously have no idea what you are talking about. You are just parroting a bunch of thousand-year old fears and prejudices invented by people who were scared of anything different than themselves. the mongol warriors were fierce, but no more savage than any others. Genghis gave the people freedom of speech and religion and allowed the lowest, poorest individual to rise to the rank of general or aristocrat through talent. and he didn't keep a harem of girls either - that was his son Ogedei, who indulged in wine and women against the strict rules set by his father. Next time don't insult someone's memory until you know who they were.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

personhureadthis— You are quite welcome! Thank you for taking the time to read my article. :)


personhureadthis 4 years ago

thx this is quite helpful


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Mohammed Qasim-- Thank you very much for the awesome accolades! I appreciate this visitation from you and your outstanding remarks, which are both insightful and thoughtful.

I enjoyed reading both of your comments. I agree with you that the defeat of the Mongol hordes by the Muslims helped save Europe. And, yes, there is no doubt Genghis was courageous. But, as you said, I don't think either of us would wish to meet him! :D

Thanks again for engaging. It is good to hear from you.

James


Mohammed Qasim 4 years ago

what would have happened to Europe if Muslims didn't defeat the Mongols! this event has changed the course of history for the good of Europe!


Mohammed Qasim 4 years ago

I liked your writing skill, you don't get this everyday, salute to you, Sir!

I knew that Muslims (specifically Arabs) were the ones to defeat him but never knew that he did all this destruction in Europe too, i thought he had only swept through Asia..very nice information there...i don't know why some people would ever like him, i may respect his courage to destroy his enemies but would never like him or ever wish to meet him!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

louromano— You are welcome. Thank you for the great compliments. Welcome to the HubPages Community! :)


louromano profile image

louromano 4 years ago

Thanks james. I love your works.Best regards!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Tajik Uighur Khan— Thank you very much for taking the time to read my article and post your comments.

I did mention the alphabet, as well as the postal system Genghis Kahn founded. I issued high praise for the military capabilities and innovations of the Mongols—that is what they are most famous and remembered for. And I also showed the amount of vast land Genghis counquered—what you call "unified." :D

I did not write this insult anybody. Are you saying the hundreds of thousands of civilians, including women, children, and babies, who were slaughtered, butchered and tortured should not have been mentioned? Would you write an article about Adolf Hitler and not mention the Holocaust?

I realize he is a hero in Mongolia, and rightfully so. In the West, this is why he is remembered—mass murder of innocents. There is nothing racist about reporting the facts. Is there?


Tajik Uighur Khan 4 years ago

As per Wikipedia....Genghis Khan advanced the Mongol Empire in many other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also promoted religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, and created a unified empire from the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.

This is insulting a great man who is a God in Mongolia. You have just put forward a one sided, fragmented, non academic version of a racist whos ego is hurt!


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James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Rebecca E.— What a pleasure to hear from you again. Thank you for taking the time to come over and read my Hub. No apology is necessary at all. I'm just glad you read my article. Thank you for your compliments. And you are quite welcome. :)


Rebecca E. profile image

Rebecca E. 4 years ago from Canada

I first must apologize for not reading this sooner... much sooner. I have to say this is a wonderful hub, I did know about the European invasion-- but not about Eygpt. So adding to my boat of knowledge you are James, my sincere thanks.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Mongol— Thank you very much for sharing your point of view with me. I appreciate also you taking the time to visit my Hub and read my article.

I am interested in the 30 episode series about Chinggis Khaan. What is the name of it? What language is it in?

You might be right about the way historians in the west view him. I know he is a big national hero in your country.


Mongol 4 years ago

Although, i personally think the movie Mongol and BBC's doc didn't cover much information about Chinggis Khaan( the way actual mongoalians call). Theres 30 episode series about Chinggis Khaan. It is very well written and directed movie. I recommend it! One thing about all these brutal massacares, it is a FACT that some history writers didn't really liked Chinggis Khaan because of at that time people didn't kno shit about mongol and its people. They may have wrote it misleading way. I do think that if you see from genghis khan's view, is that having less army and almost every time outnumbered army made him do the massacres. He had one simple rule! Be with us and show support or die and lot of times people either didn't kno about them or understimdate and challenged Chingis khaan. He beat the all odds maybe thats what surprised historians much that they didn't want to tell good side of stories of Chingis. My point of view!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Bbudoyono— I did not know that. Thank you for the enlightenment. I appreciate this visit from you and your comments.


Bbudoyono profile image

Bbudoyono 4 years ago

The Mongol army invaded Java in 1292 but it was defeated.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Chandrashekhar Kulwe— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D


Chandrashekhar Kulwe 5 years ago

Good and knowledgeable


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Jenda— "The Secret History of the Mongolian." I will watch that one. Thank you for the recommendation!


Jenda 5 years ago

sorry.. The Secret History of the Mongolian.. that is real book


Jenda 5 years ago

"Mongols" movie is not real something fantastic story... I like it Mongolian Genghis Khans the movie. that is Drama many part i dont know exactly. around 70 part it created by "Secret of Mongolian history"


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

jenda— Thank you for visiting my Hub. I appreciate your comments. I looked for that film by the BBC. It doesn't appear to have been released in America for some reason.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Mugi— Thank you for all six of your comments. I am glad you found my article. It is a real treat to hear from a Mongolian about this topic.

I appreciate the recommendation of the BBC film. I will try to rent it ASAP.

Thanks again! And you are most welcome.

James


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James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

princesswithapen— Thank you for the laudations. I am glad you like my Hub. I very much appreciate this visitation from you. I will be over soon to see what you've been writing lately.

I saw the film "Mongol" but I was not impressed.


jenda 5 years ago

I agree with Mugi.

watch this movie. BBC TV's Genghis Khan

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3OYQ1SFkqA&feature

that is better choice

Some people is knowledge not good and too pity. pls guys more read this History.


mugi 5 years ago

Watch this movie. BBC TV Genghis Khan

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3OYQ1SFkqA&feature


Mugi 5 years ago

Ghengis Khan wasn't evil. he is in the history of the world ranking number 1 great khan.

Chingis Khans 4th son Ugudei Khan.He's creating the silk road and Buy the way having the largest number of descendants and he did for modern civilization.


Mugi 5 years ago

Thank you caretakerray... your comments sounds very very nice.


Mugi 5 years ago

Hunnu's the first creators of the Mongolian State founded a powerful empire in the fourth century BC to become immortal in the history of Central Asia and Mongolia. you guys if you need more information you find from internet like this "Hunnu Empire". Attila is from Hunnu Empire also Mongolian Khan



Mugi 5 years ago

Thank you James... Talking about all my Mongolian history.


princesswithapen profile image

princesswithapen 5 years ago

James

I recently saw the movie Mongol. One of my friends suggested it to me and when I asked her what it was about, she replied "Just watch it. I am not going to tell you the story or the plot. Just watch it" And I loved it how they did not reveal until the end that the story was about Genghis Khan. That, was quite an eye opener for me, not having the slightest clue what the movie was about until just before the final credits rolled out.

This hub was awesome. It was amazing to read about some of the facts about Genghis Khan and how the Mongol plundered virtually about everything in their path.

Princesswithapen


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

jishu bhatto— I am not sure but from where I am sitting Chengiz seems the most cruel of the three—or at least the most destructive and the one responsible for the most deaths.

I am glad you were mesmerized by my Hub. Thank you for saying so!


jishu bhatto 5 years ago

The never ending fact of history mesmerised me !

Who was the most cruel person among Attila the Hun , Chengiz and Timur Long ?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

platinumOwl4— Hello again, my friend. Yes, that Genghis and that Attila were both some characters alright.

The history of the world has been filled with barbarity and atrocity. Of that there is no doubt. Will it end? Will there be heaven on earth? Utopia?

I wouldn't hold my breath. :D

Thank you ever much for visiting and commenting. I do appreciate it.


platinumOwl4 profile image

platinumOwl4 5 years ago

Hello James A Watkins, I truly appreciate this article. It speaks to the barbarity of war and what atrocities occur. The following question was asked of on a job interview: who are your heroes and why? My reply was Genghis Khan and Attila the Hun, because when they did a job everyone knew who was responsible and when Attila left a city it is said of him,"he would chopped down trees and pour salt in the stump so it would not regenerate.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

wba108@yahoo.com— Yes, I too find the Mongols fascinating. I am glad you enjoyed this article. Thank you for sharing your insights. I appreciate the visitation. It is always a pleasure to hear from you. :D


wba108@yahoo.com profile image

wba108@yahoo.com 5 years ago from upstate, NY

James A Watkins - The Mongols are a very interesting topic, I think its fascinating what they did but i'm of course glad they were finally beaten. I didn't know they ever lost in battle. I know there was one battle between the mongols and their allies vs the entire western Roman empire and their allies it ended with the complete destruction of the Mongols calvary and the destruction of the western Roman empire, they considered it a draw.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Trish_M— Hey! Good to hear from you again. Of course it is more than OK—I appreciate the link very much and I'll come over ASAP to read your work. :-)


Trish_M profile image

Trish_M 5 years ago from The English Midlands

Hi :)

I have now written an item on Chingis Khan, so I'll put a link to this hub. I hope that's ok?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

graceomalley— The Crusades seem to have ended without a lot of net effect. Ground was regained, and then lost again. I think you are right in that the Mongols do not have a modern representation for which to demonize by the Muslim world. You don't hear much about the ravages of Muslim peoples by the Mongols, as you say. The conflict between Islam and the Christian Faith continues, unfortunately.

Thank you for reading my work. It is meaningful for me that you do. :-)


graceomalley profile image

graceomalley 5 years ago

"The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate, a blow from which the Islamic civilization never fully recovered."

I have often heard the Crusades blamed for damaging Muslim civilization and putting it on a downward path - this indicates the Mongols were even more responsible. A fact of history one seldom hears now - the conflict is framed Muslim against Christian. I wonder why the Mongols are forgotten enemies for Muslims? They were brutal enough, as described. Maybe because they don't have modern day representatives? Because the conflict was not religious in nature, so does not appeal to religious feeling?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

harrison8bal— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D


harrison8bal profile image

harrison8bal 5 years ago from Shanghai

ahh another great history hub by you I loved it the only downsides of this hub is that it ended so quickly D:


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Jhangora— Cool. Thank you for your comments. I appreciate you coming by to visit my humble Hub. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community!


Jhangora profile image

Jhangora 5 years ago from Dehradun

Chingis Khan is one of my favorite Historical figures. I like him for creating the silk road and having the largest number of descendants ;)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Alladream74— You're welcome. I'm glad you liked it. Thanks!!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

cristina327— Thank you for saying so, my dear. I am glad you came by to read this piece. I do appreciate your accolades. It is always a pleasure to hear from you, and you are truly welcome. :-)


Alladream74 profile image

Alladream74 5 years ago from Oakland, California

A very informative read.Thanks


cristina327 profile image

cristina327 5 years ago from Manila

What an excellent hub it is. Truly very educational. I have never known before about such cruelty of Genghis Khan. Thank you for sharing this great wealth of information. Remain blessed always. Best regards.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

not none— I apologize for the brevity of this article. Attnetion spans are short in this age of MTV. :D


not none 6 years ago

bad info;not enough info


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

hanhan— Thank you for the inquiry. This article was written 1/29/10. You are welcome.


hanhan 6 years ago

When did you write this?

I am doing a term paper and i have to cite my sources. Thanks!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

nettraveler— Thank goodness for that safe buffer! :D

Thank you for reading my Hub. I appreciate your fine comments. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community!


nettraveller profile image

nettraveller 6 years ago from USA

Wow, I bounced from drbj's version to this one. Both hubs are great, in different ways. Like Trish M I suspect that Khan may have gotten a bad rap over the centuries. I'm glad to learn about him with a safe 800 year buffer between us.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Nitish jalali— You are welcome. Thank you very much for reading my work, and for leaving your kind compliments. I appreciate the feedback.


Nitish jalali 6 years ago

Hii james. glad to read ur article. you have given us such great information about Ghengiz khan. It was nice to read your article. I am looking forward to read all your articles. Thank you for sharing your knowledge with us..


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

writinghistory—Thank you for saying so. I'm well pleased that you liked the article—and the ending. I will check out that documentary. Thanks for that tip.

I very much appreciate your readship and I enjoyed your comments. God Bless.


writinghistory 6 years ago

nice piece sir ,

loved your ending- God was with them.........

really we dont have no idea sometimes things that might be true but are not mentioned out of political correctness.

so your last line esp after the fierce build up of the article comes as a welcome relief.like rambo 3 end scene dedicated to the gallant people of afghanistan.

wonder hw would someone write the history of present afghan war when it would be ok to admit 'perhaps God was with them...!

you should see behind the masks documentary on youtube.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

mquee— It's great to hear from you again, kind sir. I, too, am a big history buff. Thank you for visiting and offering your accolades. And you are welcome.


mquee profile image

mquee 6 years ago from Columbia, SC

Hi James, great historical peace. History is my favorite and this was very enjoyable reading. That it is clearly and so descriptively written only added to the enjoyment of reading. Thanks for sharing.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

yo anonymous— You are welcome. Thank you for visiting my Hub. I am well pleased that the information I provided proved useful to you.


yo anonymous 6 years ago

hey james thanks that was great

im doing an assignment on Genghis Khan for school

your page helped a lot thanks man


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

irfan— You are welcome. Thank you for visiting and commenting.


irfan 6 years ago

thanks a lot for useful information on Mongols history


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

billyaustindillon— Thank you for your kind compliments. I appreciate your thoughtful insights. I always enjoy reading your comments.


billyaustindillon profile image

billyaustindillon 6 years ago

This was a superb account of the Mongols history and eventual demise. I do find it interesting the revisionists that have been getting around - much to do with some of the atheist writings ala Dawkins and Hitchins despite evidence to the contrary IMO. They have an audience now so they get more creedence. However the evidence from so many different countries and cultures suggests Genghis Khan was as the old saying goes was a "Mongrel of a Mongol"


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

rusticyeti— I did go and read the reviews of this book just now. It is very interesting. I am not a big fan of historical revisionism myself. I think the deaths, the massacres, at the hands of Genghis Khan are well documented.

It looks as though this book is focused on his descendants, some of whom were Christians, and most of whom were far more benevolent rulers.

As far as Genghis, there seems to be historical evidence of what happened at Samarkland, Kiev, Georgia, Bulgar (laid to waste so as to be out of existence as a city), Hungary, Poland, Persia, and Baghdad. That is an awful lot of disparate, unconnected, far-flung cultures with written histories about the massacres of Genghis Khan for it to all be fable, not to mention the archaelogical evidence.

Thank you for a thoughtful post and for bringing my attention to a book of which I was not aware. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community!


rusticyeti profile image

rusticyeti 6 years ago

Jack Weatherford wrote a great book about Genghis Khan, which refutes much of what you are saying above, especially about him being so trecherous of a person and leader. For example, much of what we have heard about the brutality of Khan, Weatherford believes, was systematic gossip and scare tactics which his spies would spread so that cities and townships would surrender faster and make his conquests LESS bloody.

Below is a quote from an editorial review on Amazon: "...This colorful retelling discusses many of the innovations that marked Khan's rule and contributed to his success. Although his name is now erroneously associated with terror and slaughter, he showed surprising restraint during a time when few others in power did. He allowed freedom of religion, encouraged free trade, developed a paper currency, and observed diplomatic immunity. As he encountered new cultures, he adopted or adapted their best practices, and constantly updated his military strategies."


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Amarbayar— I do believe that Genghis Khan was a human person, like us, yes. I thank you for visiting my Hub. I appreciate your remarks.


Amarbayar 6 years ago

Actually our king was not an evil or some part of god things people he was a human like us. kkkkk First read a lot then try to argue about history. You people have no idea about our Mongol kkkk. Well Good luck!!!


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James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

TwoCents— Yes, you are correct. The Poles have long been noted for bravery in battle. Thank you for your interesting insights. I appreciate the visitation and your words.


TwoCents 6 years ago

James,

There is one thing I need to mention to you about the Mongol invasion of Poland. Though all you said was correct that the Mongols obliterated the Polish aristocracy and army, and filled up nine sacks of cut ears; it is also known that the Polish army put up a good fight before its obliteration, and the Mongol casualties were in fact high in Poland; which made the greatly reduced surviving Mongol army having to leave Poland and rejoin the more successful Mongol army in Hungary. Although, the Polish slow-down of the Mongols was not a blow as big as the one from the Egyptians, as you put it.


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