Frustrating English Grammar: Which Is Correct: "in-person" Or "in person"?
Are you ever confused by "in person" or "in-person"?
Many of us become confused, but these rules can help you decide.
Alive and in person, personally, and in a personal appearance.
When using the English language, do you ever have problems deciding whether in person or in-person is correct? Many of us do so, but these rules can help you decide.
"In person" and "in-person" are both correct, as long as the the first phrase is used as an adverb and the second phrase is used as an adjective.
- Remember that an adverb modifies a verb, adding enhancing information such as how or when.
- Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun by modifying it with information that tells what kind of.
Continue to read below for definitions and examples for the use of the adverb in person and the adjective in-person.
In Person (as an Adverb)
This phrase is an adverb, because it tells how something was done, is being done, or will be done. For example:
I do not trust the market's delivery system, so I am going to the store in person.
(How will I go? I will go in person.)
If you say you'll go "in person" you mean you'll go personally rather than sending somebody or something else to represent you.
Synonyms For "In Person"
Synonyms for "in person" are personally, myself, and in the flesh, as in:
- He applied for the job in person, or
- I couldn't believe it, but there she was, in the flesh.
- Oh my goodness, he was right there before my eyes!
In-Person (as an Adjective)
In-person: this hyphenated word is an adjective, a word that tells us "what kind of."
Many adjectives are hyphenated words, but writing guides caution us from using too many hyphenated words as adjectives, and against stringing many words together as a single hyphenated-word adjective.
For example, a "thicker-than-thread-but-thinner-than-rope" cord. Usually, we have an English word that means the same things as the string of words connected with hyphens, although not always, and the long string still can be used for comic effect, as needed.
In-person: (adjective): an appearance carried out personally in someone else's physical presence; "we'll have in-person negotiations" or "I'd love an in-person consultation."
Synonyms For "In-Person"
Synonyms for "in-person" are personal, private, or face-to-face.
The Cockatiel Met The Cat In Person
Adverb vs. Adjective
Remember that an adverb modifies a verb, adding enhancing information such as how or when.
Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun by modifying it with information that tells what kind of.
What Is A Person?
What Is "person" In The English Language?
What is a person (n.) in the English language?
The term "person" means many different things in different contexts:
1. Biology: a human being, whether man, woman, or child: "The car seats six persons." A human being as distinguished from an animal or a thing. (Note: many Native American groups denote all living creatures to be persons; e.g. frog people (frogs), butterfly people, etc., including animals not recognized as clan symbols.)
2. Sociology: a single human being, especially in regard to that person's social relationships and behavioral patterns as taught by the culture.
3. Philosophy: a sentient, self-conscious, or rational being.
4. The self or individual personality of a human being. ("You ought not to generalize, but to consider the person you are dealing with.")
5. The body of a living human being, sometimes extended to include clothing. ("He had no money on his person.")
6. The external part of the body. ("Her person is beautiful.")
7. A character or role in literature or in film.
8. An individual of distinction or importance (see Personage, below).
9. A person not entitled to social recognition or respect. (More like a non-person.)
10. Law: a human being (a natural person) or a group of human beings, a corporation, a partnership, an estate, or other recognized legal entity (an artificial person or juristic person) having legal rights and duties. In 2011, corporations that claim rights as people were a protest point with the movement known as Occupy Wall Street.
11. Grammar. In many languages, a concept applied to indicate the difference between the speaker of a statement and those to or about whom they speak. In English grammar, we have three persons in the pronouns as follows:
- first person is I and we,
- second person is you, and
- third person is he, she, it, and they.
Rules for using the three persons of English with verbs can be confusing.
12. Theology: any of the three manifestations of the Holy Trinity of Christian denominations: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
- To be one's own person (in charge of oneself), to be free from restrictions, controls, or orders:
"Now that she's moved to college, she feels more like her own person (own boss)."
- In person, in one's own bodily presence; personally:
"Come to the box office at 8:00 PM in person to purchase a concert ticket."
Person: individual, personage, a human being.
- Person is the most commonly used reference word: "He's an average person."
- Individual is a single human being alone or one member of a larger group. "Not everyone, just one individual."
- Personage is used (sometimes ironically) to refer to an outstanding or illustrious person: "The emperor is a distinguished personage."
- Note: Party can also mean an individual person, especially in contract law.
Other Frustrating English Words And Grammar
- Lay, Lie, Sit, and Set
The attached photos help make it clear when and how to use some most troublesome word pairings that do not go together at all.
- Who or That - English Grammar and Idioms
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© 2007 Patty Inglish
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