Health Economics Book: Savior HubPages Website

Health Economics Book: Savior HubPages Website

THE COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW ON THE PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS AND APPLIED THEORIES IN HEALTH ECONOMICS

I. INTRODUCTORY OVERVIEW http://hubpages.com/hub/overviewofhealtheconomics

     This section provides comprehensive general information about the concepts, principles and applied theories in Health Economics. Basically, the content in this article is the application of economics in the field of health profession. It focuses in the study of the allocation scarce resources through the operation of medical centers, hospitals and clinics. Likewise, the production of medical goods is concentrated in the operation of pharmaceutical companies, drugstores, medical equipment and supplies enterprises and other related health corporate entities. The existence of medical services relies so much in the operations of health institutions that need to understand the concept of medical price mechanisms, the return-of –investments of acquire health technologies, the user fees of medical equipment and facilities, and the evaluation of cost benefit and effectiveness in the medical programs. The understanding of these health economics concepts and theories will provide the necessary management competence of the medical personnel particularly nurses to know the operation of the hospital or medical center in the economic enterprise of the health sector. That’s why it provides preliminary concepts in health along the standard advocacy of “Health for All” by the World Health Organizations as implemented by the Department of Health

II. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH http://hubpages.com/hub/Comprehensive-Overview-of-Health-Economics

      This chapter provides comprehensive general information about the concepts, principles and applied theories in Health Economics. Basically, the content is the application of economics in the field of health profession. It focuses in the study of the allocation scarce resources through the operation of medical centers, hospitals and clinics. Likewise, the production of medical goods is concentrated in the operation of pharmaceutical companies, drugstores, medical equipment and supplies enterprises and other related health corporate entities. The existence of medical services relies so much in the operations of health institutions that need to understand the concept of medical price mechanisms, the return-of–investments of acquire health technologies, the user fees of medical equipment and facilities, and the evaluation of cost benefit and effectiveness in the medical programs. The understanding of these health economics concepts and theories will provide the necessary management competence of the medical personnel particularly nurses , physicians, and other allied health personnel to know the operation of the hospital or medical center in the economic enterprise of the health sector.

A. Concepts, Principles and Determinants of Health

B. Measurement of Health Outcomes

III. HEALTH LIFESTYLE http://hubpages.com/hub/Overview-of-Health-Economics-Healthy-Life

      This chapter in health economics provides the comprehensive overview about healthy life. It focuses on the study of the “Quality of Life” within the underlying causes of health problems that provide the adherence of the quality health care to the populace. In addition to this information, this chapter provides an extensive study on the definition of health along the emotional outlook of life in the term “happiness”. As part of the comprehensive study of health economics the concept on “health” along the performance dimension of the Human Development Index (HDI) is presented to further analyzed the extent of its usage in health care programs and services. Finally, the healthy lifestyle and health-related quality life approach through the “Quality of Life’ (QOL), and “Disability Adjusted Life Year” (DALY) are presented to understand the possible deviance on health as a result of unhealthy life style. This extensive information may be used later in the study on the applied theories of health economics.

A. The Common Factors on the Underlying Causes of Health Problems

B. The Unhealthy Social Life Style in the Modern Society

C. The Prevention and Control of the Health Related Problems in the Community

D. The Components of Wellness

E. Health and Happiness

F. The Basic Aspects of Human Development

G. Human Development Index

H. The Healthy Lifestyle and Health-Related Quality Life Approach

IV. THE ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS OF HEALTH CARE http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Comprehensive-Overview-of-Health-Economics-The-Economic-Relationships-of-Health-Care

      In order to understand the role of economics in relation to health care, we have to understand the basic structure and functions of economics. The concept of economics is concerned with describing the interrelationship between different individuals and organizations related to production and consumption of goods and services. The main point of the study of these interrelationships is to explain how the institutional framework and the rules of behavior specified for the individuals and organizations influence the final outcome: (1) The economic need of the individual for health care is more on the concern of medical treatment .Hence, the idea of consumption explains the health care services provided in the medical care centers (hospital and clinics) and the medicines for the medical treatment and recovery on health; and (2) The organization provides the health care services for the confinement of the patients. The public health sector provides the infrastructures such as hospitals, health clinics and other medical services while the private health sector provides highly competitive medical centers on quality health care to attract the different individual to avail the health services.

A. Health Resources and Economic Growth

B. Health Policies

C. The Economic Relationship in the Formulation of Health Policies

D. The Economic Variables in the Utilization of Health Service

V. THE CONCEPTS AND AREAS OF ECONOMICS http://hubpages.com/hub/Comprehensive-Overview-of-Health-Economics-The-Concept-and-Areas-of-Economics

      The concept of economics is usually focus on the scarcity and productivity of resources to satisfy the basic human needs and wants with the use of money as a medium of exchange. The society has been motivated to produce various commodities with an interest of profit and later distribute to the commercial and business centers that need to use a medium of exchange to buy or sell goods and services to satisfy the human wants. Likewise, the basic idea of economics is to know the utility or the satisfaction of human wants. The society needs to produce these goods, which are scarce; therefore, it has corresponding value or price. The production of goods is usually the basic and secondary needs that the society must have in order to live. It has corresponding price using money as a medium of exchange.

A. The Definitions of Economics

B. The Operational Terms and Concepts in Economics

C. The Economic Demand

D. 5 Things to Know in the Satisfaction of Human Wants http://hubpages.com/hub/satisfactionofhumanwants

E. The Economic Demand of Health Care http://hubpages.com/hub/economicdemand

F. Economic Supply

G. Economic Supply of Health Care - http://hubpages.com/hub/economicsupply

H. The Economic Resources

I.  The Broad Categories of Economic Resource

J. Economic Goods

K. The Concluding Substance of Economics

L. Areas of Economics

VI. THE PRODUCT GUIDE OF DRUG AND MEDICINE http://hubpages.com/hub/Drug-and-Medicine

      In health economics, the drug product is part of the economic supply on the health service-oriented industry. The physicians administered the medical diagnosis of patients to find out the illness or diseases. Once the medical check up is done, the physician provides the medication as the prescription in the prevention and treatment of diseases. It is now the responsibility of the patient to buy the medicines with the corresponding price to take effect the recovery and treatment of patient.

A. Economic Translation of Drug

B. Drug Guide Information

C. Therapeutic Actions of Drug

D.  Different Forms for the Administration of Drug

VII. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONCERNS ON MEDICATION http://hubpages.com/hub/Social-and-Economic-Concerns-on-Medication

      There are interesting medical facts that we should know why the medical diagnosis and treatment failed to recover the health of the patient. The other trouble from the medical and social concerns may result to complications of patient that will double the medical expenses in the medicine, laboratory fees, hospital fees, physicians fees and other unforeseen expenses.

VIII. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND NUTRITION http://hubpages.com/hub/Physical-Fitness-and-Health

      The daily activities and tasks such as walking, talking, dancing, working, running, standing and etc. are important in the functioning of our bodily systems. There are certain physiological levels to work in the condition of the cardio-vascular systems, nervous system, pulmonary systems and other bodily systems that needs to maintain in order to become healthy. The product of regular exercise and body fitness is important to deliver a healthy lifestyle that is free from any physical health problems that may include: fatigue, stress, illness and other forms of the deteriorating conditions on its physical wellness. The prevention of these physical problems may be done through the result of physical fitness such as endurance, energy, strength, and power.

IX. ECONOMIC THEORIES ,HEALTH ISSUES AND CONCERNS

A. The Economic Impact of Cigarettes and Liquors in the Corporate World of Health Care http://hubpages.com/hub/cigaretteandliqour

      Do you now that the cigarettes and liquors have the highest percentage of corporate tax and revenue in the economy of the countries around the world ? They are the deadly killers for all and the lifeblood of broadcast/print media and the pharmaceutical companies. Those who are addicted and afflicted by illness such as cancer, hypertension, arthritis and other health effects have the staggering corporate earnings for pharmaceutical companies, drugstores, advertising agency, hospital and medical cares. For social occasions and parties, liquors have tremendous market for red wine, beer, and whiskey including cigarette. It is accepted lifestyle as personal vices that symbolize the natural of social interaction of the modern world. These are also present in bar, clubs and disco houses. The nightlife of professionals, office workers and students consumed much as social drinks.

B. The Economic Impact of Cigarettes and Liquors in the Corporate World of Health Care http://hubpages.com/hub/cigaretteandliqour

      Do you now that the cigarettes and liquors have the highest percentage of corporate tax and revenue in the economy of the countries around the world ? They are the deadly killers for all and the lifeblood of broadcast/print media and the pharmaceutical companies. Those who are addicted and afflicted by illness such as cancer, hypertension, arthritis and other health effects have the staggering corporate earnings for pharmaceutical companies, drugstores, advertising agency, hospital and medical cares.

C. 8 Common Characteristics of the Human Society in Year 2020 http://hubpages.com/hub/8-Common-Characteristics-of-the-Human-Society-in-Year-2020

     The age of commercialism and technological development will change the societal conditions that may not be true today. In 2020, the unhealthy lifestyle of the children and teenagers will have different thoughts and interest that will gradually destroy the natural path of the tradition, culture,values and beliefs .

D. Integrated View for Health Economics as Applied by the Work of Alfred Marshall http://hubpages.com/hub/integrated_viewforhealtheconomics

In 1920, Alfred Marshall wrote the famous economics book entitled by “Principles of Economics” which he defined economics as a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life and it examines that part of individual and social action which is most closely connected with the attainment and with the use of the material requisites of well being. We now closely examine the related concepts on the creation of wealth and goods to understand the substance of economics. The satisfaction of human wants is usually directed from the basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, health and etc. In the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, we consider this as the physiological needs as the basic components for survival. However, we always need money to buy things we want in the society which is considered as consumers’ good. Marshall explained that "money" or "general purchasing power" or "command over material wealth," is the centre around which economic science clusters; this is so, not because money or material wealth is regarded as the main aim of human effort.

E. Economic Theory on the Development Strategy for Social Equity Programs http://hubpages.com/hub/Economic-Theory-on-the-Development-Strategy-for-Social-Equity-Mechanisms

      The international community and sovereign states are always in track of defining the development strategy for the pro-poor program to attain the "Improved Quality of Life" (IQL)of the stakeholders. These development programs are address to promote the generation of income and employment to satisfy the basic needs of the poor.

1. Sustainable Development by providing alternative employment and income of the poor in areas such as agriculture and forestry.

2. The Gender and Development Program to sustain the employment of women by creating micro-enterprise based on their strategic expertise to create an additional income.

3. The Peace and Security Programs not only in the support of infrastructure development but alos job-generation program to reduce the internal conflict in the community.

4. The Cooperative Enterprise Program on collective effort to produce credit line, consumer products and other service oriented jobs.

5. The International Funding Assistance and Grants with the Equity Support of the SoveriegnState on employment generation and micro-enterprise.

6. The National Government Agenda on Anti-Poverty Alleviation Program to provide support on infrastructure needs and community enterprise to attain self-sufficiency of the poor.

7. The Employment Generation Program and Liveliihood Programs by the national government agencies to provide an alternative income and employment to attain a better social services and economic services mechanism to the poor.

      These have been adopted almost all regions of the world with the primary international development goals in reducing the poverty incidence and providing the basic needs of the poor. The development strategy is through employment and generation program as social equity mechanism to finally address the concern of the poor. There are basic international standard tools to find out the international grants and assistance which is also adopted by the sovereign state to translate an effective and efficient development programs on social and economic services. These are the use of strategic management tools, Monitoring and Evaluation Programs, Feasibility Studies, Logical Framework Analysis and other tools to ensure the viability of the project as even supported by CBA,NPV,IRR and CEA.

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