How Is The Brain Protected From Dangerous Organisms?

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The brain we all know is a wonder of nature and still holds many secrets yet to be discovered. It can also be vulnerable to attack from pathogenic organisms and disease. However, one of the brain's most enigmatic features is how, for the main part, it can protect itself against these harmful invasions. The main barrier against dangerous organisms and disease is the blood-brain barrier.

According to Science Daily:

"The blood-brain barrier -- the filter that governs what can and cannot come into contact with the mammalian brain -- is a marvel of nature. It effectively separates circulating blood from the fluid that bathes the brain, and it keeps out bacteria, viruses and other agents that could damage it."


However, there is much about this 'marvel of nature' that is still not fully understood. Nevertheless, we can get a good grasp of how the brain protects itself from the knowledge that has been discovered.

The peeled back layer (1) is the dura mater, the outermost layer of the meninges. The glistening on the brain (2) is the arachnoid layer of the meninges. Underneath this glistening layer would be found the pia mater.
The peeled back layer (1) is the dura mater, the outermost layer of the meninges. The glistening on the brain (2) is the arachnoid layer of the meninges. Underneath this glistening layer would be found the pia mater. | Source
Meningitis can weaken the blood-brain barrier that normally protects the brain.
Meningitis can weaken the blood-brain barrier that normally protects the brain. | Source

What are the basic protective layers of the brain?

Brain protection starts with a number of layers. Beginning from the outside in, we'll look at these defensive shields and the job they do.

The brain is encased in the skin layer of the scalp and the skull that not only guards the brain itself from trauma and organisms, but both create a shield for other protective devices around the brain.

The Meninges

There are three of these protective layers. The meninges are better known through the medical condition - meningitis - which is an infection of these layers. The three meninges are called the:

  1. Dura mater - this is a thick layer that prevents the brain from being thrown around within the skull. This layer is found all around the brain.
  2. Arachnoid mater - sits between the dura and pia. As well as protection this area helps to move cerebrospinal fluid back into the blood stream.
  3. Pia Mater - this is the inner most layer. This is the only membrane that actually touches the brain itself.


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Moving within and around the brain is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is a clear liquid that is produced in areas of the brain called ventricles. The main functions of this fluid are:

  1. It acts as a cushion for delicate brain structures
  2. Brings nutrients to the brain
  3. Removes waste matter away from the brain

CSF is often used to diagnose medical conditions especially of the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis.

However the main protective structure of brain that prevents dangerous organisms from entering is the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

Vials of cerebrospinal fluid. These are normal samples as the fluid is clear.
Vials of cerebrospinal fluid. These are normal samples as the fluid is clear. | Source

Have you or anyone you know suffered from an illness or infection involving the brain?

  • Yes, I have suffered from a condition like this.
  • No, but I do know someone who has
  • No, I haven't suffered from this kind of illness or anyone I know.
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The blood-brain barrier and protection against organisms

The blood-brain barrier (BBB)

This is a semi-permeable membrane that protects the brain by allowing some substances to get through, such as nutrients, but not others - for example bacteria.

Within the body there are endothelial cells that have spaces in between, lining the tiny blood capillaries that allow the exchange of many chemicals. Within the brain, the endothelial cells that form the BBB are packed very tightly together making it much more difficult for substances to pass through. Many of the materials needed by the brain for health, have special carriers that get them through the barrier.

In addition, glial cells or astrocytes surround the blood vessels in the brain forming a lining. It is thought that these cells are both responsible for constructing the blood-brain barrier and for the transportation of ions out of the brain into the blood stream.

The blood brain barrier's main functions are:

  • Protecting the brain from harmful organisms or substances that may try to enter.
  • Hormones and neurotransmitters that circulate around the body could potentially harm the brain, so the BBB keeps them out.
  • The blood-brain barrier is also responsible for maintaining the correct and a healthy environment for the brain to function properly.

There are conditions that can harm the blood brain barrier and cause it to malfunction:

  1. Exposure - if the brain is exposed to things such as radiation and microwaves this can begin to break down the blood-brain barrier so allowing other harmful substances and organisms to enter.
  2. Birth - newly born babies can be at risk from infection in particular because the blood brain barrier is not yet fully formed.
  3. Infection - if the barrier is exposed to infectious agents they can begin to weaken it.
  4. Hypertension (high blood pressure) - this condition causes weakness in the barrier causing it to open up.
  5. Hyperosmolity: a high concentration of certain substances in the blood will open up the barrier. Osmolity is the steady state of water and salt content in our body. Hyperosmolity is the abnormal increase in osmolity of a body fluid.
  6. Medical conditions - there are certain medical conditions or injuries that weaken and allow the blood-brain barrier to open up, such as - trauma, ischaemia, inflammation and pressure.

Interesting brain facts

The brain
Facts
1. Weight
The brain weighs less than our entire skin. Our brain weighs about 3lb our skin about 20lb.
2. Pain
There are no pain receptors situated in the brain, therefore it can't feel pain.
3. Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain making up about 85% of its total weight.
4. Water
The brain is approximately 75% water.
5. Development
The brain takes longer to develop than any other organ in the body and it also goes through the most changes.
6. Mysteries
Scientists claim that they know more about stars billions of light years away than they know about the human brain.

What happens when the blood-brain barrier fails?

Apart from the situations previously mentioned that can weaken the BBB, there are additional circumstances where this normally formidable barrier is breached. For example in medical conditions such as bacterial meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges covering the brain - the blood-brain barrier can become disrupted allowing substances to pass through that wouldn't normally. In addition some viruses and bacteria can sometimes infiltrate the brain by being transported in infected immune cells.

Other conditions that can cause damage to the BBB are:

  • Encephalitis
  • Strokes
  • Tumours
  • Multiple sclerosis

The difficulty doctors and pharmacists have is finding drugs that will be accepted by the BBB so that they can fight diseases and infections that affect the brain. Although there are a few that have been developed that can do this. The problem with drugs is their size. Some medicines that have been produced such as for epilepsy have small enough molecules that can pass through the barrier. However, many drugs have very large molecules that just can't get in. Interestingly viruses also have very large molecules and bacteria are even bigger. Therefore, the protection put in place for the brain, can also prevent treatment being given.

However, the infections by bacteria and viruses, although we've heard of most of them, are still rare and will continue to be so, as long as we have the formidable shield of the blood-brain barrier. In addition, medical science is advancing constantly, so perhaps it's just a matter of time before all the secrets of the brain's protective devices are revealed.

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Comments 14 comments

mperrottet profile image

mperrottet 3 years ago from Pennsauken, NJ

Another great hub, Seeker7. I love the "Interesting Facts" section. Isn't it amazing that we don't know more about the brain? Good read, voted up and interesting.


Silva Hayes profile image

Silva Hayes 3 years ago from Spicewood, Texas

Well written and informative. Have you read the recent news articles about how brain infections have been linked to tongue piercings?


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi mperottet, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub!

Yes! It's so weird that we know more about space than we do about our brains! How many more hidden secrets does this fascinating piece of nature have? I think it will continue to astound us the more we find out!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Silva Hayes,

That's a fascinating comment and no, this is new information for me. I will definitely look this up - I don't want folks to catch a brain infection, but this sounds fascinating!! Many thanks for the info!!


Frank Atanacio profile image

Frank Atanacio 3 years ago from Shelton

wow its crazy we just keep learning about that unknown frontier called the human brain.. what a good hub seeker7 :) Frank


GusTheRedneck profile image

GusTheRedneck 3 years ago from USA

Hello Helen (Seeker7) -

As to Silva Hayes comment, infection pathways through the tongue to the brain are likely related to what has long been called the facial "danger triangle." That is a thought, anyway.

Your article, here, is very well done and you are to be commended for its writing. Thanks.

Gus :-)))


Angela Kane profile image

Angela Kane 3 years ago from Las Vegas, Nevada

We all have been impacted by someone with a brain issue. Aside from the heart, it is one of the main organs you want working perfectly.


Eiddwen profile image

Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales

So very interesting and thank you for sharing.

Eddy.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

HI Frank!! I love your comment about the brain and absolutely agree. The more we do find out the more mysteries this awesome construction of nature throughs up!!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Gus, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub!

I think you're right about the 'danger triangle' - it's certainly in the right area and the 'triangle' itself is worthy of a hub of its own - very scary stuff!!

Glad that you enjoyed the hub and many thanks again for stopping by and taking the time to comment.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hello Angela Kane, Your comment is very interesting in that I certainly know people who have had a 'brain issue' (not in conjunction with my work as nurse but as friend) and I do have other friends/family who have also had issues and yes, it's the one organ you pray keeps working ok!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Eddy,

Glad that you enjoyed the hub!! Hope you've had a lovely weekend!


teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 3 years ago

Seeker, you have posted an outstanding article. It is always a plus to peek in on a hub and discover wonderful information helpful in understanding how your body works. Thanks for the lesson, friend.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi teaches12345, always lovely to hear from you and glad that you enjoyed the hub. I think the brain has to be the most fascinating thing in nature, not the least because we know so little about it. Many thanks again for stopping by!

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