Human Anatomy and Physiology of Muscles Online on HubPages

There are approximately 639 skeletal muscles in the human body, all of them attached to the 206 bones that make up the skeleton. By coordinated contractions and relaxations of the various muscles, the skilled movements of the human body are produced.

According to Wikipedia: The gross anatomy of a muscle is the most important indicator of its role in the body. The action a muscle generates is determined by the origin and insertion locations. In most muscles, all the fibers are oriented in the same direction, running in a line from the origin to the insertion.

There are 3 types of muscles: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. This hub is about skeletal muscles - their origins and terminations, and functions.

(To reinforce your study here on the human anatomy and physiology of muscles, watch the video at the bottom of this article)

courtesy of bodyministries.net
courtesy of bodyministries.net

Muscles of the Neck

courtesy of emedicine.medscape.com
courtesy of emedicine.medscape.com

Muscles of the Neck

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Omohyoid
Extends from upper border of shoulder blade to hyoid bone in neck
Lowers hyoid bone and floor of mouth.
Sternohyoid
Extends from upper end of breastbone to hyoid bone beneath chin
Pulls hyoid bone downward.
Thyrohyoid
Extends from thyroid cartilage to hyoid bone in neck
Draws hyoid bone downward and thyroid cartilage upward.
Trapezius
A large muscle extending from base of skull and vertebrae in neck to the collarbone, shoulder blade and tip of shoulder.
Raises shoulder and pulls shoulder blade (scapula) backward
Longus capitis
Extends from vertebrae in neck to base of skull
Bends (flexes) head.
Digastric
Extends from lower jaw to hyoid cartilage in neck
Lifts up hyoid bone.
Scalene
Extend from vertebra in neck to first and second ribs
Bend head and neck sideways.
Splenius
Extend from vertebrae in the chest and neck to back of head
Straighten head and spine
Levator scapulae
Extends from spinal column in neck to shoulder blade
Lifts up shoulder
Mylohyoid
Extends from lower jaw to hyoid bone in neck
Lifts floor of mouth
Sternothyroid
Extends from upper end of breastbone to thyroid cartilage
Pulls larynx (voicebox) downward

Shoulder Muscles

courtesy of http://wrathofnino.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/shoulder.jpg
courtesy of http://wrathofnino.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/shoulder.jpg

Shoulder Muscles

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Deltoid
Extends form collarbone and scapula, over the shoulder, to humerus in upper arm
Lifts upper arm away from body
Subscapularis
Extends from scapula (shoulder blade) to humerus (in upper arm)
Rotates arm inward
Infraspinatus
Extends from shulder blade to upper arm
Rotates arm in an outward direction

Chest Muscles

courtesy of picsdigger.com
courtesy of picsdigger.com

Muscles of the Chest

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Pectoral
Extend from collarbone, breastbone, and ribs to shoulder blade and humerus of arm
Rotate arm inward, bring shoulder forward and pull arm close to the body
 
 
 

Muscles of the Upper Arm

courtesy of http://www.highfive.me.uk/Resources/Anatomy/UpperArm/All.JPG
courtesy of http://www.highfive.me.uk/Resources/Anatomy/UpperArm/All.JPG

Muscles of the Upper Arm

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Deltoid
Extends from collar bone and scapula, over the shoulder, to humerus in upper arm
Lifts upper arm away from body
Triceps brachii
Extends from upper end of humerus, in upper arm, to ulna bone in forearm
Straightens elbow
Biceps brachii
Extends from scapula and humeus in upper arm to bones and tissue of forearm
Powerful muscle which flexes upper arm
Anconeus
Extends from humerus in upper arm to ulna in forearm
Straightens elbow joint
Extensor carpi radialis
From humerus bones of wrist
Extends (straightens) wrist
Brachialis
Extends from humerus inupper arm to ulna in forearm
Flexes (bends) elbow joint
Brachioradialis
From humerus in upper arm to radius in the forearm
Flexes (bends) elbow joint
 
 
 

Muscles of the Forearm

courtesy of illpumpyouup.com
courtesy of illpumpyouup.com

Muscles of the Forearm

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Extensor carpi ulnaris
From humerus in upper arm to bones of wrist
Extends (straightens) wrist
Extensor digitorum
Extends from humerus in upper arm to tendons of fingers on back of hands
Straightens wrist and fingers
Extensor carpi radialis
From humerus to bones of wrist
Extends (straightens) wrist
Extensor digiti minimi
From humerus in upper arm to the base of digit 5 on dorsal side
Extends little finger at all joints
Flexor carpi ulnaris
From humerus and ulna to bones in front of the wrist
Bends wrist
Flexor digitorum
From ulna in forearm to fingers
Flexes (bends) fingers
Abductor pollicis longus
Extends from muscles and tendons of forearm to base of thumb
Straightens (extends) the thumb and pulls it away from other fingers
Extensor pollicis
Extends from radius and ulna bones of forearm to thumb
Straightens thumb and pulls it away (abducts) from other fingers
Flexor pollicis
From radius bone in forearm and bones of wrist to thumb
Flexes thumb
Extensor indicis
From ulna to index finger
Extends index finger and wrist

Abs Muscles

courtesy of luxfitness.com
courtesy of luxfitness.com

Abs Muscles

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Lattisimus dorsi
Extends from spine and ribs to humerus in upper arm
Brings arm close to body, aids in breathing
Serratus anterior
Extends from spine in chest and lower back to ribs
Elevates ribs and thus aids in breathing
Rectus abdominis
Extends from bottom of breastbone and lower ribs to pubis
Bends spine forward; supports abdominal wall
Oblique
Extends from lower ribs to midline of abdomen and pubis
These muscles support the abdominal wall
External intercostal
Extend from one rib to another
Aid in breathing in and out
courtesy of kcfac.kilgore.cc.tx.us
courtesy of kcfac.kilgore.cc.tx.us

Thigh Muscles & Gluteus (Buttocks)

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Psoas major
Extend from vertebrae in lower back to femur in thigh
Flex (bend) trunk and hip
Pectineus
Extends from pubic bone to femur (thighbone)
Pulls thigh toward midline of body and flexes hip
Adductor longus
larger muscle than abductor brevis, arising from the pubic bone and extending to femur
Pulls thigh toward midline (in an inward direction)
Gracilis
From pubic bone down to tibia in leg
Pulls thigh toward midline of body
Sartorius
Extends from hip bone to tibia in leg
Bends knee and hip joints and rotates thigh outward
Vastus
Extend down entire front of thigh to kneecap and tibia in leg
Straighten knee
Iliacus
Extends from pelvis bones to femur in thigh
Flexes hip joint
Tensor fascia latae
Extends from crest of hip, down along outside of thighs, to leg
Draws leg away from body and bends hip joint
Rectus femoris
Extends from hipbone down front of thigh, over knee to upper leg
Straightens knee
Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus (see anatomy chart above)
From bones of pelvis to upper, outer part of femur (thigh bone)
These muscles straighten the hip joint and pull thigh bone away from body

Muscles of the Back

courtesy of luxfitness.com
courtesy of luxfitness.com

Muscles of the Back

Name of muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Trapezius (see muscles of the neck capsule)
 
 
Erector spinae - spinalis
Extend from vertebrae in neck, chest and back to other vertebrae in neck, chest and back
Straighten head and spine
Infraspinatus fascia
Extends from shoulder blade to upper arm
Rotates arm in an outward direction
Teres minor
Extends from upper border of scapula to humerus
Rotates arm outward
Teres major
Extends from outer border of scapula to humerus
Rotates arm inward and draws arm toward the body
Lattisimus dorsi (see abs muscles capsule)
 
 
Semispinalis capitis
Extend from vertebrae in neck and upper chest upward to base of skull
Bend head backward and rotate spine in neck region
Splenius
Extend from vertebrae in the chest and neck to back of head
Straighten head and spine
Levator scapulae (see muscles of the neck capsule)
 
 
Rhomboid
Extend from vertebra in neck to scapula near midline
Squares shoulders by drawing shoulder blades backward
Oblique (see abs muscles capsule)
 
 
Supraspinatus
Extends from scapula to humerus
Draws upper arm away from body
Serratus
Extends from spine in chest and lower back to ribs
Elevates ribs and thus aids in breathing

Hamstring Muscles

courtesy of athleticquickness.com
courtesy of athleticquickness.com

Hamstring Muscles - 3 large muscles extending down back of thigh, from ischium to tibia below knee

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Semitendinosus
Ischium (bone upon which one sits) to tibia in leg
Bends knees and straightens hip
Semimembranosus
-ditto-
-ditto-
Biceps femoris
Extends from femur and ischium to fibula and fibrous tissues below knee
Flexes knee joint and extends (straightens) hip joint

Calf Muscles (See Anatomy Chart above)

Name of Muscle
Origin and Termination
Function
Gastrocnemius
Extends down leg from femur to heel bone
Bends ankle in a downward direction and helps to flex knee
Soleus
Extends fromtibia and fibula in upper leg to heel (calcaneus)
Bends ankle down
Peroneus
Extends from bones of leg (tibia and fibula) to bones of foot
Bend foot outward, flex and extend ankle
Flexor hallucis longus
From fibula in leg and bones of foot to base of big toe
Flexes big toe

More by this Author

  • Different Styles of Table Setting
    21

    Table setting style is the focus of any party where food is served. Tableware and setting plan depends on the event or occasion and it can be as important as the food you serve. The first step to do in putting together...

  • Cattle Raising in Philippines
    7

    Through cattle-raising, agricultural by-products and wastes can be utilized by converting these into animal feeds. Likewise, marginal and idle lands can be made productive as forage production areas.

  • Swine Raising in the Philippines|A Viable & Popular Source of Income
    54

    Raising pigs is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines because there is a proliferation of backyard producers which dominate the swine industry and a healthy viable commercial sector


Click to Rate This Article
working