Just who were and are the English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish?

Celtic nations today, and the areas in the Iberian Peninsula where the Celtic languages originated.
Celtic nations today, and the areas in the Iberian Peninsula where the Celtic languages originated. | Source
Source

The British Isles, back in pre-historic times was actually attached to the European continent, much like Alaska once attached all of North America to Russia. But as the Ice Age melted into the Stone Age and the oceans rose, Alaska became disengaged from Russia and the British Isles became disengaged from the European Continent.

Today, we know the British Isles as the countries of England, Wales, Scotland and all of Ireland. The term UK or United Kingdom refers to England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The term Great Britain refers to the countries of England, Wales and Scotland. And Britain usually means England and Scotland.

So where do the ancient Celts come in as peoples of these different countries and islands? Actually different tribes of Celts inhabited the different countries and islands. For purposes of this article the following has been established by historians and archaeologists:

  • the Gauls (in France)
  • the Britons (in England and Wales)
  • the Gaels (in Ireland)
  • the Gaels and Picts (in Scotland)

Each of these tribes is considered Celtic, just a different tribe or strain of Celts and they are united by the language that they speak and the culture that they live. They are part of the Insular Celtic languages even though each tribe may have had its own dialect.

The Insular Celtic language is a branch of the Indo-European language family and the same family from which most of the languages here in American and Europe that we speak.

By the first millennium AD, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and the great migration of Germanic peoples to the Britain, the Celtic culture and Insular Celtic had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain (Wales, Scotland and Cornwall, the Isle of Man, and Brittany (in France).

From the fifth to the eighth century AD the Celtic speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic, religious and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.

By the sixth century AD, the Continental (European) Celtic languages were no longer in wide use. Insular Celtic culture and languages split into that of the Gaels (Irish, Scottish and Manx) and the Brythonic Celts (Welsh, Cornish and Brittany (in France) of the medieval and modern periods.

Today, the Insular Celtic languages are the ancestors of these languages:

  • Welsh
  • Gaelic (Irish, Manx, and southwestern Scottish variants. Scottish Gaelic is derived from Old Irish)
  • Cornish (In England)
  • Breton (in France)

But, today, with DNA testing some of the theories and beliefs about the Celts and the mythology that we believed, have been turned upside down by research and DNA testing done in the late 20th century and early 21st century.

Some researchers believe calling the British Iron Age "Celtic" is misleading and that this term should be abandoned and some researchers and historians believe through DNA testing that the term is not misleading and this ancient ancestors of the British Isles should be called Celts.

After doing my own research on the topic, I believe the latter researchers, that the ancient ancestors of the British Isles were Celts and Celtic should extend to describe the insular monuments, art, culture and peoples both ancient and modern of the British Isles.

Beautiful bronze decorated backside of a mirror.  An example of Celtic art in the Romano-Britain period. (England)
Beautiful bronze decorated backside of a mirror. An example of Celtic art in the Romano-Britain period. (England) | Source
Gold British Celtic coin (England).
Gold British Celtic coin (England). | Source
Source
Celtic parade helmet. (England)
Celtic parade helmet. (England) | Source

Stephen Oppenheimer research

Throughout recorded history the British Isles have consisted of multiple cultural groups and identities. As far back as the Bronze Age, Celts were living in the British Isles. It has been said that the English descended from the Anglo-Saxons who migrated to England just as the Roman Empire was collapsing and the Romans were leaving Britain.

During the time of the Anglo-Saxons, the Vikings from Scandinavia also migrated to the British Isles. It is also believed that most of the people in the rest of the British Isles derived from indigenous Celtic ancestors with a sprinkling of Viking Blood here and there.

There has been no agreement among historians or archaeologist on the meaning of the worlds "Celtic" or "Anglo-Saxon."

Stephen Oppenheimer, (English) offers his research in his book, The Origins of the British, and says that the theory that the Celts came to the British Isles from Central Europe is false.

Genetic evidence shows that 75% of English ancestors came as hunter-gatherers 15,000 to 7,500 years ago, after melting of the ice caps and before land broke away from the mainland and divided into islands. Furthermore, the English share a gene pool with former ice-age refuge in the northern Basque region in modern day Spain, according to Oppenheimer.

Oppenheimer even goes so far as to say that the first settlers in Britain (England) were unlikely to have spoken a Celtic language, but probably a tongue related to the unique Basque language which no one to this day can pinpoint its origin.

Oppenheimer states that Caesar wrote back in BC times the the Gauls living south of the Seine River called themselves "Celts." They were common in the rest of what is today, France, Spain, Portugal and the British Isles.

Oppenheimer's theory is that the Celtic languages were spread by a wave of agriculturalists who dispersed 7,000 years ago from Anatolia (in Turkey) traveling along the north coast of the Mediterranean Sea, to Italy, France, Spain and then up the Atlantic Coast to the British Isles. He has also offered as proof of this an archaeological trail.

He continues, "my genetic analysis shows exact counterparts for this trail both in Y chromosome and maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA right up to Cornwall, Wales, Ireland and the English south coast."

He believes that Celtic cultural history should start in the British Isles no earlier than 300 BC. He said in his book that for many years historians and researchers believed the Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain (England) and conquered or ran off the Celts.

But, his gene analysis shows that only 5% of the modern English males lines are from Anglo-Saxons.

So, who was there (England) when the Romans arrived? Were Britons inhabiting England at the time of the Roman invasion? Yes, Britons inhabited England when the Romans invaded, but Oppenheimer also found pre-Roman coins in south Britain that reveal an influence from Belgic Gaul.

Oppenheimer says in his book that the tribes of England, south of the River Thames and along the south coast during Caesar's time (54 BC) had all Belgic names or affiliations. Caesar says in his writings that these tribes had replaced an earlier British population which had migrated to the hinterland of southeast England. (East Anglia)

Oppenheimer believes the Belgic tribe to be the large Celtic tribe, the Catuvellauni, situated in the home counties north of the River Thames. The Catuvellauni lived in what is today Hertfordshire, England and were neighbors of the Celtic Iceni tribe (Queen Boudicca) and joined in their rebellion against Roman rule.

Tacitus, a Roman noble wrote, that between Britain and Gaul, "the language differs but little." This language referred to by Tacitus, Oppenheimer believes was not Celtic but was similar to that spoken by the Belgae, who may have been a Germanic people. Therefore, according to Oppenheimer, a Germanic-type language could already have been indigenous to England at the time of the Roman invasion and not necessarily brought by the Anglo-Saxons.

Therefore, English may have been a separate fourth branch of the Germanic language family before the Roman invasion. Recent lexical (vocabulary) evidence analyzed by Cambridge geneticist, Peter Forster and his colleagues render this evidence as true and Oppenheimer has included it in his book.

Therefore, there was a definite Belgian connection in south of England. Further genetic evidence and analysis also shows that there were major Scandinavian incursions into north and eastern Britain during the Neolithic period and before the Romans, especially in the Shetland to Anglia region in Britain (England).

Any one who has read the epic poem, Beowulf knows that there are Anglian dialects that owe much of their vocabulary to Scandinavian languages and that the setting of Beowulf is in Denmark and Sweden. Some of the cultural affiliations of the early Anglian kingdoms were derived from Scandinavia.

In conclusion, Oppenheimer wrote, the overall genetic perspective of the British (English) are Celts, Belgians, Angles, Jutes, Saxons, Vikings and Normans and are all immigrant minorities compared with the Basque (Spain) pioneers who first ventured into Britain as the great ice sheets melted.

Source
Bagpipers in the region of Galicia in Spain where the Scottish influence has come.
Bagpipers in the region of Galicia in Spain where the Scottish influence has come. | Source

Brian Sykes research

Brian Sykes, professor of human genetics at Oxford University and his team of researchers at Oxford University, has also negated the theory that people of Celtic ancestry were thought to have been from Central Europe.

He published his extensive research in his book, Blood of the Isles. Here he created the first genetic maps of the British Isles and stated his analysis.

He found through DNA analysis an almost identical genetic fingerprint to the inhabitants of coastal regions of Spain, specifically the northwest region of Spain called Galicia and who migrated north between 4,000 and 5,000 BC by crossing the Bay of Biscay in boats and then pushing up the English channel to land in England.

This means that the majority of people in the British Isles are actually descended from the Spanish. Sykes spent five years taking DNA samples from approximately 10,000 volunteers in Britain and Ireland to produce a map of their genetic roots.

Sykes took his research on the Y chromosome, which is inherited from the father, and found that all except a tiny percentage were original descendants from one of the six Celtic clans who arrived in the UK in several waves of migration prior to the Norman conquest.

He found that most of the 10,000 DNA when analyzed had the genetic fingerprint from the Celtic clan, Oisin. He found that the Celts were most prominent in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, but they were also strongly prominent elsewhere in today's England.

As time progressed, Celtic tribes in England, then migrated back to the northwest corner of Spain, bringing with them their culture and language.

aboutworldlanguages.com/celtic-branch
aboutworldlanguages.com/celtic-branch | Source

Celtic Dueling Violins

Gavern: Celtic Adrenalin

Ailein Duinn - singing in Scottish Gaelic

Celtic cross from when the Celts became Christains.
Celtic cross from when the Celts became Christains. | Source

Modern Celts

Through the genetic research of Stephen Oppenheimer in The Origins of the British and the genetic research of Brian Sykes in his book, Blood of the Isles, both comclude that according to genetic evidence, most Welsh people like most Britons, descend from the Iberian Peninsula.

There is a definite link and ancient relationship with the population of Atlantic Europe. Oppenheimer's research states that 96% of lineages in Llangefni in Northern Wales derive from the Iberian Peninsula.

Genetic research on the Y chromosone has shown that the Welsh, like the Irish, share a large proportion of their ancestry with the Basque region of northern Spain and southwest France.

Certain peoples of Wales continue to speak the Bythronic (Briton) languages with additions and borrowings from Latin. Gene scientists at the University College of London (UCL) have said that the Welsh are the "true" Britons and are remnants of the Celts that were pushed out by the Anglo-Saxons.

Today, through genetic research and analysis it is proven that the Celtic languages are the ancestors of the following modern languages:

  • Welsh
  • Gaelic (Irish, Manx and Scottish)
  • Cornish
  • Breton (in France)

These people are the modern Celts and attempts have been made to link these distinctive cultures to those of the ancient Celtic peoples.

The 19th century brought a Celtic Revival and a movement of ethnic nationalism in the UK of Great Britain and Ireland. It was believed then that the Celts came to the British Isles from Central Europe.

Additionally, the Irish Home Rule Movement resulted in the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. There were also significant Welsh, Scottish and Breton nationalist movements that gave rise to the concept of Celtic nations.

The Celtic League was formed in the British Isles in 1961 and its efforts are dedicated to preserving the surviving Celtic languages. The Celtic Revival also led to the emergence of musical and artistic styles identified as Celtic. The music drew on folk traditions within the Celtic nations.

Late in the 20th century and early 21st century a number of scholars criticized the idea of modern Celtic identity arguing that there never was a common Celtic culture, even in ancient times. Malcolm Chapman and his book, The Celts: The Construction of a Myth (1992), was of this criticism saying he had a "politically correct disdain for the use of 'Celt.'"

So, the modern Celtic identity continues to be debated. However, with the genetic research of Oppenheimer and Sykes, it can be said there was a definite Celt ancestry in the British Isles in all four of the countries.

Modern 'Celtic identity' was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, Ireland and other European territories such as Portugal and Spanish Galicia. Today, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories and Cornish and Manx are under going a language revival. And, Celtic refers to a family of languages and more generally means "of the Celts" or "in the style of the Celts."

Remember, the Insular Celts are Celtic-speaking peoples of the British Isles and their descendants. Celtic regions of Continental Europe are those whose residents claim a Celtic heritage, but where no Celtic language has survived. These areas are in the Western Iberian Peninsula, ie. Portugal and northwest and north central Spain (Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Castile & Leon, and Extremadura.

Therefore, the six nations associated with modern Celtic identity and considered "the Celtic nations" today are:

  • Brittany (in France)
  • Ireland
  • Scotland
  • Wales
  • Isle of Man
  • Cornwall (in England)

And southeastern England and other parts of England have a strong Celtic ancestry. All Celtic languages extinct today in these countries belong to the Insular Celtic languages derived from the Celtic langues spoken in the Iron Age Britain and Ireland. They are separated into a Goidelic (Gaelic) and Brythonic branch from an early age.

Linguists have been arguing for many years whether a Celtic language came to Britain and Ireland and then split or whether there were two separate "invasions" of languages. Today, linguists lean toward a model of phylogenetic Insular Celtic dialect group.

Archaeologist Barry Cunliffe and Celtic historian John T. Koch state there was a Celtic culture in Britain (England) during the Bronze Age and credits its spread to gradual migration out of Proto-Indo-European culture and not as an invasion.

Under Caesar, the Romans conquered Celtic Gaul (France). At that time, Gaul made a language shift to speaking Vulgar Latin under the Romans. Under Claudius, the Romans conquered Britain (England). In Britain (England) Insular Celts retained their language.


Sources:

www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/celts-descended-from-spanish-fisherman-study-finds-41727.html

www.bbc.co.uk./history/ancient/british-prehistory/peoples_01.shtml

www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/mythsofbritishancestory/#.U4zFA_Id.Uuc

www.kelleyheckart.com/theancientcelts_page1.html

Language
Brythonic (British)
Country spoken today
Breton
 
Brittany, France
Cornish
 
Cornwall, England; Canada; Australia
Welsh
 
Wales; U.S.; Canada; Australia
Insular Celtic refers to the Celtic dialects spoken in the British Isles and in Brittany, France (but not elsewhere in Europe.)
Language
Goideic
Country spoken today
Scottish Gaelic
 
Parts of Scotland and the Hebrides; Australia; Canada; U.S.
Irish Gaelic
 
Parts of Ireland; Brazil; Canada; UK; U.S.
Manx
 
Isle of Man
Insular Celtic refers to the Celtic dialects spoken in the British Isles and Brittany, France (but not elsewhere in Europe)

More by this Author


Comments 40 comments

CarolynEmerick profile image

CarolynEmerick 2 years ago

Great informative article. Upvoted and will share on a page called The Celtic World on FB :-)


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Thanks so much, Carolyn, for reading this and the votes and share. I appreciated the comments.


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 2 years ago from England

Hi suzette, read every word! lol! and yes we East English are Celts and don't let em forget it! thats what annoys me! the way the irish, scots and so on say, we are celts! we are all darn celts! only different! lol!

Seriously it was believed, as you mentioned that people think when the Romans, French and Anglo's appeared over here it took away our blood lines etc, but of course it didn't because there were only a few hundred Romans in certain areas, as well as the french when they invaded, they would never have caused that much damage to our heritage, and of course the so called Normans who invaded were in fact originally from Norway hence the name Norman, they invaded france and interbred with the locals.

The bit I found really interesting is the'Anatolia in Turkey' This makes sense as around 10,000 years ago its said that brown eyes took a genetic leap and turned blue around the Turkey area, then they migrated across Europe! wrote a hub about that! lol! Fantastic read again Suzette, voted up and shared all over!


Lady Guinevere profile image

Lady Guinevere 2 years ago from West Virginia

I am half Welsh and half German. I have my welsh line and other information on hp too. Thanks for this very thorough hub about them.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Nell: Thanks so much for your input. How dare anyone say the English aren't Celts. That is just absurd! The English are Celts! No one can take the bloodlines away as you say. What I found interesting for me was the Belgic Celts ended up in S. England because my paternal grandmother is part English, but with a Belgic last maiden name, but she always was so forceful in telling us we were not Belgic, So, perhaps this Belgic name came from that strain of Celts (so we would have a bit of Belgic in us LOL!) I just find this so interesting. And yes, I was amazed at the Anatolia - Turkey connection. That surprised me too. I have to read your hub on that. Now, I'm trying to find the Scottish connection with Italy. Through my maternal Italian great-grandmother we supposedly have Scottish in us too. My ancestoiral background is really weird. I am so pleased you enjoyed reading this Nell and long live the English Celts!


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Lady Guinevere: So glad to see you enjoyed reading this. I am a bit Welsh through my paternal grandmother and German through my paternal grandfather, and of course my father. Then, my mother is Italian - so I am a conglomeration! LOL! So nice to meet a fellow Welsh/German. I have been to Germany and Italy but never to Wales. I hope to see that country some day.


Lady Guinevere profile image

Lady Guinevere 2 years ago from West Virginia

My father's line is all welsh and my mothers is almost all German. There is one ancestor a long time ago that was Prussian. I would love to go to Wales and delve deeper into the culture and find any ancestors or family member that did not come over on the boat. As you see by my alias I am very much into the land of Camelot---in Wales, of course. I have some posts on living in those times on another site.


billybuc profile image

billybuc 2 years ago from Olympia, WA

My people, or so I am told. Being adopted means I can claim any ancestry that I want. LOL The education continues and I thank you for it.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Lady: I do see you are very much into the land of Camelot. I love the King Arthur legend and I hope someday it is proved to be true. I too would like to get to England and Wales to check on ancestors also. I have been to London and Windsor in England, but that is all. I would love to see the whole British Isles sometime. It really is such a small world.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Bill: You are too much! You can be anything you want! LOL! I love it. I am just into this Celt thing right now. My interests seem to be all over the place. But, when I get an area of interest, I just am intensely involved with it. But, no I'm not autistic. LOL! Thanks for always reading my hubs Bill. I appreciated you so much!


Vinaya Ghimire profile image

Vinaya Ghimire 2 years ago from Nepal

I take interest in English history. Thanks for this interesting peek into history.


Alastar Packer profile image

Alastar Packer 2 years ago from North Carolina

Very nice, very instructive article and interesting to read. Mostly Scot-Irish and English here, and as you know the Scot-Irish were basically Scots from Ulster Ireland who left, or were sent, from the old country to the new. Also a large proportion of Highlanders have Norwegian DNA. That's something about only 5% of English males showing any Anglo-Saxon roots. Scot-Irish and Italian you are...now that's a rockin' blend!


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 2 years ago from England

Yeah! lol! have a wonderful weekend suzette! nell


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Thank you Vinaya. I am pleased you found this interesting. I too love English history.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Hi Alastar! So good to see you. You come from good stock. The Scot-Irish Celts were fierce men. No, I didn't know that about the Scots, or at least I didn't remember that. Yes, Norwegians were all over the British Isles at different times in history. Really, it was just a short jaunt across the North Sea to the British Isles. Yes, again, isn't Oppenheimers's DNA research interesting with only 5% of English males showing Anglo-Saxon background. I remember in high school, when I took Language Study, we were taught English came from the Anglo, Saxons and Jutes, and these three were the ancestors of the English people. Now that is changing. DNA research is so fascinating to me. I'd love to have my DNA checked for genealogical reasons. I am a conglomeration! On my father's side I am German, English, Dutch and Welsh and on my mother's side Italian and Scottish. I love that the Scottish comes in from the Italian branch of the family - that is a hoot! I'm probably Irish by default too - who knows? Well, I could on and on, but I am so glad you visited and found this interesting. Thanks so much for your comments - they are always so interesting.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

All hail Celtic Queen Nell Rose! LOL! You have a great weekend to, Nell.


Genna East profile image

Genna East 2 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

I so enjoyed this wonderful history lesson. You and Alastar Packer are my favorite teachers on the hub. :-) Most of my family are of Celtic origin, save some Scandinavian, so I found this especially fascinating. Thank you!


travmaj profile image

travmaj 2 years ago from australia

Informative and absorbing, I'm thinking of the series 'Who do you think you are?' This is almost 'Who do you think you were?' The evolvement of the Celts is truly fascinating, can't help thinking about personal evolvement throughout the centuries. DNA has really changed the shape of research. Thanks for all your research too.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Hi Genna: I am so pleased you enjoyed reading this. How interesting that your family is of Celtic origin. Yes, the Scandinavians came to the British Isles several times in history so that doesn't surprise me that you have some Scandinavian in your background also. I just enjoyed researching this. It is so interesting to me. Thanks so much for your visit and comments. Most appreciated.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

travmaj: The DNA research is amazing on the British Isles. So many of the people trace back to Celtic tribes, so we are now finding out the Celts have a greater influence in the British Isles than formerly believed. I find it fascinating as I am part English and Welsh by my paternal grandmother. This is a part of the family I haven't looked into seriously before this. Thanks so much for reading this and I am pleased you enjoyed reading this.


Tracy Halman profile image

Tracy Halman 2 years ago from Ravenna, Ohio

Very interesting article, would love to know my back ground but impossible on my fathers side. His Great, great grandfather was left on a door step so his past is unknown, except for his adopted parents. Well have a wonderful weekend, thanks again for sharing so many good stories and learning experiences.


mckbirdbks profile image

mckbirdbks 2 years ago from Emerald Wells, Just off the crossroads,Texas

Hello suzette. What a lesson! I sure hope there is not a quiz later. For sure I will have to stay after school. Happy Sunday.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Hi Tracy: I am into this Celt culture and life right now. I find it so interesting. Thanks so much for reading and for your comments. Most appreciated.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Mike: I'm not really trying to teach a lesson and no there is no quiz to take! LOL! I am on a Celtic interest in culture and life. I go on these spurts. I write these to placate my own interests. Thanks so much for reading and comments. And thanks so much for the twitter shares. I appreciate all that you do!


SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile image

SANJAY LAKHANPAL 2 years ago from Mandi (HP) India

I have been a student of English literature and the recent DNA researches mentioned in your hub throw new light on the history of England. But I think the history of English language remains almost the same, or the influences on Old and Middle English may be a subject of new researches.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Sanjay: Hello and thank you for reading this. So glad you enjoyed this and so glad to hear you have been a student of English literature. I was too. I think the DNA tells the story of the peoples that originally inhabited the British Isles. But, the English language still comes from Angles, Saxon and Jutes and is a branch of the Germanic languages. (Indo-European). But, then we don't know the origin yet of the Basque language in Spain. So who knows? I just love a mystery. LOL!


rasta1 profile image

rasta1 2 years ago from Jamaica

This topic must have been close to your heart. I appreciate the intense research that went into the production of this article.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

rasta1: Yes, I am most interested in the British Isles and hope to visit there one day. I researched this for myself so I know what I want to see and do when I get there. LOL! Thank you for appreciating all my research and thanks for your visit and comments. Most appreciated.


caradog 2 years ago

an interesting piece.

Although it should be remembered it is mostly based on one persons theory.

Most other theories tell quite a different story, as do the stories of the people of these islands themselves (saxon chronicles, brut y tywosogion etc).

75% of englands population? that is fascinating, please provide the proof of this, as all dna proof i have found also tells a very different story.

Diolch yn fawr :-)

thank you.


ata1515 profile image

ata1515 2 years ago from Buffalo, New York.

Interesting hub! As historians we are taught to look at history from it's perspective, but with DNA research we can trace history back through the ages! Up voted!


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

caradog: I am so pleased you found this interesting. My sources are all listed at the end of the article. I do say several times in this article that there are historians that disagree with my points and the research I refer to and that there are other theories out there. Read Simon James' book which is pictured at the top of my article and you will see that he disagrees with Oppenheimer. I have also watched on You-Tube a lecture James gives at a university in N. Ireland but when confronted with DNA evidence, he had a difficult time explaining his own theory. I consider DNA to be fact, not a theory. When we released prisoners from prison as innocent based on DNA evidence, I consider DNA evidence fact, not theory and not opinion. I have found that Stephen Oppenheimer and Brian Sykes, two British DNA experts and researchers, to have exemplary records in their respective research. All their findings are based on DNA markers which is fact, not theory. I urge you to read their findings as I have. The statistic you refer to is one given forth by Oppenheimer's DNA findings. The source is the first one listed at the end of the article. The Independent UK newspaper which I also find a credible source. Remember, the Romans, Anglo-Saxons etc. were the conquerors and the ones who wrote their histories. Of course, they would be biased to their cause. The Romans wrote that all Celts were barbaric when in truth they were not and the Romans were in many cases the barbaric ones in the way they treated the Celts. What the Romans did to Queen Boudicca was unconsionable and most barbaric. So, any history written by the conqueror's has to be taken with a grain of salt. If you find a source that proves otherwise with the DNA evidence or proves it was inflated please come forward with it. I have not found any sources that argue with this DNA evidence these two men have put forth in their findings. Thank you for reading this and for your input as there are many opinions and theories out there about the Celts.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

ata1515: Thank you so much for reading and for your input. I agree, with DNA evidence we can trace history back through the ages and it just might not be what the historians have written or given as their theories. I consider DNA to be fact, not theory. Thanks so much for stopping by and commenting.


John Sarkis profile image

John Sarkis 2 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

Hi suzette, wonderful article.

I was reading up the other day on the origin of the word "Anglo Saxon" and it was interesting. I knew the Saxons came from Germany, but didn't know ethnology of name. "Angiln" was the area in Germany where the Saxons came from - near the Rhine, etc. "Saxon" refers to "Saxony" region in Northern Germany. Anyways, most if not all Germanic Peoples can trace their origins to "Germany" of course... anyways, this is a wonderful article - sharing - voted up and away!!!

John


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

John: Thank you so much for reading this and I am glad you enjoyed it. Yes, I vaguely remember learning the meaning of the term Anglo-Saxon way back in high school, but thank you for jogging my memory. Yes and this is why English is a Germanic language. Thanks so much for your comments and I am so happy you like this article.


Homeplace Series profile image

Homeplace Series 2 years ago from Hollister, MO

Excellent resource. I have ancestors among these folks, and need to pay more attention. So far, I've mostly focused on my ancestors in the USA, clear back to early settlement, and not on those "across the pond." Thanks for exciting me about these important issues. ;-)


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Homeplace Series: So glad you enjoyed reading this and I hope this is an inspiration to you to "look across the pond." LOL! I have enjoyed your series about your ancestors here in the U.S. - they are an inspiration to me. Thanks so much for stopping by to read.


frogyfish profile image

frogyfish 2 years ago from Central United States of America

I knew I was Irish and German, but never considered the Celtic. So, I now get to claim that along with my Ojibway pieces. Yay! Thanks for your extensive research on an interesting genealogical subject.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM Author

Hi frogyfish: It is interesting, but in doing this research about the Celts my theory is now anyone with a western European background has Celtic blood in them. I never realized how much influence the Celts had on modern day European heritages. It is amazing. I would bet you have Celtic blood in you, especially being part Irish. Thanks so much for reading this and for your comments. Most appreciated.


chef-de-jour profile image

chef-de-jour 12 months ago from Wakefield, West Yorkshire,UK

Fascinating read, thank you. Yes, we're certainly a curious mix we British, English, Britons, Celts, Angles, Saxons, Romano-Celts, Vikings, Gauls, Friesians. Genes are one thing, language is another, and blood is thicker in the tongue, so to speak. Just think, if the Celts hadn't been forced to the margins on these isles by invading Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norsemen et al, English might not have become our universal language. We'd be writing in Celtic.

For whatever reasons Celtic words did not become a common part of 'mainstream' Old English - very few relatively remain in place names and odd words here and there - reflecting just how quickly the Celts were driven back to the fringes: down to Cornwall and up to Northumbria, or settled into living under the rule of the new invaders.

There still persists the idea that those with Celtic genes tend to be more emotional, creative, volatile...whilst the cool Anglo-Saxons like to apply logic and industry. A perfect combination!! Simplistic I know.

Votes and a share.


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suzettenaples 12 months ago from Taos, NM Author

Thank you chef-de-jour! I am so pleased you enjoyed this. Yes the Celts were a hearty group and so interesting to me. Yes, the English are a conglomeration of many people and ethnicity. I am glad we are speaking English - thanks to the Anglo-Saxons - but the Gaelic and Brythonic languages are beautiful. Well I am a bit of both Celt - emotional creative volatile(?) and Anglo - Saxon - logic and industry. It is the perfect combination

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