Kikuyu Language online: phonology

Updated on 13th March 2011

PHONOLOGY and MORPHOLOGY

Phonology is the study of the building blocks of language. Morphology on the other hand is the study of the rules that govern how these blocks are put together. In other words, It establishes the rules that govern the internal structure of words, how they are formed or altered.

Here is the Kikuyu alphabet. a b c d e g h i ĩ j k m n o r t u ũ w y.

Vowels

Gĩkũyũ is written with seven vowels. Two of the additional vowels are i-tilde (ĩ) and u-tilde (ũ). These are: a (low /central), e (ɛ Mid-low/Front), i (high/front), ĩ (e Mid-high/Front), o (ɔ Mid-low /Back), u (High/Back), ũ (o Mid-high/Back).

Kikuyu and Italian seem to share the same vowels - /a/, /e/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /ɔ/, /u/

The vowels are pronounced in two groups. The first group below is non-rounded, pronounced in the anterior position:

Openness
Kikuyu Vowel
Kikuyu meaning
IPA letter
English equivalent
semi-open
i
Iga (keep)
i
deed
semi-closed
ĩ
ĩka (do)
e
clay
semi-open
e
endia (sell)
ɛ
debt
open
a
asha (no)
a
animal
Openness
Kikuyu Vowel
Kikuyu word and meaning
IPA letter
English equivalent
Closed
u
uma (come out)
u
pool
semi-closed
ũ
ũka (Come)
o
open
semi-open
o
oha (tie)
ɔ
aw

The second group below is pronounced in the posterior position, and rounded.

Vowels at the beginning of words are rarely short. Fore example Eha is more like Eeha. Rehe sounds more like Reehe.

It should be noted that this writer assumes Muranga Kikuyu to be the standard.

a – like the vowel in “hut, Abraham”

Asha (no), Athiĩ (he/she has gone), arĩa (has eaten), Athamaki (kings/rulers)

e – like the e in “hen, pen, ”

eha? (where is he/she?), kena (be happy), ndehere (bring to me)

ĩ – as the i in “it”. This writer suggests that a in “ate, hate, late” are closer to the real pronunciation.

ĩkĩra (put), thĩna (problems, poverty), mĩtĩ (trees)

i – like the e in “he”. This writer suggest ‘bee’ is closer. In any case, Kikuyu vowels are mainly long.

Ihi (no), hihi (maybe), iho (they [objects] are there), ngima (cooked maize floor- ugali)

o – like the au in author. This writer suggests the o in “only.”

Ona (see), okoka(come closer), koma (sleep), tonya (come in)

ũ – like the oo in “good.” This writer suggests the oh in “oh dear.”

Ũka (come), tũma (send), mũndũ (person)

u – like the u in “who.”

Guka (Grandfather), ruta (remove), uma (come out), muma (oath)

Minimal pairs

Minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a specific language, differentiated by only one phonological element. This element may be a phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. The first three elements (phone, phoneme, toneme) are features of the Kikuyu language. Minimal pairs demonstrate that two almost similar sounding phones are really two separate phonemes in the language.

Chronemes are determined by consonant lengths, a phenomena that is absent in Kikuyu language. Though vowels in Kikuyu are ordinarily long, excessively stressed vowels can differentiate certain phonemes.

Here is an example for Kikuyu.

The pair “mai” and “maĩ” demonstrate that the phones [i ] in mai and [ĩ ] in mai represent distinct phonemes / i / and /e /.

The following Minimal pairs show that each of seven vowels (a /a/, e /ɛ/, i /i/, ĩ /e/, o/ɔ/, u/u/ ũ /o/) constitute different phonemes


word 1
IPA 1
word 2
IPA 2
meanings
rĩa
/ɾea /
ria
/ɾia /
eat -weed (noun)
ina
/ina /
ena
/ɛna /
Sing - he has (she has)
kena
/ kɛna /
kĩna
/kena /
be happy - of some kind
ura
/uɾa /
ũra
/oɾa /
bleed - escape
ona
/ ɔna /
una
/una /
see - break
una
/una /
ona
/ ɔna /
break - see
ara
/aɾa /
era
/ɛɾa /
lay (lay a mat) - told

Consonants

b (mb) mbarĩki – castor oil, t (t) tene – long ago, k (k) kariũki – man’s name,

d (nd) ndathiĩ – I have gone, n (ng) ngari – car, dʒ (nj) njeri – woman’s name, β (b) baba – father, ʃ (c) cũcũ – grandmother, h (h) haha – here, ð (th) thani –plate, ɣ (g) guka – grandfather, m (m) maitũ – mother.


word 1
word 2
IPA 1
IPA 2
meanings
kura
gura
k
ɣ
uproot/buy
bara
mbara
β
mb
road/war
Hata
Handa
t
nd
sweep/plant (verb)

A table with tonal minimal pairs will be added here soon.

The following are more Minimal pairs of a some consonants (b c d g h J k m n r t w y) in the Kikuyu language.

Voice
Lips (Labial sounds
Teeth (dental sounds)
Teeth ridge (alveolar sounds
Palatal
Soft palate (velar sounds)
Glottal
Other
Plosive - Voice
 
 
t (t)
 
k (k)
 
 
Plosive + Voice
b (mb)
 
d (nd)
 
g (ng)
 
 
Africate
 
dʒ (nj)
 
 
 
 
 
Fricative - Voice
β (b)
 
 
ʃ (c)
 
h (h)
 
Fricative + Voice
 
ð (th)
 
 
ɣ (g)
 
 
Nassal - Voice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nassal + Voice
m (m)
 
n (n)
ɲ (ny)
ŋ (ng’)
 
 
Liquid
 
 
ɾ (r)
 
 
 
 
Approximants
 
 
 
 
 
 
y (y) w (w)

Kikuyu Tenses

Inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, grammatical mood, grammatical voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.

The Kikuyu language is heavily inflected. Below are examples of inflections to express a variety of tenses

1. I eat, 2. You (sing)…, 3. You (plr)… 4. We…, 5. They…

Note that the pronouns are fused prefixes in the conjugated verb.

Present Tense (I eat) 1.Nĩndĩaga 2. Nĩũrĩaga 3. Nĩmũrĩaga 4. Nĩtũrĩaga 5. Nĩmarĩaga

(I am eating) 1.Nĩndĩrarĩa 2. Nĩũrarĩa 3. Nĩmũrarĩa 4. Nĩtũrarĩa 5. Nĩmararĩa

Future tenses (I will eat)

Before the end of the day 1.Nĩngũrĩa 2. Nĩũkũrĩa 3. Nĩmũkũrĩa 4. Nĩtũkũrĩa 5. Nĩmukurĩa

Tomorrow and after 1.Nĩngarĩa 2. Nĩũkarĩa 3. Nĩmũkarĩa 4. Nĩtũkarĩa 5. Nĩmakarĩa

Past Tenses

A moment ago (I have eaten) 1.Nĩndarĩa 2. Nĩwarĩa 3. Nĩmwarĩa 4. Nĩtwarĩa 5. Nĩmarĩa

Sometime today (I ate) 1.Nĩndĩire 2. Nĩũrĩire 3. Nĩmũrĩire 4. Nĩtũrĩire 5. Nĩmarĩire

Yesterday (I ate) 1.Nĩndĩrarĩire 2. Nĩũrarĩire 3. Nĩmũrarĩire 4. Nĩtũrarĩire 5. Nĩmararĩire

A long time ago (I ate) 1.Nĩndarĩire 2. Nĩwarĩire 3. Nĩmwarĩire 4. Nĩtwarĩire 5. Nĩmarĩire

Thiathia – move a little bit,

Thiathiaga – keep moving a little bit

Definite article

In English there is only one definite article (the). Kikuyu does not have a definite article in that sense. The nearest translation for ‘The boy’ would be kĩhĩĩ kĩu (that boy).

One can also say:

This boy (uncircumcised) - kĩhĩĩ gĩkĩ, that boy – Kĩhĩĩ kiĩrĩa, Those boys – ihĩĩ iria

This girl – Mũirĩtu ũyũ, that girl - Mũirĩtu ũrĩa, those girls – airĩtu arĩa

Nouns

Kikuyu nouns are neither masculine nor feminine. For example, the word for table is female in French. This cannot happen for any word in Kikuyu.

Conjuctions

Kikuyu is also lacking in conjuctions. Except for ‘and’ which is ‘na’ complete phrases play the role of the following conjuctions:

"after," - thutha wa…

"although," - ona gũtuika…

"because," tondũ wa… (niamu…)

"till," – kinya riria…

Vowel fusion (Liaison)

When a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word starting with a vowel, the two words are fused with by a vowel sound that may be different from the one at the end of the first word and the one at the beginning of the second word. The two examples below show how a and ũ are replaced by o, while ‘a’ and ĩ are replaced by a long e.

Kwa ũguo - therefore

Thaa igĩrĩ – eight O’clock

Note that the word igĩrĩis actually ‘two’ which is why most Bantus find ‘European’ time to be inverted.

Kwa ũguo’ becomes ‘kwoguo’ in normal speech. ‘thaa imwe’ becomes ‘theemwe.’ This is however not rendered orthographically.

Stress

Word stress is not distinctive in Kikuyu and therefore two words cannot be distinguished only by the way their syllables are stressed either initially or terminally.

Emphatic stress

Emphatic stress is used to express a contrast or to reinforce the emotive content of a word. In Kikuyu, the stress may fall on any syllable at the discretion of the speaker. It may also be achieved by lengthening a vowel.

Tarehe ibuku riu - could you bring that book

The stress is in the first three syllables, above. This is an order to someone who has shown resistance to handing over the book. The speaker is a little irritated.

Tarehe ibuku riu - could you bring that book

The stress is in the noun, book. In this case, the person requesting does not want to be given anything else, or be misunderstood.

Ehera – move away

The stress is on the last two syllables for ‘move.’ This is a sign of irritation.


Enjoy this Kikuyu song by the famous Joseph Kamaru.


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Comments 11 comments

Emmanuel Kariuki profile image

Emmanuel Kariuki 5 years ago from Nairobi, Kenya Author

The word IRIA offers one example of tones. Three tones high, mid and low to differentiate the words - milk; those; lake. Another word is 'we' to mean you. In another tone it can mean 'him/her'

I believe there are three main tones and you could check what others have said about Bantu language tonal structure which should be similar to Kikuyu.


nyambura 5 years ago

i have to present on tone structure something which am not really familiar with


Emmanuel Kariuki profile image

Emmanuel Kariuki 5 years ago from Nairobi, Kenya Author

My training is not in linguistics, so take heart that you know more than I do. How can I help you Nyambura?


nyambura 5 years ago

i have a presentation this month on my phology seminar i am so nerveous coz i am not good in kikuyu could u help me?


Emmanuel Kariuki profile image

Emmanuel Kariuki 5 years ago from Nairobi, Kenya Author

I am glad to hear that my hub is useful. I will update as often as I can.


Wa muriuki 5 years ago

My husband is kikuyu and I'm trying to learn kikuyu. Your hubs are very useful/helpful... Please keep updating.


Emmanuel Kariuki profile image

Emmanuel Kariuki 5 years ago from Nairobi, Kenya Author

Kikuyu like all Bantu languages is not difficult once you grasp the grammar. Missionaries used to speak it within a very brief period without qualified teachers. Read my hub on 'kikuyu language' for the basics.


nairobi 5 years ago

good kikuyu language ... very hard to learn ????????????????????????????????????????/

isn,t it hard


Emmanuel Kariuki profile image

Emmanuel Kariuki 5 years ago from Nairobi, Kenya Author

Yes am on face book. Search the name and match the photo though it is a different photo


Njenga 5 years ago

Are you on facebook?


Nĩ Thithi 6 years ago

?? Kariuki,n?ndakugeithia.. .Ngwendaga kumenya kana w? facebook u nyongerere.Njitagwo Thithi.

http://www.facebook.com/Neferthithi

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