Labor Day troubled beginnings and Haymarket Tragedy

Labor Day Parade, 1882 in New York ~

Lithograph: Labor Day Parade, Union Square, New York, 1882. Parade was organized by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor.
Lithograph: Labor Day Parade, Union Square, New York, 1882. Parade was organized by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. | Source

Troubled beginnings ~

The history of Labor Day is fraught with troubled beginnings, which lead to the Haymarket tragedy in Chicago, Illinois. The American Labor Movement and the Haymarket Affair are not well-known now to many people in America. It is old history, yet very significant to the holiday, organized labor and unions.

No single event has influenced the history of labor in Illinois, the United States, and even the world, more than the Chicago Haymarket Affair. It began with a rally on May 4, 1886, but the consequences are still being felt today. Although the rally is included in American history textbooks, very few present the event accurately or point out its significance.

— William J. Adelman, Labor Studies Professor

All the history, organizations, federations, events, and movements that led to organized labor and the reason for establishing an official holiday is so complex and involved that it cannot be fully covered in this one article. This article will touch upon some brief information on legislature and a few events that will help shed some light on Labor Day and how it came to be a national holiday.

Labor Day is observed in the United States annually on the first day of September.

Labor Day Dates in the United States:

  • 2015 - September 7
  • 2016 - September 5
  • 2017 - September 4
  • 2018 - September 3

Who first proposed the holiday?

Records have shown that Labor Day was first proposed by Peter J. McGuire who was general secretary of the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners at the time, as well as co-founder of the American Federation of Labor. McGuire and Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL). McGuire led the great strikes of 1886 and 1890 which resulted in the eight hour workday which was adopted on the nation's agenda.

However, it was believed by many that in 1882 it was first proposed by Matthew Maguire, a machinist who served as secretary of the Central Labor Union. More recent information from the New Jersey Historical Society in Newark shows that Matthew Maguire may have been the creator of Labor Day. Maguire, was also a leading union figure, led several strikes, and became the secretary of the Central Labor Union of New York by 1882.

Who do you think invented the holiday and is the true "father of Labor Day"?

See results without voting

Nationwide holiday celebration ~

In the first proposal of the Labor Day holiday it was recommended to make it a day to honor the spirit and strengths of trade and labor organizations of a community. A parade was to be held followed by a festival for workers and their families.

Eventually speeches were given by prominent citizens on the significance of the the holiday. At the 1909 American Federation of Labor convention the Sunday before Labor Day was designated Labor Sunday.

Labor Day was at one time a holiday that brought the whole nation together with one common thought and purpose. Communities gathered, cheered at the parade and enjoyed picnics in large groups. In current times most of the celebration has dwindled down to single family picnics and gatherings. Some smaller towns still have parades and festivals and it is one of the many holidays they celebrate that brings a community together.

Today, it seems as though the biggest thing about Labor Day is the fantastic sales at retail stores.

Labor Day Sales ~

Across America Labor Day sales will skyrocket and everything will go on sale -- every retail business will take advantage of the holiday timing for just about anything that people are looking for at a good price.

Many people will do a lot of Christmas and other holiday buying at this time. It is a great way to find the items needed for gift-giving, garden yard clean-ups, stocking up on foods for the pantry, clothes for the kids going back to school, school supplies, winter wardrobes, just about anything and everything.

Labor Day is not just about shopping and getting back to school. Let us look at a brief history of the troubled beginnings of the holiday and how it all started.

Legislation ~

n 1885 and 1886 ordinances of municipalities were passed then a movement to secure state legislation developed. New York legislature received the first bill, but the state of Oregon was the first to pass the bill as law on February 21, 1887.

By 1894 the holiday was passed by legislative enactment in 27 other states. On June 28 the same year, the first Monday of September each year was legally designated as Labor Day in the District of Columbia and the territories when Congress passed the act.

Labor Day constitutes a yearly national tribute to the contributions workers have made to the strength, prosperity, and well-being of our country.

— United States Department of Labor

May Day ~

May 1, 1886 was chosen by the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions to establish the day when the eight-hour work day would become standard. On that first May Day strikes and rallies were held across the nation in support of the eight-hour day for workers - their motto was "Eight-hour day with no cut in pay."

The movement's center was based in Chicago where up to 40,000 (estimate) workers participated in the strike. Marches and demonstrations occurred throughout the streets.

On May 3 workers on strike from McCormick Harvesting Machine Company gathered in protest near the plant where strikebreakers (substitute workers) were crossing the picket line. Four-hundred police officers were on duty to protect the strikebreakers. August Spies (American upholsterer, radical labor activist, newspaper editor, and an anarchist leader), was speaking at a rally and advised the strikers to "hold together, to stand by their union, or they would not succeed." The organized strike had been non-violent.

When the work day was over, the strikers moved forward to confront the strikebreakers. As August Spies called out to maintain calmness the police force fired on the strikers, killing two of them - some reports stated six were killed.

The act of police brutality prompted local anarchists to call for a rally the next day at Haymarket Square. Fliers were quickly printed up and distributed, urging workers to seek justice. When August Spies saw the flyers he demanded a recall of them due to one line which called for workers to arm themselves. A second flyer was printed for immediate distribution, without the call to arms.

August Spies ~

Anarchist August Spies in 1887
Anarchist August Spies in 1887 | Source

Haymarket flyer ~

This is the revised flyer, the first flier printed up had the words "Workingmen Arm Yourselves and Appear in Full Force!", which were removed from the revised flyer.
This is the revised flyer, the first flier printed up had the words "Workingmen Arm Yourselves and Appear in Full Force!", which were removed from the revised flyer. | Source

Haymarket Tragedy ~

On May 4, 1886 a rally was held at Haymarket Square in Chicago. The gathering was to support workers striking for an eight-hour day and to address the tragic incident from the day before when the striking workers were killed by police.

Paul Avrich (1931 - 2006), historian specializing in the study of anarchism, had quoted August Spies as giving an introduction in his speech,. (Source: In the Supreme Court of Illinois, Northern Grand Division. March Term, 1887. August Spies, et al. v. The People of the State of Illinois. Abstract of Record. Chicago: Barnard & Gunthorpe. vol. II, p. 129. OCLC 36384114., quoted in Avrich, The Haymarket Tragedy, pp. 199 200.)

There seems to prevail the opinion in some quarters that this meeting has been called for the purpose of inaugurating a riot, hence these warlike preparations on the part of so-called 'law and order.' However, let me tell you at the beginning that this meeting has not been called for any such purpose. The object of this meeting is to explain the general situation of the eight-hour movement and to throw light upon various incidents in connection with it.

— August Spies

The rally started in a peaceful manner and all was calm. Some spectators left the gathering early, including the mayor when he felt all would be well.

The three speakers, August Spies, Albert Parsons (American socialist, anarchist newspaper editor, orator, and labor activist), and Samuel Fielden ( Methodist pastor, socialist, anarchist and labor activist), stood in a buckboard type wagon to give their speeches. A large police force stood nearby watching the proceedings.

The last speaker was Fielden. As his 10 minute speech was nearing the end, police started to disperse the crowd . At that time someone threw a bomb aimed at the police. It was a homemade bomb loaded with dynamite and shrapnel.

The explosion killed one officer, Mathias J. Degan, and mortally wounded six others. Gunfire that followed left at least four civilians dead. Many others were wounded. Reports from eyewitnesses and the media varied on the number of dead, from eleven to fifty or more.

A markerHaymarket Square -
175 North Desplaines Street, Chicago, IL 60661, USA
[get directions]

Haymarket Square where the tragedy took place.

Officer Mathias J. Degan ~

Engraving of police officer Mathias J. Degan, who was killed by the bomb blast.
Engraving of police officer Mathias J. Degan, who was killed by the bomb blast. | Source

Mayhem ~

When the explosion occurred chaos broke out - gun fire erupted from the police and some workers. The Chicago Tribune later received an anonymous message from an official of the police force that several police were wounded by other police who panicked and fired haphazardly.

The mayhem did not last long and the square was deserted shortly, but the damage was done. The Chicago Herald reported the "wild carnage" left fifty or more dead and wounded in the aftermath.

There are disputes as to who fired first. Historian Paul Avrich claimed the police fired on the demonstrators who were trying to flee the area, killing four and wounding up to 70. The New York Times reported that demonstrators first fired at the police.

Media was quick to report. A headline in the New York Times, with a May 4 date, told of the riot. They also stated Fielden's speech was twice as long, 20 minutes instead of 10, and he had grown "wilder and more violent as he proceeded". On May 6 the New York Times came out with another headline of "Anarchy's Red Hand".

Rioting and Bloodshed in the Streets of Chicago ... Twelve Policemen Dead or Dying

— New York Times, May 4, 1886

Arrests ~

It was not known who threw the bomb, but suspicions lay heavy on the anarchists Louis Lingg (a bomb maker), Balthazar Rau and Rudolf Schnaubelt (the lead suspect). Schnaubelt was arrested twice, but released both times. Before he could be arrested and questioned a third time he fled the city. He was indicted, but fled the country before he could be brought to trial. Witnesses saw Schnaubelt at the Haymarket rally and one state witness identified Schnaubelt from a photo as the one who threw the bomb.

On May 5 and 6, 1886, several anarchists and labor activists were arrested. On May 27 the grand jury indicted thirty-one and charged them as accessories to the murder of police officer Mathias J. Degan. Eight of those indicted were selected to stand trial - they were Albert Parsons, August Spies, Oscar Neebe, Adolph Fischer, Michael Schwab, Samuel Fielden, Louis Lingg (a bomb maker) and George Engel. Lingg and Engel were both radical militants.

An eight week period of raids and ransacking by police with no warrants ensued for the purpose of gathering evidence. Homes, offices, businesses and meeting halls of anarchists were entered and raided by police. It was not just anarchists that were under suspicion, but all of labor and the immigrant community.

The bombing had sent out waves of paranoia and instant public opinion against the anarchists and the radical left which resulted in a "Red Scare", the first in America. The paranoia, fear, and blame for the riot on the anarchists was strongly fueled by the press. No evidence was found to connect any of the defendants to the bombing, but those arrested were charged with conspiracy to commit murder.

The seven anarchists ~

The seven anarchists convicted of conspiracy to commit murder. Albert Parsons, August Spies, Oscar Neebe, Adolph Fischer, Michael Schwab, Samuel Fielden, Louis Lingg and George Engel.
The seven anarchists convicted of conspiracy to commit murder. Albert Parsons, August Spies, Oscar Neebe, Adolph Fischer, Michael Schwab, Samuel Fielden, Louis Lingg and George Engel. | Source

The trial ~

The very controversial trial that followed, Illinois vs. August Spies et al, was presided over by Judge Joseph E. Gary in the Circuit Court of Cook County. The jury selection lasted from June 21 to July 15. The selected jurors were all biased with preconceived opinions.

On August 19, 1886 the jury, after just three hours of deliberation, returned verdicts of guilty. Neebe was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. The remaining defendants were sentenced to death by hanging.

The sentences of two defendants, Fielden and Schwab, were commuted to life in prison by Richard J. Oglesby, Illinois governor. Lingg took his own life in his cell the day before execution. On November 11, 1887, Parsons, Spies, Engel and Fischer were executed.

Pardons and monuments ~

Governor John Peter Altgeld, Oglesby's successor, pardoned Fielden, Schwab and Neebe in 1893, saying they were victims of "hysteria, packed juries, and a biased judge". Altgeld bitterly denounced Judge Gary and the jury that convicted the anarchists. He also noted that the state never did find out who threw the bomb which killed the policemen. The evidence, Altgeld noted and stated "does not show any connection whatsoever between the defendants and the man who threw it."

A monument honoring Governor John Peter Altgeld, by Gutzon Borglum (Danish-American sculptor), was erected by the Illinois Legislature in Lincoln Park, Chicago in 1915.

The effects of the tragedy and trial were felt by the whole nation. People of Chicago and the general American public were deeply divided on the entire affair. The trial was seen by many as a devastating and shocking miscarriage of justice and the execution of the defendants was felt to be a brutal act to stop the labor movement. The executed anarchists came to be known as "The Martyrs of Chicago".

The graves of Spies, Fischer, Engel, Parsons and Lingg located at the Forest Home Cemetery in Forest Park, Illinois.

Haymarket Martyrs Monument ~

Haymarket Martyrs Monument by sculptor Albert Weinert  in Forest Home Cemetery
Haymarket Martyrs Monument by sculptor Albert Weinert in Forest Home Cemetery | Source

Haymarket police memorial ~

Haymarket Riot Monument, by John Gelert, 1889
Haymarket Riot Monument, by John Gelert, 1889 | Source

Haymarket Police Memorial ~

In May of 1889 the Haymarket Police Memorial, by Johannes Gelert, was erected in Haymarket Square and unveiled by Frank Degan, son of Officer Mathias Degan. The memorial has had a history of bad luck.

  • On May 4, 1927, the driver of a streetcar purposely crashed into the statue, destroying it.
  • In 1928 the restored statue was moved Union Park where it stood till the 1950s when the run-down area was taken out by construction of the Kennedy Expressway.
  • In 1956 a special platform overlooking the freeway was built for the statue.
  • On May 4, 1968 the statue was covered with black paint by vandals, protestors against the Vietnam War.
  • On October 6, 1969 the Weather Underground Organization (WUO,an American radical left-wing terrorist group) destroyed the statue with a bomb.
  • On May 4, 1970 the WUO blew up the restored statue with another bomb.
  • The rebuilt statue was assigned a 24-hour police guard by Mayor Richard J. Daley.
  • In 1972 the statue was moved to the lobby of Central Police Headquarters then to an enclosed courtyard at the Chicago police academy.

Note from author ~

Thank you for reading my article. Your opinions are important to me and let me know your interests. This helps me to offer more of your favorite subjects to read about. Your time and interest are very much appreciated. I hope to hear from you in the comments section below.

I write on several different subjects, all evergreen articles. You can read more about me and see more articles I wrote by clicking on my name by the small picture of me at the top right of this page.

Blessings and may you always walk in Peace and Harmony, softly upon Mother Earth.

Phyllis Doyle Burns - Lantern Carrier, Spiritual Mentor

~ ~ ~ ~

© 2015 Phyllis Doyle Burns

More by this Author


Comments 36 comments

Randy Godwin profile image

Randy Godwin 15 months ago from Southern Georgia

Very well researched and written as always, Phyllis. I've never delved into the history of Labor Day before, and now I don't have to. :)

Before this hub I always thought it was named after me because I was born on Labor Day. :P


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Darn, Randy - I forgot to put that in the hub, that the day was to commemorate the gift of you to the world. Sorry bout that.

Hey - thanks for the compliment. This hub took forever for me to research and put together. There is so much on the history I had to cut it way down, but am happy with it. Thanks again, Randy.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

A huge hug and Happy Birthday to you, Randy.


Randy Godwin profile image

Randy Godwin 15 months ago from Southern Georgia

Thanks Phyllis! There's no doubt this hub took lots of time and effort to create. :)


janshares profile image

janshares 15 months ago from Washington, DC

Very interesting read, Phyllis, and very well-done. This was a great history lesson, informative, well-researched, and captivating. I can tell it took a long time. I appreciate the work you put into this article. I won't see Labor Day the same after reading this. Two thumbs up. (Happy Belated, Randy!)


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Jan. It is always good to hear from you. Thank you so much for such a kind and encouraging comment. I get so elated when I receive good comments on my history hubs. Tell you a secret: I started this hub two years ago and kept setting it aside because I thought it was boring - I mean, working conditions needed to get better, unions formed to help employees and then we go on picnics and shopping sprees to celebrate.

One day I decided to find out some history on the holiday and I was overwhelmed with all the information and details - so, I set it aside again. When I decided to focus on just the Haymarket tragedy I suddenly realized I could do this. So, I did !

Thanks again, Jan. I appreciate your visit and feedback very much.


janshares profile image

janshares 15 months ago from Washington, DC

Wow, Phyllis, you're quite welcome! And thanks for that back history on the stops and starts you experienced getting this project completed. Two years!!! Whew! It was the Haymarket piece that made it so compelling. As I was reading, I was thinking 'some things never change' regarding how Americans have fought, protested, and have conflicts with the police for what they demand.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

You are right, Jan - "some things never change". Even in colonial times people went on strikes. The historical "Bacon's Rebellion" was all about protesting, laws, individual rights and working conditions. I get so involved emotionally with historical figures I write about. The anarchists may not have had it all correct, but they were people who tried to make it better for workers. I actually cried for them when I researched on the trial and executions then applauded the Governor who was outraged about the unfair trial and pardoned the last three anarchists..


Randy Godwin profile image

Randy Godwin 15 months ago from Southern Georgia

I think all writers have works-in-progress, Phyllis. I believe it's because many of us get sidetracked during research because we encounter so many other subjects which catches the eye. I have a bunch of 'em stashed away, both fiction and non. :)


Randy Godwin profile image

Randy Godwin 15 months ago from Southern Georgia

And thanks for the BD wishes, Jan. :)


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Yeah, I guess it is more common than I thought, Randy, for writers to do that. I have a folder with a lot of article ideas, some half-written. You know - those anarchists when in prison were told to each write their own biographies. I would sure like to find and read those.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Randy, that was truly a blessed Labor Day for your Mom. :)


always exploring profile image

always exploring 15 months ago from Southern Illinois

I really never thought about how important Labor Day is until I read this. My opinion, If it were not for unions we would still be working in sweat shops for little pay. It seems that good people must die for a cause they believe in. I remember the movie starring Sally Fields who stood on top of a table in a sweat shop demanding equal rights and the formation of an union. Well Written and researched. Bravo!


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Ruby. You are right about unions. They have helped the workers achieve better pay and working conditions. There was a lot of violence in the past, but it has gotten a lot better. I never got the chance to see that movie with Sally Fields, but I heard it was really good. Thank you so much for the nice compliment. I appreciate it.


WillStarr profile image

WillStarr 15 months ago from Phoenix, Arizona

I knew some of this, but I'm amazed at how much I did not know! This is excellent as always, Phyllis!


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Thanks, Will. I find this labor history fascinating, and to think I once thought it would be boring - no way! I appreciate your visit and comment.


Jodah profile image

Jodah 15 months ago from Queensland Australia

What a wonderful hub Phyllis. You have introduced me to a piece of history I knew nothing about. Quite a tragic event but very interesting. I am glad you finally published it. Our Labor Day is May 1st, May Day. Your article has made me want to research it's history now. Thanks.


Marion Drury profile image

Marion Drury 15 months ago from Sydney, Australia

Thanks Phyllis. I had no idea about the origins of labor day. I am always fascinated by history and you have done an excellent job of researching and compiling this piece. Thanks again.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Jodah. I like your new avatar pic - very nice. Thank you so much for such a great comment. Labor Day for Canada and Europe is also May 1. Ours was switched to September so a not to connect with the Haymarket tragedy. The unions here still honor the May Day, though, as the eight-hour work day celebration. I would like to read about the history of your Labor Day. Most of my source information came from our Department of Labor ( they have a wealth of information) and the Chicago Historical Society. Thanks again for the visit and comment. Hope you write about your Labor Day history.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Marion. The history of Labor Day is very heavy and is so involved, but very interesting. Thanks for reading and commenting.


Jodah profile image

Jodah 15 months ago from Queensland Australia

Hi again Phyllis, I have quite a list of hubs I want to write at the moment. The trouble is finding time. I will research our Labor Day and hope to write about it in due course but I doubt if it could be as interesting as yours with the Haymarket tragedy. Wow, that police memorial sure attracted some unwelcome attention. It took them enough time to decide to move it to an enclosed area at the police academy.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Jodah. I know what you mean about having a list hubs stacked up to write on. I think your history will be very interesting because of the origins of labor there, with the convict transports in the early days. The 1850s over there saw a lot of action on pressuring for the eight-hour work day. Yes, that poor statue sure had some bad luck. They should have put it at the police academy early on.


Faith Reaper profile image

Faith Reaper 15 months ago from southern USA

I love your historical hubs, Phyllis, as they are always fascinating and I learn so much that I have never known before! Obviously, you put a lot of work into this interesting read.

I, too, have so many hubs started and can't seem to finish one! I don't want to drift off into oblivion, so I need to get busy. I keep coming up with these great ideas and start it, and then get sidetracked with another idea. Good to know I am not the only one.

Awesome hub.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Faith. I am glad you like my historical hubs. I really like the research of American history, but sometimes get 'burned out' on it because it takes so much time to find trusted resources.

LOL - I guess we all have many hubs waiting to be worked on. Maybe we should put all of them on a table and make trades. That should be interesting.

Thanks for the visit and your very kind comment, Faith. Have a wonderful day.


teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 15 months ago

What a great history lesson! I didn't know any of this and I am grateful for your covering it in such detail. You certainly research it well and provided readers with fascinating facts from history.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Thank you so very much, Dianne. That is very kind of you. So glad you found it educational.


bdegiulio profile image

bdegiulio 15 months ago from Massachusetts

Hi Phyllis. Great job. I knew very little of the Haymarket Tradegy and had no idea how Labor Day came to be. Very interesting. Thank you for the education.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 15 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Bill. Thanks for the nice compliment. I was amazed when I began research on the Haymarket Tragedy. Glad you found the history of Labor Day interesting - there is a lot of information on it through the Dept. of Labor and I was a bit overwhelmed with it all, so mainly focused on Haymarket. Thanks for your support, Bill, I appreciate your visit and comment.


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 14 months ago from England

Hi Phyllis, what a great informative hub! I had heard of labor day but didn't know why Americans had that day off, now I know! interesting stuff! nell


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 14 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Nell. Thank you for the visit and comment. Our Labor Day was changed to September so as not to become a commemoration of the Haymarket Tragedy. May 1 is still the Labour Day holiday in Canada and Europe. Thanks again, Nell.


Romeos Quill profile image

Romeos Quill 14 months ago from Lincolnshire, England

An in-depth and educational Hub article Phyllis and thanks for all of the hard work you've put into it.

I guess it can be a drag sometimes when the subject matter requires persistent injections to prepare it for publication but the research gone into this will hopefully pay dividends for you as it does for your reader.

It seems that whoever decided to hijack that peaceful rally by throwing a bomb must have known what was going to kick off and that the police would use the sword to restore law and order.

All rights for the poor and the working class here in the U.K. have usually been implemented by socialist reformers trying to give the average man and woman on the street a fairer deal over the last few hundred years and the necessity to do so has usually arisen because of employers totally taken advantage of their position to keep their hard workers downtrodden but at the end of the day, an employer can employ whomever he or she wants, though extremes from both parties looking towards their own interests only, in addition to corruption, seem to offer nought but trouble for those concerned and especially for those who stand to benefit from fair and impartial wages.

I suppose that as long as workers are paid less than the product they produce ( especially in the far east ), there will always be some form of poverty going on until a wholesale answer can be found to please everyone.

Thanks for a great read on the history of your Labour Day in the States.

Kind Regards;

R.Q.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 14 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Thank you, R.Q. I appreciate your visit and compliment.

I guess employer / employee relationships are basically the same everywhere and will never change. I am so glad to have retired - my life is much less stressful now.

There has been a lot of debate and theories about who actually threw the bomb at the rally. Some believe that it was someone who wanted to get the anarchists in deep trouble.

Thanks again for stopping by and commenting.

Hope all is well for you and loved ones. Take care.


Vellur profile image

Vellur 14 months ago from Dubai

An informative hub about the Hay Market Tragedy and the Labor Day. It is sad that the rally that started peacefully had to end in such a way. Learned a lot through your article. Thank you for sharing.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 14 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Vellur. Yes, it is sad that the rally turned into tragedy. Yet that is quite common in history when unions verses large companies. Glad you found the hub informative. Thanks for your visit and comment, I appreciate it.


Rachel L Alba profile image

Rachel L Alba 14 months ago from Every Day Cooking and Baking

Hi Phyllis, Who know that there was so much related to Labor Day. Your hub was very informative and helpful in understanding the holiday.

Blessings to you.


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 14 months ago from High desert of Nevada. Author

Hi Rachel. Thank you very much. Glad you found my hub informative and helpful. I appreciate your visit and comment.

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