MCQs - Cyanosis

Cyanosis of the Finger tips in Cyanotic phase of Raynaud's Phenomenon

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Cyanosis-Introduction

Cyanosis is the bluish discolouration of skin or mucous membrane caused by excess amounts of reduced hemoglobin (more than 5 mg %) or abnormal hemoglobin in the blood.

In the modern intensive care unit, patients are continuously monitored for oxygen saturation using saturation probe. Thus hypoxemia is detected faster and more objectively rather than looking for clinical manifestations of hypoxemia like cyanosis.

However, clinical examination of cyanosis is widely taught and is an important observation to make.This hub contain a few multiple choice questions based on cyanosis. This will help the students preparing for medical, dental, nursing or allied health exams

Diminished arterial oxygen saturation results in the following type of cyanosis:

  • Central

  • Peripheral

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

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    Answer: Central Cyanosis

Cyanotic Neonate

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Cutaneous vasoconstriction due to low cardiac output results in the following type of cyanosis:

  • Central

  • Peripheral

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

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    Answer: Peripheral

Did you know?

In an adult, there is 15g% of haemoglobin, 95% of which is saturated with oxygen. That is why in a normal healthy individual, the colour of the skin and mucous membrane is pink. Reduced haemoglobin is that form of haemoglobin in red blood cells after the oxygen of oxyhemoglobin is released in the tissues. When the amount of reduced Hb is increased in the capillaries, the blood appears dark and the tissues get a bluish hue. This bluish discoloration can easily be detected in areas with increased capillary circulation such as palate, tongue, inner sides of the lips and conjunctiva.

Normal haemoglobin has iron in the ferrous form. In methaemoglobunaemia, iron is in the ferric form.

Central Cyanosis will NOT be evident on:

  • Conjunctiva

  • Lips

  • Nails

  • Tongue

    -------------------------------------------------

    Answer: Nails

What are the Types of Cyanosis?

There are four different types of cyanosis

.....Central

.....Peripheral

.....Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

.....Mixed.

Temperature of the extremities will be cold in the following type of cyanosis:

  • Central

  • Peripheral

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

    ------------------------------------------------

    Answer: Peripheral

Clubbing and polycythemia is usually associated with:

Central Cyanosis

Peripheral Cyanosis

Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

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Answer: Central Cyanosis

Breathing pure oxygen decreases cyanosis in:

Central Cyanosis

Peripheral Cyanosis

Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

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Answer: Central Cyanosis

Cyanosis in a baby with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

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What is cyanotic heart disease | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

In high altitude, low partial pressure of oxygen can lead to:

Central Cyanosis

Peripheral Cyanosis

Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

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Answer: Central Cyanosis

Fallot’s tetralogy can lead to:

  • Central Cyanosis

  • Peripheral Cyanosis

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

    --------------------------------------------------

    Answer: Central Cyanosis

Is there anything called Pseudocyanosis?

Long term ingestion of some metals (silver) and drugs can mimic a cyanosis like condition which is not associated with low saturation.

Congestive cardiac failure can lead to:

  • Central Cyanosis

  • Peripheral Cyanosis

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

    --------------------------------------------------

    Answer: Central Cyanosis

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease can lead to:

  • Central Cyanosis

  • Peripheral Cyanosis

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

    ----------------------------------------------------

    Answer: Central Cyanosis

Cyanosis of the right foot distal to an occlusion caused by acute arterial thrombosis of the right leg

Source

Shock can lead to:

  • Central Cyanosis

  • Peripheral Cyanosis

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

    ----------------------------------------------------

    Answer: Peripheral Cyanosis

Methaemoglobunaemia can lead to:

  • Central Cyanosis

  • Peripheral Cyanosis

  • Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

    --------------------------------------------------

    Answer: Cyanosis due to abnormal pigments

What are the Factors altering Cyanosis?

The following are the Factors altering Cyanosis:

-Colour of the cutaneous pigment – It is easy to identify cyanosis in fair skinned people than in dark colored people

-Thickness of the skin- Thickness of the skin may mask cyanosis to some extent.

-State of cutaneous capillaries

Conclusion:

This article has few questions on cyanosis. If you have any question or clarifications, please don't hesitate to leave comments.

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