Multiple Choice Questions on Electrolyte Disturbances

Multiple Choice Questions on Electrolyte Disturbances

This hub is designed for medical and nursing students to understand the concept of electrolyte disturbances and how to correct them. Electrolyte disturbances are often encountered in the intensive care units where the patients are very sick with disorders of multiple organ systems. Nurses often have to monitor for electrolyte disturbances and have to take measures to correct them.

These questions are prepared based on the assumption that the student knows about the basics of fluid and electrolyte balance.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis can occur if sodium is corrected fast in a patient with Chronic Hyponatremia

Source

Major electrolyte disturbances can be the following

  • Hyponatremia

  • Hypokalemia

  • Hypernatremia

  • Hyperkalemia

    Hyponatremia is primarily a disorder of the water homeostatsis.

Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium less than

135 mmol/L

145 mmol/L

155mmol/L

165mmol/L

-------------------------------------

Answer: 135 mmol/L

Multiple Choice Questions on Electrolyte Disturbances-Points to Remember

Lactate should not be administered to patients with lactic acidosis

For every 100-mg/dL increase in glucose, the serum sodium falls by

0.6 meq/lit

1.6 meq/lit

2.6 meq/lit

3.6 meq/lit

---------------------------------

Answer: 1.6 meq/lit

Hypervolumic hyponatremia is seen in the following disorders except

Congestive heart failure

Hepatic cirrhosis

Hypoaldosteronism

Nephrotic syndrome

--------------------------------------------------

Answers: Hypoaldosteronism

Gross photograph showing 2 contiguous slices of adrenal gland with cortical adenoma. Patient had hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome).

Source

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion has the following type of hyponatremia

Euvolemic

Hypovolemic

Hypervolemic

--------------------------------------

Answer: Euvolemic

The normal range of plasma osmolality is

265 -280 mosm/kg

280 -295 mosm/kg

295 -310 mosm/kg

310 -325 mosm/kg

--------------------------------------------

Answer: 280 -295 mosm/kg

Multiple Choice Questions on Electrolyte Disturbances-Points to Remember

Intravenous KCL should always be administered in saline solutions. If it is administered in dextrose, the dextrose induced insulin can exacerbate hypokalemia.

Weight loss, orthostatic hypotension, poor skin turgor, sunken eyes, oliguria and tachycardia are manifestations of

Extra cellular fluid volume depletion

Extra cellular fluid volume excess

---------------------------------------------------

Answer: Extra cellular fluid volume depletion

Weight gain, jugular venous distention, pulmonary crackles are manifestations of

Extra cellular fluid volume depletion

Extra cellular fluid volume excess

----------------------------------------------------------

Answer: Extra cellular fluid volume excess

Markedly elevated jugular venous distension.

Source

The normal range of potassium is

1.5 -3.5 meq/L

3.5-5.5 meq/L

5.5-7.5 meq/L

7.5-9.5 meq/L

----------------------------------------

Answer: 3.5-5.5 meq/L

The maximum rate at which intravenous potassium can be supplemented is

20 mmol/h

30 mmol/h

40 mmol/h

50 mmol/h

--------------------------------------

Answer: 20 mmol/h

The most important consequence of hypokalemia is

Bradycardia

Cardiac arrest

Hypotension

Tachycardia

---------------------------------------

Answer: Cardiac arrest

Multiple Choice Questions on Electrolyte Disturbances

Bradycardia is Heart Rate below 60/min

Source

Multiple Choice Questions on Electrolyte Disturbances-points to Remember

Dextrose does not contribute to the osmolality of the fluid as it is quickly metabolized to carbon dioxide and water.

Important Considerations in Fluid and Electrolyte balance

When you have fever, the insensible water loss from the body is much more. Water losses increase by 100 -150 ml /day for each degree of rise in temperature over 37oC.

Hyponatremia should be corrected cautiously because too rapid correction may cause neurological deficits like paraparesis, dysphagia, dysarthria and coma.

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Comments 2 comments

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thumbi7 3 years ago from India Author

Hi DDE,

Thanks for the visit and comment


DDE profile image

DDE 3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

An interesting and informative hub on the title you certainly know how to approach Multiple Choice Questions on Electrolyte Disturbances with such great efforts.

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