US Celebrations - The Bicentennial of the War of 1812 in Ohio

Tallship, U.S. Brig Niagara, Passes the Lorain Lighthouse

Tallship, U.S. Brig Niagara, Passes the Lorain Lighthouse
Tallship, U.S. Brig Niagara, Passes the Lorain Lighthouse | Source

Lake Erie to Dartmoor Marsh

Ohio History and American History classes in the 4th Grade, 10th Grade and college did not teach us many details of the war occurring on the Great Lakes of America in the 19th Century. The Bicentennial Year of 2012 is a good time to add the details.

Thanks to British author Graham Sclater and his book Hatred Is the Key, many more of the details of this "Second Revolutionary War" between Great Britain and the United States become clear. The imprisonment of thousands of military and civilian Americans at Dartmoor Depot's dank prison in England is an unimagined Holocaust. Mr. Sclater's book is an engaging and fascinating portrayal of the events at Dartmoor.

Controversies still exist concerning the events of the war in both Canada and among Native North Americans. Authors are coming forward with deeply researched books about these controversies as well and many are anxious to read them. These authors in particular are Wesley B. Turner and Canadian Army Officer (retired) Sandy Antal.

Outstanding reviews are on record for Antal's book A Wampum Denied by The Journal of Military History and by the leaders of the Fort Meigs State Memorial in Ohio. The book shows how General Henry Proctor was able to gather and effectively direct three disparate groups - Canadians, Britishers, and Native Americans - despite lack of support from his own commanding superiors. The book is very interesting and a must -have in any war collection.

British Generals and the War of 1812

Wesley B. Turner examines the work of five different British Generals in Canada, although General Isaac Brock is usually the only one remembered in most history classes. Turner outlines the five general's simultaneous courage and lack of leadership skills in a New World that was much different in customs and operations than was the Europe in which they were trained. After all, the United States was the land of the tricky Swamp Fox tradition, wasn't it?

Turner is a retired Professor of History at Brock University in Ontario CA. His book is also interesting and especially intriguing in that he took the time to search out five generals instead of relying solely on the history of Brock. His book is called British Generals in the War of 1812: High Command in the Canadas. It includes material about Upper Canada and Lower Canada before they united.

West of Toledo and Put at Sea

On the map below appear some of the important forts in Ohio during the war of 1812 and most of them are holding historical celebrations from 2012 - 2014.

Turtle Island Fort was located on Turtle Island in Maumee Bay of western Lake Erie (actually an inland sea), but was more important as a British Fort supported by the British Fort Miami to the south from 1794 - 1796. This was between the American Revolution and War of 1812 and Ohio leaders always felt that the British were to close to us on that island. Today, this tiny 1.5 acre island is divided in half by ownership between Michigan and Ohio, interfering with restoration of the Turtle Island Fort. The land was divided in 1973 in a US Supreme Court ruling that finally ended the last of the Toledo (Ohio) War that occurred after the War of 1812.

Additional forts were established to the west and southwest of Toledo. Communities on the sites of those previous forts celebrate the events of the War of 1812 in different ways. For example, special events for 2012 include a large set of miniature historical houses made in Fort Jennings, southwest of Toledo. Northwest Ohio is full of commemorative events for all our battles in every war on this soil.

Battle of Lake Erie in 1813, painted  by William H. Powell in 1865: Oliver Hazard Perry transfers from US Brig Lawrence to US Brig Niagara. See list of Battles farther below.
Battle of Lake Erie in 1813, painted by William H. Powell in 1865: Oliver Hazard Perry transfers from US Brig Lawrence to US Brig Niagara. See list of Battles farther below. | Source

Major Battles/Battle Sites In Ohio During the War of 1812

  • Miami Rapids, Ohio - September 13, 1812 - Skirmish.
  • Maumee River - November 22, 1812 - Skirmish.
  • Frenchtown on the Raisin River - Battle of Frenchtown, January 18, 1813 - Actually in Michigan just above Toledo, on the west end of Lake Erie. Some 60 Ohio and Kentucky militia POWs were slaughters by Native Americans in league with British General Henry Proctor after the battle (River Raisin Massacre).
  • Fort Meigs - Perrysburg near Maumee - May 5, 1813; Proctor and Native Americans under Tecumseh attacked and failed. In July 21-28,1813, they failed again.
  • Fort Miami - May 5, 1813. Battle.
  • Fort Stephenson on the Sandusky River - August 2,1813. Proctor and Native Americans attacked and quickly failed.
  • Fort Detroit in Michigan on Lake Erie - August 16, 1813. Loss to the Americans.
  • Put-In Bay, Lake Erie - Battle of Lake Erie; September 10, 1813.

Americans Imprisoned in England.

Hatred is the key: (American edition)
Hatred is the key: (American edition)

10,000 Americans imprisoned in Dartmoor Depot in England, including an extra year after they were to have been released.

 

NW Ohio and the War of 1812

show route and directions
A markerFort Meigs -
Fort Meigs, 29100 W River Rd, Perrysburg, OH 43551, USA
[get directions]

B markerFort Stephenson -
Fremont, OH 43420, USA
[get directions]

Birchard Library in Fremont, Ohio atands on the old fort grounds.

C markerTurtle Island OH -
Turtle Island, Jerusalem, OH, USA
[get directions]

After the War of 1812, Ohio and Michigan fought over Turtle Island until the 1970s.

D markerPut-In Bay OH -
Put-in-Bay, OH, USA
[get directions]

E markerFort Jennings OH -
Fort Jennings, OH 45844, USA
[get directions]

F markerMaumee OH -
Maumee, OH, USA
[get directions]

French and British Fort Miamis National Historic Site OH. The British used Turtle Island in connection with their Fort Miami.

The Brig USS Niagara at Put-in-Bay, Ohio near Toledo for the Centennial Celebration of the Battle of Lake Erie in 1913.
The Brig USS Niagara at Put-in-Bay, Ohio near Toledo for the Centennial Celebration of the Battle of Lake Erie in 1913. | Source

Fort Meigs in NW Ohio Near Lake Erie

show route and directions
A markerFort Meigs -
Fort Meigs, 29100 W River Rd, Perrysburg, OH 43551, USA
[get directions]

B markerMaumee - Fort Miamis -
Maumee, OH, USA
[get directions]

Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial on South Bass Island in Put-in-Bay, Ohio.
Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial on South Bass Island in Put-in-Bay, Ohio. | Source

Ohio's Historical 2012 Bicentennial Events

Fort Meigs Memorial and Museum in Perrysburg

The historic fort and memorial to the War of 1812 - 1814 offers a lecture and presentation series scheduled for every Third Thursday in 2012, except the during months of June, July, August and December. Meet at the Visitors Center of Fort Meigs at 7:30 PM on scheduled Thursdays. Materials will be available after the Bicentennial year at Fort Meigs and other venues of the Ohio Historical Society, Detroit, Toledo and other relevant sites. Writers, students in K-12, or college student would benefit from these presentations and come away with ample material for term papers and articles.

The 8-Lecture Series for 2012:

  • Detroit and the War of 1812 - Lecturers from Wayne State University. Thursday, Jan. 19, 2012, 7:30 p.m.
  • Thus Fell Tecumseh - Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012, 7:30 p.m.
  • Title to be announced - By Dr. Larry Nelson, Director of Fort Meigs on Thursday, March 15, 2012, 7:30 p.m.
  • A Historiography of the War of 1812 - Thursday, April 19, 2012, 7:30 p.m.
  • William Hull and the Fall of Detroit - Thursday, May 17, 2012, 7:30 p.m.
  • The Battle of Lake Erie - Thursday, Sept. 20, 2012, 7:30 p.m.
  • Title TBA - Thursday, Oct. 18, 2012, 7:30 p.m.
  • Memorializing the War of 1812: Fort Meigs, a Case Study - Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012, 7:30 p.m.

Celebration Events on Lake Erie, Summer 2012

  • The Official US Navy War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration Great Lakes Cruise - Leaves from Toledo, OH: August 23-27, 2012
  • The Official US Navy War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration Great Lakes Cruise - Leaves from Cleveland: August 27-September 4, 2012
  • The Fort Jennings Bicentennial at Fort Jennings, OH: August 17 - August 19, 2012
  • Additional summertime Lake Erie Events for the 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration will be held at Fort Erie, Ontario at the eastern end of the lake, near Buffalo NY (see section below).

Old Fort Erie, Ontario at the Other End of Lake Erie

A markerOld Fort Erie, Ontario Province -
Old Fort Erie, ON, Canada
[get directions]

The War of 1812 extended eastward past Buffalo NY.

Fort Erie and the Largest Parade

At the other end of Lake Erie from Toledo OH sits Fort Erie in Ontario. It is important in the War of 1812. This historic site is also celebrating the Bicentennial of the war, from 2012 - 2014 and Canada considers the War of 1812 - 1814 as one of its first steps toward uniting Upper and Lower Canadas to form a new nation.

Traditionally, Canadian soldiers received a Grand Parade to welcome them home. Because they received none after the War of 1812, they will receive it on June 23, 2012. Military bands from the UK, Canada, and the USA will all participate to make a combined Grand Parade at Fort Erie. It is to be the largest such parade ever held in North America.

Besides this huge event, several others are scheduled in order to share history of the war. One includes a reenactment of the historic attack on the fort by Canadians, the British, and Native North Americans while Americans try to survive inside and hold their ground.

Old Fort Erie, Ontario Province

1814 - The Siege of Fort Erie occurs in August and September. The casualties during the siege result in Fort Erie becoming the bloodiest battlefield in Canada. The US Army destroyed the fort on November 5.
1814 - The Siege of Fort Erie occurs in August and September. The casualties during the siege result in Fort Erie becoming the bloodiest battlefield in Canada. The US Army destroyed the fort on November 5. | Source

Old Fort Erie, Ontario Province

A markerOld Fort Erie, Ontario Province -
Old Fort Erie, Fort Erie, ON L2A, Canada
[get directions]

Overview: Extent of the War of 1812

Click to enlarge. The War included battles in the North Atlantic and the Caribbean.
Click to enlarge. The War included battles in the North Atlantic and the Caribbean. | Source
Colonel Francis S. Belton before his death.
Colonel Francis S. Belton before his death.

War of 1812 Notables

Francis S. Belton, 4th U.S. Artillery served as a Second Lieutenant in the Light Dragoons under General Gaines during the War of 1812 and in the Mexican American War, retiring as a Colonel.

Free Historical Coloring Page

Enlarge and print.
Enlarge and print. | Source

© 2012 Patty Inglish

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Comments 2 comments

Dim Flaxenwick profile image

Dim Flaxenwick 4 years ago from Great Britain

Phew! That was a wonderful read, an education in itself. I do need to read it again to take everything in but I know it was fascinating. Thank you.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 4 years ago from North America Author

I just covered Ohio :)

Really, I bet there's a lot of things we don't know about each state involved. Apparently each site in each state is having special celebrations and that will be great for vacations the next couple of years.

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