Native American Nations in the Southwestern States - Oklahoma and Texas

Source

Oklahoma is often called "Indian Country", because of the large number of Native North American groups placed on reservations in this state during and after the Indian Removals begun by President Andrew Jackson.

The Indigenous Southwestern United States

Arizona and New Mexico Native American Nations were initially presented in Part VIII in this series. Here we display a number of additional pictures and videos regarding those nations to bridge the migration of native peoples across the American West and Southwest.

Those who became Native Americans migrated eastward as they required additional food and agricultural lands and spread their communities through Texas and Oklahoma onward into the American Southeast. Later, many of them moved back the other direction under Federal Relocation Programs.

Native Americans of the West and South

First Nations and Related Native Americans

First Nations and Native Americans from Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the USA migrated east and south as well. As all of these nations and smaller groups - bands and pueblos and independent groups or communities - moved eastward and encountered European explorers and settlers.

These Indigenous Peoples also met incoming African slaves and peoples from the West Indies and intermixed with them, forming unique cultural segments of America in Metis groups and Creoles, Floridian native groups, and other such interesting ethnicities.

The Southwest and Southeast cultures gave rise to a number of culinary disciplines that have become the foundation of education for some of the great chefs of today in the southern USA. The idignous cultures and mixes took on certain characteristics of the environment, climate, and landscape as well as of nearby Spanish, Mexican, other European influences and the related cultures.

Also see:

US Southwest Region

The American Southwest
The American Southwest

Diversity Within Native North Americans

When thinking of the American Southwest, many individuals think about the famous Hopi Nation in Arizona or the mystical legends of New Mexican tribes. These are quite different from the many indigenous groups found in Oklahoma and Texas, just a couple of states to the east and still located in the Southwest.

At one time in the 20th century, the standard depiction of any Native American cost to coast was a man in deerskin jacket and leggings, wearing a Plains Indian feathered headdress, standing next to a teepee, tending a campfire, and having a tall totem pole. This image was really a composite of several tribal groups and not found at all in some parts of the United States.

Hopi Mesas, Arizona

Hopi pueblo on "First Mesa"
Hopi pueblo on "First Mesa"

Taos Pueblo Powwow, New Mexico

Oklahoma Tribes and Nations

White settlers killed many times more bison than did any buffalo jump slaughter of the Native Americans and nearly made the American Bison extinct. Today, bison herds are growing in size again, especially in the West and Southwest.
White settlers killed many times more bison than did any buffalo jump slaughter of the Native Americans and nearly made the American Bison extinct. Today, bison herds are growing in size again, especially in the West and Southwest. | Source

Native American Nations In Oklahoma

Dozens of Native American groups are located in Oklahoma in the 21st Century, with a full 60 nations having lived in this state at one time or another.

Many of the current native communities in Oklahoma are contained in the following federally-recognized list. This does not include non-federally recognized or state-recognized nations or totally unrecognized groups.

Seal of the "Five Civilized Tribes", Famous in Oklahoma

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Choctaw Nation Flag
Source
Choctaw Nation Flag
Choctaw Nation Flag
    • ABSENTEE SHAWNEE NATION
    • ALABAMA QUASSARTE
    • APACHE NATION
    • CADDO NATION

  • CHEROKEE NATION -- Federally recognized groups are the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, the United Keetoowah Band in Oklahoma, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina. DNA research suggests a split from the Iroquois Confederacy nation Mohawk in the past, centuries ago.
  • CHEYENNE-ARAPAHO NATION
  • CHICKASAW NATION
  • CHOCTAW NATION
  • CITIZENS BAND OF POTAWATOMI
  • COMANCHE NATION
  • DELAWARE NATIONS OF EAST AND WEST OK
  • EASTERN SHAWNEE NATION - The United Remnant Band lives in Ohio.
  • FT. SILL APACHE NATION
  • IOWA NATION OF OKLAHOMA
  • KAW NATION OF OKLAHOMA
  • KIALEGEE TRIBAL TOWN
  • KICKAPOO NATION
  • KIOWA NATION
  • LOYAL SHAWNEE NATION
  • MIAMI NATION
  • MODOC NATION
  • MUSCOGEE (CREEK) NATION - Includes the Thlopthlocco Tribal Town.
  • OSAGE NATION
  • OTOE-MISSOURIA NATION
  • OTTAWA NATION
  • PAWNEE NATION
  • PEORIA NATION
  • PONCA NATION
  • QUAPAW NATION
  • SAC & FOX NATION
  • SEMINOLE NATION -- See also the related recipes.
  • SENECA-CAYUGA NATIONS
  • TONKAWA NATION
  • UNITED KEETOOWAH BAND OF CHEROKEES
  • WICHITA NATION
  • WYANDOTTE NATION
  • YUCHI NATION

Chickasaw Drink Water Dance

Commanche Code Talkers

4th Signal Company, WWII. The Code talkers of many Native American Nations helped the USA and the Allies to win the war, using their own languages that the Axis Powers could not translate.
4th Signal Company, WWII. The Code talkers of many Native American Nations helped the USA and the Allies to win the war, using their own languages that the Axis Powers could not translate.
Comanche Mother and Child. Edward S. Curtis (1868 - 1952)
Comanche Mother and Child. Edward S. Curtis (1868 - 1952)

Indigenous Peoples of Texas

Apache Wigwam
Apache Wigwam | Source

Texas Reservations

The Alabama-Coushatta Reservation lies east of Houston, and the Tiguas and the Kickapoo reserves both lie in Rio Grande Valley.

Three Native Reservations Across Texas

show route and directions
A markerAlabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation -
Alabama-Coushatta Reservation, Livingston-New Willard, TX 77351, USA
[get directions]

B markerTexas Band of Traditional Kickapoo, Eagle Pass TX -
Eagle Pass, TX 78852, USA
[get directions]

C markerTiguas's Pueblo: Ysleta Station, El Paso TX -
820 Kastrin\El Arco (1811), El Paso, TX 79907, USA
[get directions]

Native Americans In the State Of Texas

Native American Indian Reservations in Texas

  • Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas; Rt 3 Box 640, Livingston TX 77351
  • Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas; HC1 Box 9700, Eagle Pass TX 78852. Today, the Kickapoo make up three separate nations and their ancestors all came from Wisconsin after the War of 1812 - 1814.
  • Ysleta del Sur Pueblo; PO Box 17579, Ysleta Station, El Paso TX 79917

Migration

The original nations we have found thus far who have lived in Texas include:

  • Apache tribes
  • Bidai
  • Coahuilteco and Carrizo tribes
  • Caddo
  • Comanche tribe
  • Jumano, Suma, Piro, and other eastern Pueblos
  • KarankawaKiowa
  • Kitsai
  • Tawakoni tribe
  • Tonkawa
  • Wichita

Other nations that were driven into Texas by Euorpean settlements include:

  • Alabama
  • Coushatta
  • Kickapoo
  • Tigua Pueblo

Comanche doll and horse and Navajo doll and horse from the 1880s - Smithsonian Institution.
Comanche doll and horse and Navajo doll and horse from the 1880s - Smithsonian Institution. | Source

© 2007 Patty Inglish

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Comments and Experiences 6 comments

Zsuzsy Bee profile image

Zsuzsy Bee 8 years ago from Ontario/Canada

Another amazing HUB filled with information galore.

regards Zsuzsy


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

And we are only scratching the suface really.


gabriella05 profile image

gabriella05 8 years ago from Oldham

I have to agree Zsuzsy another amazing work to the series

Thank you Patty to give all this knowledge


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thanks! I am fascinated by Hopi culture and all the native American groups that were Code Talkers in the war. The Native Americans and the Tuskegee Airmen really served the USA to the utmost.


Dim Flaxenwick profile image

Dim Flaxenwick 6 years ago from Great Britain

What can I say Patty? It makes my day every time I read one of your hubs on Native Americans. I've always been fascinted and a bit sad about what these interesting people were really like and how they were treated. Thank you yet again


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 6 years ago from North America Author

Hi Dim! I am pleased that you are enjoying these pages. Lots of people, Aboriginal and otherwise have been mistreated. I hope we can look to a brighter future for all. Thanks for posting!

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