Native American Nations in Eastern Canada

Cree Syllabic language chart (public domain)
Cree Syllabic language chart (public domain)

Canadian First Nations in Quebec Province

Quebec Province is east of Ontario Province in Canada and borders the Maritime Provinces that include Newfoundland (containing Labrador), New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia.

Over 50 separate bands of First Nations peoples live in Quebec, speaking a mix of French, their own Indigenous languages and English. The large number of Native North American groups in Quebec is similar in size to that of First Nations in Ontario, but likely has experienced a large amount of French Influence that is more dominant in Quebec than in Ontario..

In addition to the chart of native groups below, many Cree groups inhabit Quebec as well:

The Mohawk Nation is a strong political group in Quebec, recognized in Canada as a First Nation, but also living in New York State on a reservation. In Quebec:

  • Mohawks of Kahnawake
  • P.O. Box 720, Kahnawa'kehró:non Raonenhóntsa, J0L 1B0
  • (450) 632-7500

In the United States, three groups of Mohawk people live in New York. One group is federally recognized and operates a casino near the NY-Canada Border. Of the other two groups, the Traditional Mohawk is the smaller, and totally unrecognized by federal or state governments.

Mohawks of Kahnawake

A markerMohawks of Kahnawake -
Kahnawake, Quebec J0L, Canada
[get directions]

A markerQuebec -
Quebec, Canada
[get directions]

The Cree First Nation and Tradition

A lovely Cree First Nation tradition of old is the child's Walking-Out Ceremony. This ceremony is conducted in the spring and begins one morning at dawn as the child's family awakens.

The meaning of this ceremony is that the Cree child touches Mother Earth in first contact. He/she is walking outside and touching nature and the universe for the first time. The child is introduced to Mother Nature by meeting the sunrise and carrying all of the implements that symbolize the role he or she will play in a lifetime.

The First Snowshoe Walk is performed in winter to symbolize that the child is ready to travel with adults on his or her own and does not need to be a burden to carry. The child is usually age five or six for this ceremony. This would be done traditionally when the family moved to a winter lodge.

Parents or grandparents would prepare the first snowshoes for the child and ensure that when the day came for the move, everything was ready, including provisions.The parents now walk the child to the lodge as of old and everyone joins a feast there to honor the child's First Snowshoe Walk.

First Kill

There is no frivolous killing among the Cree.

When a boy or girl is still very young, each will hunt with parents' help and secure a small bird or game animal (boys) or a fish (girls) that is accepted and cooked by the eldest grandmother in the family. The family gives thanks for this food and celebrates the child's achievement and food offering to the family.

These rites of passage help to make childhood memorable and sacred in the culture of the Cree.

Quebec First Nations

Innu montagnais Kathia Rock Sept-Iles Maliotenam native

Maritime Provinces of Canada

A markerNew Brunswick CA -
New Brunswick, Canada
[get directions]

Maliseet Woman

Maliseet Woman
Maliseet Woman

Maritime Provinces



  • New Brunswick Aboriginal Peoples Council. Fredericton NB
  • Union of New Brunswick Indians
  • Big Cove Cultural Centre (Mi'kmaq) Big Cove County NB
  • Buctouche Micmac Band (Mi'kmaq) Buctouche NB
  • Burnt Church First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Legaceville, NB
  • Eel Ground First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Eel Ground, NB
  • Eel River Bar First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Dalhousie NB
  • Fort Folly First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Dorchester NB
  • Indian Island First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Rexton, NB
  • Kingsclear First Nation (Maliseet) Fredericton NB
  • Madawaska Maliseet First Nation (Maliseet) Madawaska Maliseet First Nation, NB
  • Oromocto First Nation (Maliseet)Oromocto NB
  • Pabineau First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Bathurst NB
  • Red Bank First Nation (Micmac) Red Bank, NB
  • St. Mary's Indian Band (Maliseet) Fredericton NB
  • Wolastokwik 'Negoot-gook (Maliseet) Maliseet Nation at Tobique. Perth, NB
  • Woodstock Indian Nation (Maliseet) Woodstock First Nation, NB.


  • Miawpukek First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Baie d'Espoir. Conne River, Nfld.
  • LABRADOR: Innu Nation. Sheshatshiu, Labrador
  • Labrador Metis Nation. Labrador.


  • Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs

  • Elsipogtog First Nation; 249 A Unit Main Street, Elsipogtog, New Brunswick E4W 2X2; Telephone: (506) 523-1996 / Fax: (506) 523-1929

  • Micmac Association of Cultural Studies; P.O. Box 961 Sydney NS B1P 6J4; PH 902-567-1752 / FAX 902-567-2137
  • Union of Nova Scotia Indians; P.O. Box 961 Sydney, NS B1P 6J4; PH (902) 539-4107 / FAX 902-564-2137
  • Acadia First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Yarmouth, NS
  • Afton First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Afton, Antigonish County, NS
  • Annapolis Valley First Nation (Mi'kmaq)
  • Bear River First Nation
  • Chapel Island First Nation (Mi'kmaq)
  • Chapel Island, NS
  • Eskasoni First Nation (Mi'kmaq) East Bay, NS
  • Horton First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Hansport, NS
  • Membertou First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Sydney, NS
  • Millbrook First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Truro, NS
  • Pictou Landing First Nation [Language: MicMac; English] Trenton, NS
  • Shubenacadie First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Shubenacadie, NS
  • Wagmatcook First Nation (Mi'kmaq)Baddeck, NS
  • Whycocomagh First Nation (Mi'kmaq) Whycocomagh, NS

Prince Edward Island (PEI)

  • Abegweit First Nation Mount Stewart, PE Is. Language:MicMac;English
  • Lennox Island First Nation Lennox Island, Prince Edward Is. Language: MicMac;English

Néthie Canada Masteuiatsh Chant

Mikmaq Language

Click to enlarge.
Click to enlarge.
Mi'kmaq Song
Mi'kmaq Song

Fascinating historical fiction of individuals living in the 1600s before America. Lyrical and mystical.


Pow Wow in Millbrook, Nova Scotia

© 2007 Patty Inglish

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Comments & Additions 7 comments

teeray profile image

teeray 9 years ago from Canada

Excellent hub, including the photos and videos! I will return to watch these again

Zsuzsy Bee profile image

Zsuzsy Bee 9 years ago from Ontario/Canada

Patty! Another great continuance to your Hub series.

great HUB

regards Zsuzsy

gabriella05 profile image

gabriella05 9 years ago from Oldham

It is a great pleasure to me to learn about other culture

Thank you very much

MrMarmalade profile image

MrMarmalade 9 years ago from Sydney

Great stories and pull in phptos. It is a magic experience following you

Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 9 years ago from North America Author

Thanks, Everyone; I am overwhelmed by the comments. It is a real pleasure to do this series.

William F. Torpey profile image

William F. Torpey 8 years ago from South Valley Stream, N.Y.

Amazing, Patty. Nice videos, too. One of my daughter's was stationed with the U.S. Navy in Newfoundland some years ago and wrote a travel article about it. It's interesting to see all this history about Native Americans in Canada.

Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thank you, William! The article by your daughter sounds really good.

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