Native American Nations in the American Midwest States
Migration Of Native North American Peoples
Many groups of Indigenous Peoples of North America inhabit our great Midwestern States. Some range into Canada as well, including the Iroquois and Chippewa peoples and others.
As a country, the US has a history of these tribal groups migrating east and west through the Eastern Woodlands and beyond for a number of reasons.
One reason is the depletion of resources in one area and the search for better hunting and gathering grounds as well as healthier soils for agriculture. Both wildlife and humans can wear out the land and find it necessary to move on.
Another reason for native migration in the Midwest is the inter-tribal wars that moved defeated groups out of their original homelands in search of newer pastures, wildlife, and arable land.
A third reason for migration is the forced march back to the West by the Indian Removal legislation begun under President Andrew Jackson before the American Civil War started.
Regardless of the reasons, the peoples of the Midwest diaspora are very interesting.
Eastern Woodlands Peoples
Midwest or Northeast Central States
- At least 14 First Nations or Native North Americans have lived for a length of time in Minnesota, likely at least 10,000 years to date. Migratory evidence supports the idea that these peoples came across Canada and the northern part of what is now the USA to settle in Minnesota.
- Chippewa/Ojibwe - Found in the Northern USA and in Canada.
- The Fox People [not the "Fox tribe"] - Original tribal information is lost.
- A portion of the Oneida Nation of the Iroquois Six Nations, another portion being in New York and Hamilton, Ontario in Canada.
Michigan & Michigan Upper Peninsula
- Ottawa and Chippewa/Objibwe
- Hurons (Wyandot) - Also found historically in Ohio as the last nation to leave the state.
- Miami - also in Ohio.
- Neutrals -- Named by the French. Bands of Indians neutral in wars between Native Americans and Settlers.
Arapaho - Minnesota
The Illinois Confederation is also called the Illini. They are historically a federation of a dozen Native North American American Nations the Upper Mississippi River Valley. Five tribes remained by the time of the Civil War: Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Peoria, and Tamaroa.
Rough Boundaries of the Illini Natives In the Upper Mississippi River Valley
Origin of the Mississippi River.
Illinois & Iowa
- Chippewa/Ojibwe - also in Indiana and Michigan.
- Dakota Sioux
- Delaware - passing through to new homelands. Delaware are also found on the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, Canada.
- Fox - forced farther West by US Government.
- Illinois - forced west by the Fox and Sauk.
- Miami - Also lived in Ohio
- Shawnee - United Remnant Band resides in Ohio
- Chippewa/Ojibwe, Delaware, Erie, Illinois - all pushed to the West.
- Iroquois - Others of the Six Nations drove out some of the Seneca.
- Kickapoo - passing through.
- Miami - also found in Ohio.
- Caddo - forced back to the west.
- Dakota - forced farther west.
- Kickapoo - moved on to Kansas.
Northeast Central States Urban Tribal Associations
- American Indian Center of Chicago
- American Indian Center of Indiana, Inc.
American Indian Center of Indiana (AICI) Inc. promotes the empowerment of American Indians/Alaska Natives in Indiana to achieve personal, social, cultural, and economic growth that enhances their quality of life
- Kansas City Indian Center
Web site for the Heart of America Indian Center, one of the oldest continuing Indian centers in the United States, has been addressing the issues Kansas City’s American Indian population since 1974.
Native Nations In Ohio: Mound Builders and Others
Ohio Native North Americans
- Algonquian - Located in Western Ohio; the United Remnant Band of the Eastern Shawnee people is still in this part of Ohio, attempting to buy back their original lands. This includes Antioch and the Upper Ohio River Valley. Fred Shaw, Algonquian and retired Methodist pastor, and his son operate living history events here concerning settlers and Native Americans.
- Delaware - forced West, but also located on Ontario, Canada.
- Erie ("Long Tail")
- Illinois - forced West.
- Iroquois Confederacy peoples - especially Mohawk in parts of East and Southeast Ohio. These peoples were largely settled in New York State, but some lived in Pennsylvania and Ohio (Please see maps at end of this Hub). One branch of Iroquois people split off in New York to become the Cherokee on the Southeast Coast.
- Kickapoo - forced West.
- Mound Builders - ancient people responsible for Serpent Mound.
Mound Builders: The Alligator Mound In Granville, Ohio
Shawnee Nation From Ohio to Oklahoma
United Remnant Band of Shawnee, Businesses
Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio
Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio [NAICCO]
- 67 East Innis Avenue
- PO Box 07705
- Columbus, OH 43207
- Phone: (614) 443-6120
NAICCO) has served the county since 1975, founded by Selma Walker who is a Dakota of the Yankton Sioux Reservation, South Dakota.
For 18 years, Selma was Executive Director. Selma's. Daughter Carol Welsh was elected as a replacement in 1993. The Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio is a non-profit inter-tribal group.
The following services are provided:
- CULTURAL PROGRAMS: 2 large pow wows annually. Mini pow wows, lectures, dance demonstrations, storytelling, and other cultural events.
- CULTURAL ARTS: Classes are available traditional/contemporary Native arts. Beadwork, dancing, singing, language, clothing design.
- WHITE BISON CIRCLE: Native approach to recovery. Meetings on alternate Monday evenings open to anyone who wants to attend. AA Big Book (closed meeting) - Candlelight Meeting, and 12 x 12.
- TALKING CIRCLE: A Talking Circle is held on alternate Monday nights. Topic varies.
- CREATIVE CIRCLE: A Creative Circle is held on Wednesday nights.
- SUBSISTENCE NEEDS: Clothing, household items, hot lunches - Anyone in need. You don't have to be Native American.
- FOOD PANTRY: Food for each member of the family, once each month with proper ID.
- EMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATION: Job referrals made to local employers. Training referrals to training, GED and adult literacy programs. Tutoring through the Columbus Public Schools.
- VET REFERRAL: Referrals to the Disabled Veterans' Services.
Most of the original nations of worldwide spent the much of the year in scattered bands. Once a year they gathered in the Spring to pray for good crops, or Summer to pray in thankfulness for the Harvest. Marriages were made. Problems were settled. Food was shared.
in the American Plains, High Summer saw the communal buffalo hunt and another celebration. Pow Wows were held often.
Longfellow's Poem "Hiawatha" - Mohawk Nation
Native Americans Moved Back To The West And Midwest
Siege at Fort Pitt, 1765
Part of Pontiac's Rebellion, Native American Indians tried to drive British out Ohio Country and back across the Appalachians to Pennsylvania.
Park surrounds the battlefield areas.
Pennsylvania Land Purchases From Natives Who Moved To The MidwestClick thumbnail to view full-size
© 2007 Patty Inglish
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