Notes: Give Me Liberty! An American History: Chapter 3

Eric Foner: Give Me Liberty! An American History: Chapter notes, study guide, book outline.
Eric Foner: Give Me Liberty! An American History: Chapter notes, study guide, book outline.

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Chapter 3 - Creating Anglo-America (1660-1750)

Chapter 3 - Creating Anglo-America (1660-1750)

Focus Questions

  1. How did the English empire in America expand in the mid-seventeenth century?
  2. How did slavery take root in the Atlantic World?
  3. What major social and political crises rocked the colonies in the late seventeenth century?
  4. What were the directions of social and economic change in the eighteenth-century colonies?
  5. How did patterns of class and gender roles change in eighteenth-century America?

Chapter 3 Notes

  1. Political tensions continued
  1. Bloodiest battle of 17th century (in New England) - Indians attacked half of the 90 BR colonies. Iroquois helped colonists
  1. Indians Leader = Metacom (Wampanoag leader, known by colonists as King Philip) led the attacks.
  2. Metacom was captured and killed; led to a broadening of freedom for New Englanders.

The Expansion of England’s Empire

  1. The Mercantilist System
  1. Soon became clear that the colonies = large source of wealth
  2. Mercantilism - said gov should regulate trade to promote eco power.
  3. Exports should exceed imports
  4. Navigation laws passed - certain “enumerated” goods (basically the most valuable - sugar & tobacco) had to be transported in English ships and sold initially in English ports, although they could then be re-exported to foreign markets.
  1. Also, most goods from colonies had to be shipped thru England (customs paid). (AM ships = considered English ships, so they profited as well)

The conquest of New Netherland (NY)

  1. King Charles II (ENG) overtook NN and gave it to his brother, James (Duke of York), giving him full power. That’s why it’s called New York now.
  2. The Eng turned New York into a major trading seaport and a launching pad for military operations

New York and the Rights of Englishmen and Englishwomen

  1. Their was still religious freedom in New York, but women lost their right to run businesses in their name and also property inheritance
  2. Blacks, however, were removed from very skilled jobs.

New York and the Indians

  1. Alliance was formed w/ Iroquois Confederacy.
  2. Iroquois Confederacy were forced East by FR and other Indian tribes. They developed a policy of careful neutrality b/c of this, just profiting from fur trade.

The Charter of Liberties

  1. B/c Colonists of Long Island were complaining of NOT having the “liberties of Englishmen”, they drafted a Charter of Liberties and Privileges
  1. it gave them the “liberties” (making them superior to Dutch settlers), as well as elections held every 3 years

The Founding of Carolina

  1. Started w/ settlers in Barbados (richest plantation economy) - wealthy planters moved there. It was a “colony of a colony”
  2. Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina - proposed to est a feudal society w/ a hereditary nobility, serfs, and slaves. Offered 150 acres to each member of arriving family.
  1. This didn’t really happen. Slavery really made it hierarchical

Carolina slowly grew into the wealthiest elite in ENG North America and also the epicenter mainland center The Holy Experiment

  1. Pennsylvania! Est by William Penn to escape religious persecution
  2. Charles II - supported Will b/c Charles owed Will’s father $$. Charles gave Penn a vast track of land SW of New York, and also the old Swedish colony that became Delaware
  3. Society of Friends, or Quakers, were persecuted in ENG so they came here

Quaker Liberty

  1. Considered everyone equal; they were the first whites to repudiate slavery. Liberty was universal, not entitled to individuals
  2. Penn and the Indians - actually purchased land from Indians and gave refuge to Ind’s who were chased away from other colonies.
  3. Religious freedom = Penn’s most fundamental principle. Was also a strict code of personal morality - gov prevented swearing, drunkenness, adultery, etc..

Land in Pennsylvania

  1. Penn sold land for cheap rather than giving it out, but turned no profit.
  2. Pennsylvania started to attract many indentured servants from Virginia and Maryland, eventually making them dependent on slave labor.

Origins of American Slavery

  1. Slaves had many advantages; their terms never expired, and they couldn’t claim protections under English law.
  2. AF slaves were also used to intensive agricultural labor
  3. Englishmen and Africans
  1. English viewed any alien ppls w/ disdain
  2. Racism was a new concept started in the 17th century
  3. Slaves were almost always outsiders, transported from elsewhere to their labor place

Slavery in History

  1. Slavery had existed since the beg of time.
  2. AM slavery (plantations), however, encouraged the creation of a sharp boundary btwn slavery and freedom. New World, it’s associated w/ race

Slavery in the West Indies

  1. 17th century - slave trade was major international business. Only a small handful were taken to ENG colonies
  2. Sugar = first crop to be mass-marketed to consumers in Europe. It was by far the most imp product of the BR, FR, and Portuguese empires.
  1. 1660, Barbados generated more trade than al the other ENG colonies combined

Slaves cost more than indentured servants, (and high death rates) making them unappealing to buy a lifetime of labor. Slavery and the Law

  1. Las Siete Partidas - SP laws granting slaves certain rights.
  2. ENG laws were far more repressive.
  3. Chesapeake laws abt blacks= most ambiguous...eventually became very repressive against blacks. Even free blacks had a poll tax and couldn’t inter-racial marry.
  4. Anthony Johnson - slave arrived in Virginia and somehow got free, then owned several hundred acres of land and slaves

The rise of Chesapeake slavery

  1. Slavery for whites and blacks started relatively equal, but around the 1660s the conditions for each greatly changed
  2. Virginia law of 1662 - Children of one slave and one free person, the child was considered the same as the mother (making slave-children profitable for slaveowners)
  3. Church even prohibited marrying blacks (if you weren’t black)

Bacon’s Rebellion: Land and labor in Virginia

  1. Shift from white indentured servants to AF slaves as main labor force.
  2. Virginia’s tobacco boom benefitted farmers and planters. It created a big poverty level.
  3. Gov William Berkeley- kept peaceful relations w/ Indians
  4. Rebellion - One indentured servant accused of planning an uprising
  1. Started w/ a small Indian/colonist confrontation, Settlers demanded that gov authorize their extermination but he disagreed, led to uprising
  2. Leader = Nathaniel Bacon. Bulk of the men were discontented men (previously servants)

The end of the Rebellion, and its consequences

  1. Bacon promised freedom for all who joined him. Scared off Berkeley and he became the leader of Virginia.
  2. Rebellion ended when English warships arrived to restore order.
  3. Solution = authorities reduced taxes and adopted a more aggressive Indian policy, opening a western areas to small farmers.

A slave society

  1. Death rates fell, so lifetime labor was now worth the price.
  2. Also, since the monopoly of the Eng slave trade was over, trade was much cheaper (slaves)

Notions of freedom

  1. Everyone feared enslavement, and many slaves ran away. When the blacks were in court, they said that they converted to Christianity or had white fathers
  1. This was one reason why Virginia closed the pathways to freedom (1660s)

Colonies in Crisis

  1. King Philip’s War of 1675 and Bacons Rebellion: led to uprisings in other colonies
  2. The Glorious Revolution
  1. Back to England - established parliamentary supremacy once for all and secured the Protestant succession to the throne.
  2. King Charles II died and was succeeded by James II (duke of york). Charles had a son, but ppl feared Catholic succession, so they invited the Dutch nobleman William of Orange to assume the throne in the name of Eng liberties
  1. Notion of the overthrow was that liberty was the birthright of all Englishmen.

Toleration Act in England - freedom of Protestants to worship freely in Eng, but nothing compared to colonies’ freedom The Glorious Revolution in America

  1. Colonies ran themselves w/ little interference from England
  2. Navigation Acts made ppl mad
  3. Sir Edmund Andros - put under control of a single super colony (combination of Connecticut, Plymouth, Mass, New Hamp, Rhode Is, NY, and E/W Jersey)
  1. Was all seen as a threat to freedom b/c Andros didn’t have to answer to any elected authority

The Maryland Uprising

  1. Overthrow of King James II in Eng led to rebellions in the colonies (NY taken over, Maryland’s Lord Baltimore overthrew

Leisler’s Rebellion

  1. Leisler = German born Calvinist who divided NY along economic and ethnic lines. Leisler eventually hanged and cut into pieces, but the disputes he created lasted on.

Changes in New England

  1. After Edmund Andros disposed of, the colonies tried hard to get their charters back. Mass didn’t get it; it got turned into a place where land ownership was the requirement to vote.

Prosecution of witches

  1. Witches were individuals who were of having entered into a pact with the devil to obtain supernatural powers, which they used to harm others or to interfere w/ natural processes.

The Salem Witch Trials

  1. Witches usually women. In Salem, they were basically anyone.
  2. These led to ppl finding scientific evidence about events rather than just attributing them to super-natural events

The Growth of Colonial America

  1. Colonies have grown immensely: population grew from 230k in 1700 to 2.3 million in 1770
  2. A Diverse Population
  1. Very diverse, eventually started the skilled workers of England, whom Eng could ill afford to lose. Eng stopped encouraging emigration end 17th century

Attracting settlers (to colonies)

  1. BR tried to attract settlers by offering BR citizenship for living in ENG for 7 yrs
  2. This new thing attracted many diff ppl’s.

The German Migration

  1. 110,000 in all, largest group migrated to the US.
  2. Germany was divided into many small states w/ specific religions to worship in each: that’s why they fled,
  3. Germans traveled as families, and had tight knit farming communities

Religious diversity

  1. BR AM wasn’t a “melting pot” (b/c ppl stayed in homogenous communities)
  2. Ppl basically came to AM b/c they could do w/e they wanted and achieve w/e they set their mind to, and not be persecuted

Indian life in transition

  1. Many tribes done with, the remnants formed new tribes
  2. They were treated fairly by William Penn, but relations got less friendly after Penn passed

Regional Diversity

  1. Very different living standards in the colonies

The Consumer Revolution

  1. The colonies joined the international consumer revolution. British goods in AM colonies.
  2. Consumerism in a modern sense (the mass production, advertising, and sale of consumer goods) didn’t exist in colonial AM

Colonial Cities

  1. Mostly agricultural, however, ports did develop w/ more trade

Colonial artisans

  1. Large population of artisans in AM: Typical artisan owned his own tools and labored in a small workshop. B/c they had a skill, they were pretty well off.
  2. Despite all the BR goods, AM artisans did have the ability to rise to master

An Atlantic world

  1. All the trade held together the international world.
  2. Membership in the Empire had many advantages for the colonists
  1. Protected AM shipping, lax enforcement of Nav. Act gave way to smuggling

Social Classes in the Colonies

  1. The Colonial Elite
  1. Merchants quickly became upper class, but they needed connections in ENG to really be successful. No banks in Colonial AM
  2. Upper class ppl often intermarried and were tight knit families that ruled
  1. Virginia - said to be governed by a “cousinocracy”

Virginia - you could really only inherit your wealth Anglicization

  1. It’s the name historians came up with for describing how elites in the colonies became more and more English.
  2. Desperate to follow an aristocratic lifestyle, many farmers fell into debt - William Byrd = 100,000 pounds of debt

The South Carolina Aristocracy

  1. Richest group of mainland colonists = SC planters
  2. SC planters went on vacations to the north and lived lavish lifestyles
  3. Per Capita wealth = 2300 lbs....freedom from labor was the mark of a gentleman

Poverty in the colonies

  1. Half of the ppl needed public assistance
  2. Half of the entire wealth of the colonies rested in the top 10% of ppl overall

The Middle Ranks

  1. Not much of them...property was considered a precondition to liberty/freedom

Women and the Household Economy

  1. 18th century = family was the center of economic life
  2. Several colonies = law required land be passed down to the oldest son
  3. “Women’s work is never done” - true b/c work kept increasing

North America at Mid-century

  1. Many colonists enjoyed more freedoms than those in Europe
  2. Free colonists probably had the highest per capita income in the world.
  3. Colonists economic growth led to high birthrates, long life expectancy, and expanding demand for consumer goods

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Comments 5 comments

Julie 4 years ago

Thank you so much!! This is really helpful, especially if your the type of person that does not like reading history. This is straight forward .


xina 4 years ago

Thank you so much! I read the book during the week, but I like to review before class. This is very helpful!


Jeff 2 years ago

How did the English empire in America expand in the mid-seventeenth century?


EV 2 years ago

this is all over creating anglo America right? im just making sure because soe of this I saw in ch.2


Grace 2 years ago

LOVE IT

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