Modern Physics and Sub-atomic particles


 Tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research ((French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN) with all the Magnets and Instruments. The shown part of the tunnel is located
Tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research ((French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN) with all the Magnets and Instruments. The shown part of the tunnel is located | Source

Atom and sub-atomic particles in modern physics

Modern Physics had a quest for sub-atomic particles since late 19th century.

Human beings are always in a quest for the biggest and greatest in the universe as well as the smallest and tiniest.This quest lead to the study of sub atomic particles in modern physics. Particle physics has a great place among the branches of modern physics.

India was the most advanced country in research in ancient times. Indians were well aware of basic nature of atoms, since the time of Kanad, the great philosopher of India, some three thousand years ago. Atom is known as 'Anu' in Sanskrit language which means tiny.

Atom has been described as the smallest unit of the universe since his time. Aristotle of ancient Greece also described atom as the tiniest particle in the universe. In modern times Dalton laid down properties of atom in the 18th century.

CERN: The standard model of particle physics

CERN Aerial View

CERN Aerial View, Large Hedrone Collider
CERN Aerial View, Large Hedrone Collider | Source

Quantum and particles

Atom of Dalton could not retain its position as the smallest particle in the twentieth century. Chadwick, Bohr and many others attempted to break the atom and came out with three separate particles namely Electron, Proton and Neutron.

Quantum theory and quantum mechanics, Special and General Theory of Relativity were also developed viz a viz with study and discovery of sub-atomic particles.

In the 20th century those are also broken down and many new particles came in the light such as Positron, Meson, Photon, Neutrino etc. These particles along with previous three are called sub atomic particles and the branch of Physics dealing with the same is called particle physics.

Study of particle physics has helped to invent and discover various technologies. It helped fission and fusion technologies to develop into their next stages. Use of cyclotron machine and bubble chamber enhanced the possibility of research in this field. It also helped a lot in studying cosmic rays, astronomy and cosmology. We can determine half-lives of various particles lead to further research in radio-activity through this branch of modern physics.

LHC dipole magnets

Large Hadron Collider tunnel and dipole magnets, November 30, 2007
Large Hadron Collider tunnel and dipole magnets, November 30, 2007 | Source

Quark, Hawkins and Mega heddrone collider

This branch also helped in understanding Quantum physics, Special and General theory of Relativity and space time diagrams. Further advancement through last two decades of 20th century up-to now is related to Quark. According to scientists Quark is the final building block of the universe.

We can wait for further discovery of a particle smaller than quarks.

Hawkins, UK, have tried to make general theory of relativity compatible to quantum mechanics. This is a great work since Einstein. His theory on black hole and big bang is going to be tested.

What Hawkins speaks theoretically, is to be tested practically.The mega project by ECNR (Big hadron collider) will attempt to collide two proton beams moving towards opposite directions to each other. The hadrone collider will try to create a situation and temperature similar to that at the time of big bang. Hence, theory of Hawkins will be tested in laboratory.This experiment will take place to obtain a new particle Boson, the God particle.

Boson, the God particle is named after famous Indian scientist Satyendra Nath Bose. Satyendra Nath Bose has famous Bose-Einsten statistics to his credit.

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The riddle of antimatter

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Comments 23 comments

JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

JYOTI KOTHARI 4 years ago from Jaipur Author

Hi Prashant,

Yes. you are right. "Paramanu" in Jain concept is invisible for a layman. Thanks for your comment. You possess very good knowledge of Jainism.

Prashant jain 4 years ago

In Jainism the "parmanu" as defined in the jain texts is the basic building block of matter and so tiny that it is beyond perception of a soul in karmic bondage ( as we are). The souls who have attained pure omniscience or who have attained infinite knowledge are the one who have attained moksha ( nirvana ) or freedom from the cycle of birth and death are the ones who can percieve the smallest building block of matter not through perceptory media that we possess but thru the eyes of pure knowledge that only a liberated soul possesses

Anthony 5 years ago

but not here in earth

lundmusik profile image

lundmusik 5 years ago from Tucson AZ

thanks for you article,, I'm not a great fan of particle physics,,, sometimes I wonder if the whole thing is a projection of our consciousness, as the principles of quantum mechanics says...

Manna in the wild profile image

Manna in the wild 5 years ago from Australia

Fatfist said, "cause absolutely NOBODY has ever 'seen' or 'detected' a particle"

Stick your finger in a live light socket. You will detect those particles.

Shahid Bukhari profile image

Shahid Bukhari 6 years ago from My Awareness in Being.

In, The Islamic Law ... Stated in al'Quran:

Elementary particles are "Paired Structures" Manifesting a Distinct State of Creation ... Rendered, Unto Existents, in the Human's Awareness of Being ... called ''Mind.''

Everything that Exists ... Exists within the Living Human's Mind.

"Being" Is the State, Defining our Experiential, of the encountered Forms, thus, the Existents, In, Being.

The Strings, are the same, as Elementary Particles or the Animalcules, being Redefined as Viri ... in the Technologies aided Sense, of Human Awareness.

Matter, the Composer of Physical Forms, in its Elemental State ... Genesis ... is Composed of, Physical and the Ideal's Moieties Bonding within the Human Mind unto our Formal's Awareness... these are variously defined within the Philosophical, an Empirical, or a Theory's drawn Conclusions ... into Cognitive Concept ...

Things and Ideas are the State Manifest, of Existent Form ...

There are many human devised Ways to Know ... But Modern Science, puts the Physical's Cart, before the Horse of the Ideal ... in Defining Formal Existence ... which is Essentially Existent, In Creation !

Hello 6 years ago

Um ... so there are several incorrect statements in this.

For instance, a boson is not a particle, it is a classification of a particle. Bosons are particles with integer spin (as compared to fermions which are particles with half integer spins). For instance, a photon falls under the category of boson. I think what you were looking for was the Higgs boson.

Quarks are not the basic building blocks of everything, they are one of them. For instance, electrons are not made up of quarks. They are a fundamental particle.

SR and GR were not developed with subatomic particles in mind.

nouman 6 years ago

and how one kg will be equal ta one kg

nouman 6 years ago

what is slug and it is use now adays

Newton's Rival 6 years ago

I wait for the day physicist find out with this collider that gravity is really different levels of magnetism and electromagnetism. Then maybe I will get the credit I deserve! The Unified Theory or M theory is Magnet Theory a.k.a The Keeker theory. Check out my link . Click on my name....

JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

JYOTI KOTHARI 6 years ago from Jaipur Author

Hi Fatfist,

This is the way modern sciences work. The scientists work to establish a theory through established norms, parameters and practices.

Thanks for commenting.

Jyoti Kothari

tom 6 years ago

Is it possable that large small and the universe are infinite

fatfist profile image

fatfist 6 years ago

Well thank you for being honest, Jyoti, cause absolutely NOBODY has ever 'seen' or 'detected' a particle. This is why they defy any sort of explanation.

Consequently, there are NO particles shot down those accelerators. I mean, how can you possibly shoot a bullet when you can't even load it in the gun...

Which leaves a rational person to wonder why they are spending billions of taxpayer dollars to build these accelerators.

JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

JYOTI KOTHARI 6 years ago from Jaipur Author

Hi Fatfist,

No body had yet seen these particles. These are too small to see.

Thanks for commenting on this hub.

Jyoti Kothari

fatfist profile image

fatfist 6 years ago

So what are these particles you speak of?

I have never see a picture of one. How do one of these particles look like? Is it a physical object, like a tiny ball?

I mean, if people are loading these particles, like we load bullets in a gun, and shooting them down an accelerator, then they MUST know how they look like.

Do they use some type of micro-tweezers to pick up each particle and load it into the accelerator?

JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

JYOTI KOTHARI 7 years ago from Jaipur Author

Dear Tahir,

There is a long list of sub-atomic particles e.g. proton, electron, Positron, Neutron, Neutrino .... and so on. Consult any text book about particle physics or search in the net for relevant info.


Jyoti Kothari

Tahir 7 years ago

Dear sir i need sub atomic particles name,their masses no,notation etc

sharad 7 years ago

JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

JYOTI KOTHARI 7 years ago from Jaipur Author

Dear Doru,

I agreed. It is not an elementary physics but I have to describe here for common man.

Jyoti Kothari

doru 7 years ago

All this kind of questions have answers in last SUBPHYSICS theory, meaning an universal formalisation of entire physics, and not only. Just try it !

SUBPHYSICS doesn't mean elementary level; it means quantum scale configuration and interactions relative to the entire Universe. It's for sure, you will be a fan...all scientists will...

JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

JYOTI KOTHARI 8 years ago from Jaipur Author

Study of particle physics is now encouraged in India as per latest news.

JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

JYOTI KOTHARI 8 years ago from Jaipur Author

Particles are building blocks of the universe. We are also made of the same. Where is the difficulty?

jyoti kothari

john schmit 8 years ago


You have described a very difficult subject particle physics in a language a layman can understand.

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