Modern Physics and Sub-atomic particles
CERN LHC Tunnel
Atom and sub-atomic particles in modern physics
Modern Physics had a quest for sub-atomic particles since late 19th century.
Human beings are always in a quest for the biggest and greatest in the universe as well as the smallest and tiniest.This quest lead to the study of sub atomic particles in modern physics. Particle physics has a great place among the branches of modern physics.
India was the most advanced country in research in ancient times. Indians were well aware of basic nature of atoms, since the time of Kanad, the great philosopher of India, some three thousand years ago. Atom is known as 'Anu' in Sanskrit language which means tiny.
Atom has been described as the smallest unit of the universe since his time. Aristotle of ancient Greece also described atom as the tiniest particle in the universe. In modern times Dalton laid down properties of atom in the 18th century.
CERN: The standard model of particle physics
CERN Aerial View
Quantum and particles
Atom of Dalton could not retain its position as the smallest particle in the twentieth century. Chadwick, Bohr and many others attempted to break the atom and came out with three separate particles namely Electron, Proton and Neutron.
Quantum theory and quantum mechanics, Special and General Theory of Relativity were also developed viz a viz with study and discovery of sub-atomic particles.
In the 20th century those are also broken down and many new particles came in the light such as Positron, Meson, Photon, Neutrino etc. These particles along with previous three are called sub atomic particles and the branch of Physics dealing with the same is called particle physics.
Study of particle physics has helped to invent and discover various technologies. It helped fission and fusion technologies to develop into their next stages. Use of cyclotron machine and bubble chamber enhanced the possibility of research in this field. It also helped a lot in studying cosmic rays, astronomy and cosmology. We can determine half-lives of various particles lead to further research in radio-activity through this branch of modern physics.
LHC dipole magnets
Quark, Hawkins and Mega heddrone collider
This branch also helped in understanding Quantum physics, Special and General theory of Relativity and space time diagrams. Further advancement through last two decades of 20th century up-to now is related to Quark. According to scientists Quark is the final building block of the universe.
We can wait for further discovery of a particle smaller than quarks.
Hawkins, UK, have tried to make general theory of relativity compatible to quantum mechanics. This is a great work since Einstein. His theory on black hole and big bang is going to be tested.
What Hawkins speaks theoretically, is to be tested practically.The mega project by ECNR (Big hadron collider) will attempt to collide two proton beams moving towards opposite directions to each other. The hadrone collider will try to create a situation and temperature similar to that at the time of big bang. Hence, theory of Hawkins will be tested in laboratory.This experiment will take place to obtain a new particle Boson, the God particle.
Boson, the God particle is named after famous Indian scientist Satyendra Nath Bose. Satyendra Nath Bose has famous Bose-Einsten statistics to his credit.
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The riddle of antimatter
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