The Hydrologic Water Cycle - Untaught Facts
All living beings need water to live. Water is an integral part of every culture worldwide, human or otherwise. Due to human activity, we know that some of nature's systems are breaking down. Climate change, for example, is heating up the air that water would normally have cooled down. Could the water cycle be one of the breakdowns?
Hydrologic Cycle Diagram
Gas, Liquid, Solid
Physical States of Water:
Water alternates between gas, liquid, and solid. What makes the difference is the temperature. Really low temperatures cause water to freeze, medium temperatures produce a liquid form, high temperatures cause water to evaporate into gas (water vapor).
All over the world and in the air water is constantly changing between these three forms. As it does, it also changes location, as shown by the blue arrows above.
When liquid is heated it changes into vapor that rises. When vapor is cooled it coalesces into rain, sleet, hail, or snow that falls. When ice and snow (solid water) is heated, it melts into liquid that flows to lower levels, where it's stored, until it heats again, evaporates, and rises again.
Thus the water cycle looks like this (from right to left on the diagram): Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, flow (runoff), storage, and repeat. Let's examine each of these stages in a little more detail, starting with storage, since that's the stage that humans have deemed most useful to civilization.
Rain Water Storage
You will notice in the diagram (large arrows) that there are five main places of "storage" - where water in one of its three stages collects and holds:
As a solid water is stored as ice and snow, always where temperatures are cold - the tops of mountains, the north and south poles and countries and oceans near them (icebergs), and often mid-country as well, near mountains and lakes in winter. Water is held in that form until temperatures rise and it melts, flowing down to join one of the other storage places. This is where humans enjoy "winter sports" like skiing, ice skating, and snowboarding. This kind of storage has been breaking down rapidly in recent years.
As a liquid water is stored in three main places: Surface water, groundwater, and oceans. Surface water includes the whole category of lakes and fake lakes (dams), rivers and streams. Lakes and dams are considered storage areas, since water sits there for some time, while slowly sinking into the earth, evaporating into the sky, or running out via a river or two. Water stays in a lake long enough to grow life forms, some of which we fish out.
Groundwater is water that has sunk into the earth all the way to its rock base, if it has one (groundwater basin). The earth is like a giant sponge. It holds water until needed to replenish the surface water. Meanwhile trees, plants, and humans draw from it for their own needs.
The oceans hold the greatest quantity of water in storage. Because it is salty, humans don't like to drink it and can't use it for manufacturing, without rusting or encrusting their machines. But these vast bodies of water, filled with life of their own, are the greatest source of evaporation, meaning that fresh water ultimately comes from the oceans.
As a gas, water that has evaporated and risen into the air stays there as vapor and clouds, until it has cooled down enough to condense into rain. "Humidity" is the term that measures the amount of water vapor being stored in the air. Water in the air helps keep skin moist and soft.
When water heats up with the sun or hot air or lava beneath the earth, it's molecules start spinning faster and further apart, which turns it eventually into gas and geysers. Up it goes, spinning into the air, higher and higher as it gets hotter. Eventually the water vapor reaches a stasis point in the atmosphere, where the air starts to cool and the vapor stays where it is, blown about by hot air and vapor still rising, which mixes and changes places with cooler air. This movement is called wind.
Water evaporates from any surface with water - the ocean, lakes, dams, rivers, streams, moist earth, and snow and ice. Moisture is also added to the air via sweat from humans and animals, and its counterpart - transpiration from plants, especially trees. All of this moisture rises into the atmosphere, spiraling up until it reaches cooler air. This is evapotranspiration.
Condensation of Water Vapor
As the water molecules spin and others rise to join them, they begin to coalesce in the cooler air above. The more humid the air, the faster they coalesce. At 35,000 feet, even in the heat of summer, the air can be -70C (-94F). In cold air molecules spin more slowly and, being attracted to each other, gather to form clouds. This is condensation. Ground fog is a low level condensation.
In a sense, condensation is the opposite of evaporation. Where evaporation is the change of liquid into gas, condensation starts the process of changing gas back into liquid. All it needs to complete that process is some kind of icy core around which rain, snow, or hail can form.
In nature, this is provided mainly by bacteria (described next). Whether colonies of millions of bacteria grow in the atmosphere or all are blown up from the earth, is not yet known. What we do know is that certain kinds of bacteria turn vapor into rain, hail, or snow. Volcanic dust and carbon dust from wildfires can also generate precipitation at higher, colder levels of the atmosphere.
World Cloud Cover
"Rain is grace; rain is the sky condescending to the earth; without rain, there would be no life." - John Updike
Precipitation into Rain, Hail, or Snow
Pseudomonas syringae is the name of an ice-nucleating bacteria that causes rain. Unfortunately, it is known best for the blight it creates on cash crops. The bacteria freezes a plant's skin to soften it, so it can feed on juices beneath, then reproduces itself to form colonies. That process leaves black marks on fruit and leaves. Growers have been trying to eradicate the bacteria for decades.
Up in the atmosphere, where bacterial colonies have been blown by the wind, the coldness of each bacterium turns water vapor into raindrops. Cooling air speeds the process, converting nascent cloud cover into storm clouds. Bacteria and storm clouds multiply and spread, until they are thick and heavy enough that the raindrops (or snow) that form them drop from the sky.
For drops to reach the ground, the air under the clouds must be saturated or cool. But with enough bacteria in the air, it can rain even when the temperature is warm, although the drops will be smaller. This, along with hail and snow, is called precipitation.
The fact that rain, ice, and snow both clean the air and cool it down makes ice-nucleating bacteria a key component in counteracting global warming. The bacteria also provides a key for how to more evenly distribute rain throughout the earth.
Man has taken some control of this stage of the cycle by artificially cloud seeding with silver iodide. The cellular structure of silver iodide, discovered by Dr. Bernard Vonnegut in 1949, is a close replica to ice. Like the ice-nucleating bacteria, it transforms water vapor into precipitation. Countries all over the world are now using cloud seeding to enhance or create rain where none existed before.
The Flow of Water - Runnels, Rivers, & Streams
The flow stage of the water cycle describes the movement of water after it hits the ground. Rainwater saturates an area, flowing across the ground's surface to lower elevations. It fills up rivers and streams that flow to lakes and dams, and ultimately to the lowest elevation of the sea - quickly in the case of young, straight rivers and slowly, in the case of meandering ones.
Rivers fall straighter where the elevation is steeper, pulled by gravity. Older, meandering rivers slow water down, which gives it time to be absorbed by the earth it passes over. The Mississippi River used to be an old, meandering river, saturating the ground for miles and miles on either side as it flowed south. There was once plenty of water in its aquifer from Canada down to the Caribbean Sea.
Unfortunately, humans like rivers straight, allowing for easier and faster transportation via boats, the production of electricity, and controlled diversion for agriculture. So humans dredged crooked rivers to make them deeper, and cut paths between meanders to make them flow straighter.
This prevented the ground from absorbing rainwater, lowering the storage level of the aquifer. With no water in the aquifer to replace water that evaporated or flowed to the sea, rivers and streams started to run dry. Since the Mississippi River was dredged, straightened, and dammed, many states through which it flows have experienced droughts.
As surface water flows from the mountains and lakes through ever-lower rivers and streams out into the ocean, gravity pulls groundwater slowly toward the lower levels of rivers and streams, replenishing what goes to the ocean, where it evaporates again. This keeps the rivers and streams flowing until all the groundwater is gone . . . or until it rains.
Until man started sucking out the groundwater for his own use, and blocking its replenishment by straightening rivers and building cities, most rivers and streams in the United States stayed full most of the year.
The oceans are forever being replenished and fed by fresh water flowing down from the mountains, and the richer, saltier groundwater flowing out from the land near the oceans. Groundwater cleans the earth, collecting loose salts (and man-made chemicals) as it passes through, carrying them along to its eventual destination in the ocean. Those salts then help feed coastal ocean life, while the chemicals help kill it.
Breakdown of the Water Cycle
Straightening major river systems is not the only way humans have tampered with the natural water cycle. Many other ways have already been mentioned and there are still others. Here are some of them:
Straightening rivers, so water runs straight to the sea, instead of being absorbed by the aquifer.
Blocking the earth's surface from absorption by building cities, and laying concrete and asphalt.
Cutting down forests that provide moisture to the air and cool the earth, so rain can fall. (This map shows the extent of deforestation worldwide in red.)
Using pesticides to kill the bacteria that helps create rain. Also stripping the earth of native plants upon which the bacteria can grow.
Drying and heating the air in city areas with car exhaust and airborne pollutants from manufacturers. The rising heat pushes clouds away and the chemicals disburse whatever rain starts to form.
To have a sustainable culture, to live in harmony with the environment, how can humans respect and wisely utilize the water where they live? How can we replicate nature's rain cycle in areas where it currently does not rain? How can we redirect rain from areas where it rains too much?
Learning more about the rain cycle is the first step to answering these questions. Figuring out how to apply what we know is the second. What ideas do you have, based on what you know now?
Rain Cycle Described in Sign Language
Water Cycle Lessons for School Children
- Study the Water Cycle with Terrariums: Lesson Plan for Middle School
Terrariums are easy for students to set up in the classroom and make an excellent tool for observing the water cycle. As an adult, you can try it too.
- Science Activies for Young Children: Water Cycle Unit
The water cycle is basic information that lends itself to a number of experiments that can be easily accomplished by young children.
Effects of Changes in the Rain Cycle
- Winter drought in Tenerife has become a nightmare for farmers
A personal example of what is happening as a result of climate change, and how it affects the rain cycle.
- Recent Natural Disasters - the Worst Floods
The 2010 Queensland Floods could not be classified as the worst in terms of loss of life, but the sheer size of the catastrophe and the magnitude of the damage had been unseen by Australia up to that point.
Two Takes on Disturbance of the Rain Cycle
- How to Make It Rain in the Desert
Is it possible to make it rain wherever the need is? The U.S. military has made it rain, as have the governments of China and other countries all over the world. Yes, it's possible and desirable, but what is the best way?
- Global Climate Change and Polar Shift
This article links the ongoing Global Climate Change to the Polar Shift and Nibiru or Planet X. It ask the reader to begin to look for answers on their own and use critical thinking when determining the cause for these global disasters.
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