SOME BASICS OF ARABIC LANGUAGE WHICH HELP IN TRANSLATING IT INTO ENGLISH LANGUAGE

SOME BASICS OF ARABIC LANGUAGE WHICH HELP IN TRANSLATING IT INTO ENGLISH LANGUAGE

by

[Justice ® Dr. Munir Ahmad Mughal]

A verb is that part of speech which indicates the tenses in which a work is done (sighah al-fi`l al-dallatu `ala zamani hi /صیغۃ الفعل الدالۃ علیٰ زمانہٖ). A period is either past or present or future. Hence there are three tenses called, the Past tense , the Present tense and the Future tense. For example: فعل (He did), یفعل (He does) and یفعل(He will do).

In Arabic also we have three tenses . But we have only two words for them. One word is fi`l madi /فعل ماضی(called Past or Perfect tense), and the second word is called fi`l mudari`/ فعل مضارع(called the Imperfect tense to give the meaning of Present Tense and the Future Tense). Ths fi`l mudari` is translated into English as Verb Aorist . Thus when we say: fa`ala/فَعَلَ it means He did. But when we say: yaf`alu/ یَفۡعَلُit means : He does or He will do.

The source from which these verbs are derived is called Source Noun( Ism Masdar=اسم مصدر). There is a set pattern called wazan= وزن pl. `awzan=اوزان . This is the touchstone to remain valid in writing and speaking Arabic words.

Parts of speech whether noun (اسم) , verb (فعل) or particle (حرف ) are originally made of alphbetic letters. These alphabetical letters (حُرُوۡف تَھَجِّی) are either radical (’asliyy= اصلی) or additional (za`id= زائد) or sound (sahih= صحیح), or unsound (`illat= عِلّت). The Arabic words are uniliteral or single-lettered (‘uhadi= اُحادی), biliteral or two-lettered (thuna’i= ثُنائی ), triliteral or three-lettered (thulathi = ثُلاثی), quadliteral or four=lettered (ruba`i= رُباعی), pentaliteral or five-lettered (khumasi= خُماسی), hexaliteral or six-lettered (sudasi= سُداسی), hepta-literal or seven lettered (suba`i= سُباعی). The great majority of the Arabic verbs are triliteral or three-lettered (thulathi = ثُلاثی) i.e. having three radical letters. The derived forms (called Abwab/ ابواب) of the triliteral verbs are fifteen.

The three huruf sahihah/ حروف صحیحہ’asliyyah/ حروف اصلیہare shown in capital form and given red colour. The vowel point on each of them is shown in short form and given black colour. Past tense is of 3rd person singular masculine. The present and the future tense is the Imperfect. The Imperfect tense is also shown in 3rd person singular masculine. Verbal noun is ended with tanwin maftuh. In meaning pattern instead of giving noun meaning the word “to” is added before the verb as instead of saying : “doing” it is said “to do”.

Forms

1

Perfect /Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

fa`ala فَعَلَ /yaf`aluیَفۡعَلُ/Fi`lunفِعۡلٌ (to do)

2

Perfect/ImperfectVerbal Nouns/Meaning Patterns

fa``ala فَعَّلَ/yufa``iluیُفَعِّلُ /Taf`ilunتَفۡعِیۡلٌ Taf`ilatunتَفۡعِیۡلۃٌؕTaf`alun تَفۡعالٌ

Strengthening or intensifying of meaning . Applying act to a more general object.
Causative. Transitive of intransitive root.

3

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern

fa`ala فَاعَلَ/yufa`ilu یُفَاعِلُ/Fi`alunفِعَالٌ /Mufa`alatunمُفَاعَلَۃٌ

Relation of the action to another person. Attempting the act.

4

Perfect/Imperfect//Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

af`ala اَفۡعَلَ/yuf`iluیُفۡعَلُ/if`alunاِفۡعَالٌ

Transitive of intransitive verbs. Causative of transitive verbs. Also for “stative verbs” derived from nouns.

5

Perfect/Imperfect//Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

tafa``ala تَفَعَّلَ/yatafa``aluیَتَفَعَّلُ/tafa``ulun تَفَعُّلٌReflecsive of II or sometimes of I. Verbs derived from noun of quality or status , To consider or represent oneself as having a quality expressed in the root meaning.

6

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

tafa`ala. تَفَاعَلَ/yatafa`aluیَتَفَاعَلُ/tafa`ulunتَفَاعَلٌ

Reflecsive of III, often implying the mutual application of the action.

7

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

infa`ala اِنۡفَعَلَ/yanfa`iluیَنۡفَعِلُ/infi`alun اِنۡفِعَالٌ/Passive sense perhaps originally reflecsive.

8

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

ifta`alaاِفۡتَعَلَ/yafta`ilu یَفۡتَعِلُ/ifti`alun اِفۡتِعَالٌ /Rflexive of I, but used for varied twists of meanings from the root idea

9

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

if`alla اِفۡعَلَّ/yaf`alluیَفۡعَلُّ/if`ilalun اِفۡعِیۡلَالٌ/The possession or acquisition of colour or defect.

10

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

istaf`ala اِسۡتَفۡعَلَ/yastaf`ilu یَسۡتَفۡعِلُ/istif`alun اِسۡتِفۡعَالٌ /Asking for the act or quality of the root. Esteeming or thinking someone or thing to have the quality of the root. originally perhaps a reflecsive of IV.

11

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

if`alla اِفۡعَلَّ/yaf`allu یَفۡعَلُّ/if`ilalun اِفۡعِیۡلَالٌ/Similar to IX perhaps intensive.

12

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

if`au`alaاِفۡعَوۡعَلَ/yaf`au`alu

یَفۡعَوۡعَلُ/If`i`alun اِفۡعِیۡعَالٌ/Very rare with special meaning.

13

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

if`awwalaاِفۡعَوَّلَ/yaf`awwiluیَفۡعَوَّلُ/If `iwwalunاِفۡعَوَّالٌ /Very rare with special meaning.

14

Perfect/Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

if`anlalaاِفۡعَنۡلَلَ /yaf`anliluیَفۡعَنۡلِلُ/if`inlalun اِفۡعَنۡلَلٌ/Very rare with special meaning.

15

Perfect//Imperfect/Verbal Noun/Meaning Pattern.

if`anla اِفۡعِنۡلَاء/yaf`anla یَفۡعَنۡلَاء /if`inla’un اِفۡعِنۡلَاءٌ /Very rare with special meaning.

a`uzuis fi`l mudari` mutakallim wahid /فعل مضارع متکلم واحد(Aorist 1st person singular). Its madi wahid muzakar gha’ib/ماضی واحد مذکر غائب (past tense 3rd person singular masculine) is `aza/عَاذَ(He sought refuge) and its mudari` wahid gha’ib muzakkar (Aorist i.e. present and future tense singular third person masculine ) is ya`uzu/یَعُوۡذُ (He seeks refuge or He will seek refuge). The Ism Masdar/اسم مصدر (derived noun) of it is `auzan/ عوذًا.

There are six abwab (ابواب) of fi`l thrulathi mujarrad (فعل ثلاثی مجرد), namely,

1. daraba/yadribu, ضَرَبَ۔ یَضۡرِبُ

2. nasara /yansuru. نَصَرَ۔ یَنۡصُرُ

3. fataha/ yaftahu, فَتَحَ۔ یَفۡتَحُ

4.sami`a /yasma`u,سَمِعَ۔ یَسمَعُ

5. karuma/yakrumu, کَرُمَ۔ یَکۡرُمُ

6. hasiba/yahsibu. حَسِبَ۔ یَحۡسِبُ

In thulathi mujarrad the first radical letter is called fa kalimah, ف

the second radical letter is called `ayn kalimah, ع ; and

the thrid radical letter is called lam kalimah ل.

The grammatical rule is that fi`l madi wahid muzakkar gha’ib is made from Ism masdar by putting fathah on all the three radical letters of a triliteral word, in abwab daraba/yadribu(ضرب۔یضرب), nasara/yansuru (نصر۔ ینصر), and fataha /yaftahu (فتح ۔ یفتح).

The rules for making mudari` of thulathi mujarrad of the bab daraba /yadribu are:

(i) Put harf mudari` maftuhah (’a/ta/ya/na) before the first radical letter/ harf ’asli,

(ii) Give a jazm to the fa kalimah (the first radical letter/ harf ’asli) ,

(iii) Give kasrah to the `ayn kalimah (the second radical letter/ harf ’asli), and

(iv) Give dammah to the lam kalimah (the third radical letter/harf ’asli).

The mudari` in yadribu will have a kasrah on the `ayn kalimah (second radical letter /harf ’asli),

The mudari` in yansuru will have a dammah [ُ] on the `ayn kalimah (second radical letter /harf ’asli), and

The mudari` in yaftahu will have a fathah [َ] on the `ayn kalimah (second radical letter /harf ’asli ).

عاذ۔ یعوذ`aza/ya`uzu was originally عَوَذَ۔ یَعۡوِذُ`awaza/ya`wizu being from the Bab daraba /yadribu.

Here the three radical letters are `+ w+ z [ع وذ]which by putting vowel mark “fatha” on each radical letter became `awaza/عَوَذَ. But this second radical letter ( `ayn kalimah of the verb past tense 3rd person masculine) is an unsound letter (Harf `illat/حرف علت). Where in the formation of a three lettered verb past tense its `ayn kalimah (the second radical letter) is an unsound letter (Harf `illat/حرف عِلّت) such verb is called “ajwaf wawi ” . IT IS THE RULE OF ARABIC GRAMMAR THAT ]WA’U/و [ DOES NOT ACCEPT FATHAH OR KASRAH . Where the radical letter, preceding this unsound letter (Harf `illat/حرف عِلّت) wa’u/وَ is maftuhah then such [wa maftuhah/ وَ ]is converted into an [alif/ا ]or substitued by an ]alif/ ا]. Thus `awaza/عَوَذ became `aza/عَاذَ. This process is called ta`lil.

The mudari` was ya`wizu. The letter wa’u does not accept a kasra or fathah on it. Hence its kasra was removed and it was made silent by putting a jazm or sukun on it and the preceding silent radical `ayn was given a dammah.

Thus it became ya`uzu.

Ya`uzu (He seeks refuge)

Ya`uzani (They two males seek refuge)

ya`uzuna (They all males seek refuge)

ta`uzu (You seek refuge)

Ta`uzani (Tou two seek refuge)

ta`uzuna (You all seek refuge)

a`uzu (I seek refuge)

na`uzu (We seek refuge).


اعوذ باللہ من الشیطن الرجیم

’A`uzubillahi minash-shaytanir-rajim.

Before starting recitation or reading of the Holy Qur’an one must recite the above words which are called: Ta`awwuz. By reading these words one seeks from Allah Almighty that he be protected against all whispers, plots and cunnings,tricks and traps of the Satan. It has its effect and one remains saved from all such adverse effects.

A question may come in the mind that how can the mere reading or saying a few words have any effect. It has. We daily experience that any word we utter it has its effect. love and hatred take place by words spoken. If you express good wishes the other person feels thanksgiving for you. If you abuse a person the reaction is there. If you speak the truth you feel satisfaction in your ownself and when other finds you speaking the truth a sense of respect is inculcated in his heart for you. If you tell a lie and that becomes known the adverse result is there. The result is sometimes spontaneous and some times delayed but every action good or bad has its reaction sooner or later. Likewise when you invoke any thing from Allah Almighty the respinse is there. the hearing is there. The reply is there. Thre is no dearth in the treasures of Allah to give you what you want from Him.

When you seek Allah Almighty’s protection against the Satan, the result is there, whether you realize it or not. Your words are immediately heard by your Creator who is closer to you than your jugular vien. You are under His constant vigilance and He is Hearer, All-knowing. He is All Powerful and all Dominant. How He helps and protects you is His work. Your function was to remember Him and invoke His protection against so strong an enemy who is open and much powerful than you. Allah Almighty says:

فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

(16:98)

When thou dost read the Qur'an, seek Allah's protection from Satan the rejected one.‎ (16:98)

The next two verses of the Holy Qur’an say:

إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

(16:99)

No authority has he over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord.‎ (16:99)

إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ

(16:100)

His authority is over those only, who take him as patron and who join partners with Allah.‎ (16:100)

Man has been created as responsible and he is to account for all his words and actions before Allah Almighty on the Day of Judgment. Man has been blessed with heart and mind. Hence he must engage his heart in the Remembrance of Allah Almighty and his mind and thinking engaged in in pondering upon the Divine words. The excellent model is the life of the Messenger of Allah (صَلَّی اللہُ عَلیۡہِ وَآلِہٖ وَسَلَّم). Claim of love for the Creator by the creation demands proof. The Holy Qur’an has given the methodology to prove it. the Holy Qur’an says:
قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (3:31)Say: "If ye do love Allah, Follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."‎ (3:31)Arabic Language

Arabic is the language of the Holy Qur’an. It is written from right to left. It belongs to the Semitic group of languages. The alphabet consist of 28 letters , namely, ’alif , ba, ta, tha, jim, ha, kha, dal, zal, ra, za, sin, shin, sad, dad, ta, za , `ayn , ghayn. fa qaf, kaf, lam ,mim, nun, ha, waw, and ya.

In Arabic there are three short vowels,namely, u (dammah), a (fathah)and i (kasrah) . The short vowels are indicated by signs above or below the consonants carrying them. There are three long vowels, namely, u, a and i. The letters waw, alif and ya serve as long vowels. In other words, to lengthen the short vowels, they are followed by the letters waw, alif and ya .

In Arabic terminology, a diacritical point point is called harakatun/حرکۃ , namely, dammah, fathah and kasrah. The shape of dammah is [ُ] , the shape of fathah is [َ] and the shape of kasrah is [ِ]. The pointed round circle is the alphabet and the harkat is over or below it. The dammah and fathah are shown above while kasrah is shown below an alphabet.

A letter with a Harkah is called mutaharrik.

A letter which has above it a jazm or sukun is called sakin or majzum.

A letter due to the action of which an other letter becomes sakin or jazmated is called Jazim.

A letter having a fathah is called maftuh.

A letter having a kasrah is called maksur.

A letter having a dammah is called madmum.

A letter having a sukun is called sakin.

Two dammahs, two fathas and two kasrahs are called tanwin.

The soundof the nun created when reading the tanwin is called nun tanwin.

There are two dipthongs in Arabic namely, ai(ay) and au(aw).

At the end of nouns and adjectives, when they are ism nakirah (indefinite nouns), the vowel signs (dammah, fathah, kasrah) are written double. This means that they are to be pronounced with a final “n”, un, an, in. This is called tanwin or nunation. It is to be noted that with the fathah, the letter alif is added. But if the word ends in ta’ marbutah the alif is not added. For example: Rasulan, Jannatan.

In Arabic a doubled letter (harf mushaddad) is not written twice, unles separated by an intermediate vowel. Instead the sign called shadd or tashdid (۔ّ )is written over the solar letter (Harf Shamsi) . For example in English we write: Rabbi but in Arabic we write the same words as: (Iرَبِّ) and pronounced as (رَبۡ بِ)

To make a Noun (Ism/اسم) definite is called Ta`rif.

To make a Noun (Ism/اسم) indefinite is called Tankir.

The lam attached to a Noun (Ism/اسم) is called Lam Ta`rif.

The Noun (Ism/اسم) having alif lam is called mu`arraf billam.

A singular is called wahid.

A dual is called tathiyah.

A plural is called Jam`.

A collective plural is called Noun (Ism/اسم) Jam`. The example is qaumun.

A masculine is called muzakkar or tazkir.

A faminine is called mu`annath or Ta’nith.

Huruf Tahajji are called the letters of alphabets.

Alif, wa’u and ya are called Huruful-`illati.

All letters besides the Huruful-`illati are called al-huruf al-sahihatu.

One Hamzah is that of the huruf tahajji. Another Hamzah is an alif that is mutaharrik or an alif having jazm on it. The example is ra’sun (را ٔ س).

The initial hamzah of a word which is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word is called hamzatul-wasli. The example is waraqul-kitabi/وَرَقُ الۡکِتَابِ۔.

In other words, Initial hamzah ( Z ) is of two kinds.

(i) Hamzatul-Qat`(أ) which is always written on or under alif. In the middle of a word it may be written over waw (و) , alif (ا)or ya (ئ)(without the two dots) and at the end of a word it may be written on the line,i.e. not on a letter but roughly level with the lower part of the other letters of the word concerned.

Hamzatul-wasl [ھَمۡزَۃُ الۡوَصۡل] means the Hamzah of connection. It is written thus: (OZ ) . This hamzah is only actually pronounced at the beginning of a sentence. At other times, it is merged into the final vowel of the previous word, or if the final letter of the previous word has no vowel, it is given a vowel.

The hamzatul-wasl [ھَمۡزَۃُ الۡوَصۡل] occurs in the definite article ( ƒMšOZ al- ) , in certain nouns such as ibnun [ اِبۡنٌ ]and also in certain verb forms as in kasara.

(ii) Maddah مَدَّہ : If a hamzah with fathah is followed by the long vowel, alif, the hamzah and fathah are dropped in writing, and the long vowel alif is written over the alif horizontally thus:[ ءَا=آ ] . This sign is called maddah مَدَّہ . This occurs chiefly at the beginning of a word as ’amana. آمَنَ

It does however occur sometimes in the middle of a word as Qur’anun قُرۡآنٌ.

A word having a meaning is called Kalimah. It is of three kinds, namely, Noun (Ism/اسم) , Verb (fi`l/فعل)/) and Participle (Harf /حرف).

A noun (Ism/اسم) is independent of other words in indicating its meanin. It also does not have any tense. For example Ilahun, `abdun, rasulun, malakun, kitabun, ayatun, qaumun, Allah, `Adam, Muhammad , Jibril, Qur’an, Ayatul-kursiyy, Muslim. Huwa, Hiya, Huma, Hum, Hunna, anta, anti, antuma, antum, antunna, ana, nahnu.

A Verb (fi`l/فعل) is a word that indicates some action together with one of the three tenses, past, present or future. The examples are: qala, yaqulu, zahaba, yazhabu, daraba, yadribu..

A Harf is a word whose meaning cannot be understood without an Noun (Ism/اسم) or action (fi`l/فعل). Forexample: min/مِنۡ, fi/ فِی, ila/اِلیٰ.

Nouns are of two types, namely definite (Ma`rifah/ معرفہ ) and indefinite/common (Nakirah/ نکرہ).

An indefinite Noun (Ism/اسم) is a word which refers to a general thing . The example is (rajulun/رَجُلٌ) a man or any man. It does not refer to any specific person. It can refer to any person.

A definite Noun (Ism/اسم) is that word which refers to a specific thing. For example: Allah is the proper name of God Almighty and it is not used for any other being. Muhammad is the Prpoper personal name of Hadrat Muhammad (صَلَّی اللہُ عَلیۡہِ وَآلِہٖ وَسَلَّم) the last prophet and Messenger of Allah (صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم) sent by Allah Almighty towards the whole mankind to convey His Message. Al-Qur’an is the Holy Qur’an which is the last Book sent by Allah Almighty towards the whole mankind as a guidance towards the Right Path that leads to all success in both the worlds. Makkah al-Mukarrqmah is the name of a specifc city in the world situated in the Sa`udi Arabia wherein is the al-Masjidul-Haram and the Baytullah Sharif. Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah is also a specif city where there is the Raudah Athar of the last Messenger of Allah (صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم).

A Proper Noun ( اسم معرفہ=ism am`rifah) is of seven kinds,namely,.

(i) Personal Name [Ism `Alam= اسم علم ];

(ii) A definite noun made by prefixing al- [Ism ma`rifah mu`arraf billam= اسۡم مَعۡرفَۃ مُعَرَّف بِالّام ];

(iii) Pronoun [Ism Damir= اسم ضمیر]

(iv) Relative pronoun [Ism Mausul= اسم مَوصُول]

(v) Indicative Noun[Ism Isharah= اسم اشارۃ]

(vi) Vocative Noun [Ism Munada= اسم منادیٰ] and

(vii) A noun that is mudaf of any of the above six proper nouns.[Ism Mudaf ’ila ’ahadi ismin min ha’ula’il-asma’il-ma`rifati= اسم مضاف الیٰ احد اسم من ھولاءالاسماءالمعرفۃ ].

An Indefinite or Common noun ( اِسۡم نکرہ=ism nakirah) is of two kinds, namely,

(i) Ism Zat اسم ذات (Noun of Being)and

(ii) Ism Sifat اسم صفت(Adjective).

A common Noun which is made a proper noun (Ism Ma`rifah) by prefixing al- is called ism ma`rifah mu`arraf billam. Its effect is that it removes the tanwin=تنوین ( i.e. the sound of nun sakin which is shown by putting two dammahs/kasrahs /fathahs on the last letter of a word) . For example:

’Ilahun= اِلٰہٌ (a god/any god))is a common noun when we make it a proper noun by prefixing lam ta`ri [ al-] the tanwin on the last letter will go of and only one dammah, kasrah or fathah will remain as the case may be and it will be spoken as al-’ilahu= اَلۡاِلٰہُ (the god).

Hamdun (a praise/any praise) is a common noun but when we prefix al- it will become a proper noun and will be spoken as al-hamdu= اَلۡحَمۡدُ (the praise). Here the lam of al- is written as well as spoken under the rule that when ever an al- comes before a harf qamari such lam is written as well as spoken.

Barrun = بَرٌّ (a virtuous)when an al- is prefixed we will remove the tanwin and read it as al-barru=اَلۡبَرُّ (the virtuous)۔

Shafi`un=شَفِیۡعٌ ( an intercessor) when an al- is prefixed we will remove the tanwin and write it al-shafi`u= اَلشَّفِیۡعُ and as sh(ش) is one of Solar Letters [حروف شمسی] and under the rule whenever an al- comes before such letter the lam of alif lam is written but not spoken and the Solar Letter [حرف شمسی] is doubled by putting a tashdid on it and thus we will read al-shafi`u as ash-shafi`u=اَلشَّفِیۡعُ (the Intercessor).

Tawwabun=تَوَّابٌ (an Oft- returning) when an al- is prefixed we will remove the tanwin and write it al-tawwabu but read it as at-tawwabu= التَّوَّابُ (the Oft returning). The ta of tawwab is doubled by putting a tashdid on it. As ta is a Solar Letter [حرف شمسی] hence the lam of alif lam prefixed to it is written but not spoken.

In Arabic tanwin تَنۡوِین(two dammas/two fathas /two kasrahs as the case may be put on the last letter of a word indicate that the said word is a common noun ( اِسۡم نکرہ=ism nakirah) . The second dammah, kasrah or fathah put on the last letter of a word gives the sound of nun sakin . In English we call it nunation. In Arabik it s called Tanwin=تنوین. This serves the purpose of INDEFINITE ARTICLE and gives the meanings : a, an, any, a little, a piece of, someone, something, It comes only on a Noun and such noun is an Indefinite Noun (ism nakirah). It never comes on a verb (fi`l=فعل) or a preposition (harf=حرف). For example: hamdun=حَمۡدٌ is a common noun ( اِسۡم نکرہ=ism nakirah) . If it is to be made a Proper noun( اسم معرفہ=ism am`rifah) then alif lam called lam ta`rif( i.e. al- )is prefixed and instead of tanwin only one damma/one fathah/ one kasrah is put on the last letter of such word. Thus hamdun= حَمۡدٌ (a praise) will become al-hamdu = اَلۡحَمۡدُ(the praise). Rabbun will become al-rabbu to be read as arrabbu.

When a word having a Tanwin (double diacritical points above it) precedes the defiite article, the nun of the Tanwin is rendered a kasrah and joined to the lam. The example is زیدٌ preceding the word اَلۡعَالِمُ will be read as Zaydunil-`alimu زَیۡدُنِ الۡعَالِمُ . The alif was hamzah “wasl” it has been written but is not spoken. Nun sakin sound is given a kasrah and the kasrah sound is spoken joining direct with the lam of al-.

The alif of Ibnun, Ibnatun and Ismun is also hamzatul-“wasl”. It is not pronounced when joined the preceding word.

Examples: huwa ibnun is read as Huwabnun.

Haza ismun is read as hazasmun.

Zaydun ibnun is read as Zaydunibnun.

Hamidun Ismun is read as Hamidunismun.

Al-Ibnu is read as alibnu.

Al-Ismu is read as alismu.

The defiite article of Arabic is [al-/ال]. It is also called Lam Ta`rif. When [al-/ال] is prefixed to any indefinite word, it becomes definite. Now the word is termed as Mu`arraf billam. The rule is that whenever [al-/ال ] is prefixed to a word beginning with a Lunar Letter [حرف قمری] the lam of al- is written as well as spoken but whenever al- prefixed to a word beginning with a Solar Letter [حرف شمسی] the lam of al- is written but not spoken and the Solar Letter [حرف شمسی] is doubled by putting a tashdid ( Nشّ) on it. The harf shamsi so doubled is spoken firstly with a sukun or jazm and then according as to the i`rab=اِعراب (vowel mark) it bears on it’s last letter. Here Ra of rabbun= رَبٌّ bears the vowel mark fathah. When an al- is prefixed the said R will speak doubly as ar and ra. The b is already mushaddad hence it will be read as ar/rab/bu=اَلرَّبُّ (the Lord.)

li+allahi=lillahi. The alif lam of the word allah is not written in Arabic when harf jar li (lam having kasrah) precedes and joins with it.

Rabbun= a lord. When al- is prefixed it becomes ar-rabbu= the lord, . when li harf jar comes before rabbun it will read lirabbin and when li harf jar comes before al-rabbu (to be read as arrrabbu) it will read lirrabbi.

One of the seven kinds of proper nouns in Arabic language is mudaf [مضاف]called Ism mudaf (Governing Noun/Correlative noun ). It is followed by ism mudaf ’ilayhi ( Governed noun of a genitive construction). A mudaf [مضاف]has one dammah on its last letter (if it is has not itself become mudaf ’ilayh [مضاف الیہ]of some other mudaf or it has not become majrur [مجرور]on account of some harf jar [حرف جار]coming before it) while a mudaf ’ilayh [مضاف الیہ] has kasrah on its last letter, one kasrah when it is prefixed by al- and two kasrah otherwise.

rabbul`alamina being the sifat [صِفَت] of allahu has been changed into rabbil`alamina as the mausuf [مَوصُوف]allahu has become majrur due to harf jar ”li”coming before it. In Arabic the sifat always follows its mausuf in all respects.

al- is lam ta`rif (the definite article) .

`alamun =عالم (a world).

al-`alamu =العالم (the world).

`alamuna = عالمون (worlds),

al-`alamuna = العالمون (the worlds).

`alamin =عالم (a world),

al-`alami =العالم (the world),

`alamina =عالمین (worlds),

al-`alamina =العالمین (the worlds).

Rules of Pause:

When speaking, pause on the last letter, [Tahtawi] is do not read any harakah on the final letter of the word.

Examples:

Allahu will be read as Allah.

Muhammadun as Muhammad .

Mala’ikatun as Mala’ikah.

`Abdun as `And.

Salatun as Salat.

Assalatu as Assalah.

Assalamu as Assalam.

`Alayka as `Alayk.

Azzakatu as Azzakah. [Round ta is read as silent round ha.]


Thus we will read: (لَا اِلٰہَ اِلَّا اللہُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوۡلُ اللہِ) as [La ’ilaha ’illallahu MuhammadurRasulullah ]. And we will read صَلَّی اللہُ عَلَیۡہِ وَ آلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ as [sallallahu `alayhi wa alihi wasallam].

A combination of two words is called compound(murakkab/مُرَکَّب ).

The relationship between themis called compounding(tarkib/ترکیب).

Compounds are of tow types, namely, incomplete (naqis/ناقص) or completet (tamm/تام).

An incomplete compound is a combination of words from which no information, order or desire is understood. It is an incomplete statement e,g, rajulun hasanun (a good man) , kitabu rajulin (a man’s book).

A complete compound is a combination of words from which someinformation, command or wish is understood. For example when we say: Arrajulu hasanun (The man is good). This statement provides us with the information that the man is good.

Khuzil-kitaba (Take the book). The order/comandment/request/imperartive of taking the book is understood from this sentence.

Rabbirzuqni O my Sustainer, grant me sustenance. A request is understood in this statement.

A complete sentence is also called Jumlatun or kalamun.

Incomplete compounds are of several kinds. e.g. Murakkab tausifi, Murakkab Idafi, Murakkab `adadi, Murakkab jari etc. These are called phrases.

The Adjective phrase or مرکب توصیفی is a compound in which the second word describes the quality or attribute of the first word. For example:

rajulun salihun (a pious man);

The word Salih desribes the word rajulun with the quality of piety.

The first part of a murakkab tausifi is Ismuz-zati while the second part is ismus-sifati. In the above example the word rajulun is Ismuz-zat while the word salihun is Ismus-sifat. the first part is called Noun (Ism/اسم) Mausuf while the second part is called Noun Attribute (Sifat/صفت). Both parts are noun.

If the mausuf is indefinite the attribute (sifat) is also indefinite.

If the mausuf is definite the Attributes (Sifat/صفات) is also definite.

The same declension (I`rab) shall pply to the mausuf and the Attributes (Sifat/صفات).

A murakkab tausifi and all other incomplete compounds form part of a sentence.

Here Rabbul-`alamin is murakkab Idafi. Rabbu is mudaf and `alamina is mudaf ’ilayh.

The compound in which both parts are Noun (Ism/اسم) and the first Noun (Ism/اسم) is related to the second Noun (Ism/اسم) is called the Genetive of Possesson (Murakkab Idafi/مرکب اضافی). For example: Kitabu Zaydin (the book of Zayd). Khatimu fiddatin (the ring of silver). Ma’un-nahri (the water of river).

Such a relationship between the two nouns is known as (al-Idafatu/الاضافۃ).

The first part of the Genetive of Possesson (Murakkab Idafi/مرکب اضافی) is called mudaf while the second part is called mudaf ’ilayh.

Neither does the definite article [al-/ال ] precede the mudaf nor is the tanwin appended to it.

The mudaf ilayh is always majrur i.e. in the genitive case.

The mudaf always precedes the mudaf ilayh.

The the Genetive of Possesson (Murakkab Idafi/مرکب اضافی) like the Adjectival Phraase (Murakkab Tausifi/مرکب توصیفی) is not a complete sentence but is part of a sentence e.g. ماء النھر عذب The water of the river is sweet. In this sentence ماء النھر is the subject (مبتداء) while عذب is the predicate (خبر).

Sometimes there are several مضاف الیہ in one construction. For example: باب بیت الامیر the door of the house of the leade, باب بیت ابن الوزیر the door of the house of the son of the minister.

The middle mudaf ilayh becomes the mudaf of th succeeding words. There for [al-/ال] cannot precede it nor can the tanwin be appended to it.

When an indefinite Noun (Ism/اسم) is related to a definite Noun (Ism/اسم), it also becomes definite as Ghulamu Zaydin, the slave of Zayd.

Ghulamur-Rajuli the salve of the man. The word Ghulam has become definite in these sentences.

In Arabic language because the mudaf precedes the mudaf ilayh and no word can interpose between them, the adjective of the mudaf has to succeed the mudaf ilayh.

Thus ghulamu-mar’atis-salihu/غلام مرأۃ الصالح The pious slave of the lady. Here the word الصالح is the adjective of the word غلامُ . Hence it is marfu` (in the nominative case), singular masculine and definite.


Comments 7 comments

Laura Merlini 5 years ago

Hello, I'm Laura from Italy. I'm learning arabica and here I found things that I enever learned from Arabic grammars in Italian. Thank you very much


jennifer 4 years ago

so thankful for sharing with us this wonderful topic although there some mispelled words in it but still understandable.keep up and strive more for us to learned.allah will reward every effort you tried to give us as a learner.thanks.


balbool garager makwa 4 years ago

kharaa


almona abdulmin 19 months ago

Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmat Allahi TAALA wa Barakatuhu, ALHAMDULILLA, I am Almona of Philippines, I am on my self study, since I have no enough time to go to madaris school, every time I am free from work I use to open sites which contains about reading and writing Arabic letters. thank for giving us free lessons by this I could share my knowledge to my kids and with others who had no enough money to go to madaris school specially this summer. I wish to have more Arabic lesson if possible forwarded to my account at aabdulmin.yahoo.com both mail and fb


riyaz 9 months ago

I will be glad to share some good stuffs on Arabic grammar.


riyaz 9 months ago

I will be glad to share some good stuff on Arabic grammar. pls contact. email: cityoflights50@yahoo.com


Shah Alam 2 months ago

I mean whats the meaning of Lam. Mim . Ha's?

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