Saola - A Critically Endangered Species

Saola - © WWF-Canon / David HULSE
Saola - © WWF-Canon / David HULSE | Source

The Saola, one of the most critically endangered species in the world and on the IUCN red list, is a very rare and distinct species that was discovered only around a couple of decades before in May 1992, often called the “Asian Unicorn.” We will look into the details of how the Saola was discovered, its habitat and food, the characteristics and behaviour, the reproduction process, the main threats and the reason why the Saola are endangered, the conservation efforts taken to protect them, some interesting facts and what can be done to help protect them.

Discovery of the Saola:

During a joint survey that was carried out in North-Central Vietnam by the WWF and the Ministry of Forestry of Vietnam, in 1992, they found remains of the Saolas in the Vu Quang Nature reserve. Three skulls were found kept in hunters’ homes, that had long straight horns and looked very unusual.

The team proposed to have a three months survey to observe this animal, but had no luck. Scientists and biologists have still not spotted a Saola in the wild. Information gathered about these species is mostly from studies conducted on dead Saolas or remains of Saolas or through tales heard from villagers. Very few Saolas that were alive and in captivity (around 13 saolas) have been studied or researched, to gather some information about them.

A saola that was captured by the villagers in Laos in August 2010, died even before the conservationists could release it safely into the wild. Studies were conducted on its carcass to learn more about the animal.

Saola Distribution

Saola distribution
Saola distribution | Source

Scientific Classification (Taxonomy):

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetartiodactyla

Suborder: Ruminantia

Family: Bovidae

Subfamily: Bovinae

Tribe: Pseudorygini

Genus: Pseudoryx

Species: nghetinhensis


Saola” means “Spindle horned” in the Tai (Language in Vietnam) and Lao language

Abbreviations and Explanation of terms used:

WWFWorld Wildlife Fund

IUCNInternational Union for Conservation of Nature

WCSWildlife Conservation Society

NBCANational Biodiversity Conservation Area

SWGSaola Working Group

EDGE - Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered

FSC - Forest Stewardship Council

CITES - Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species

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Maxillary - of or relating to the upper jaw

Unicorn - an imaginary creature represented as a white horse with a long horn growing from its forehead

TRAFFIC - Wildlife trade monitoring network

Characteristics and behaviour of Saola:

  • The saola has two long smooth black horns that are parallel and slightly curved backwards. The horns are long and sharp (round in cross-section), and grow up to a length of 35 to 50 cm. Both the males and females have horns.

Saola

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensisFemale saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William RobichaudFemale saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William RobichaudFemale saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William RobichaudSaola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis
Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis
Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis | Source
Female saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William Robichaud
Female saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William Robichaud | Source
Female saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William Robichaud
Female saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William Robichaud | Source
Female saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William Robichaud
Female saola, Lak Xao, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 1996. © William Robichaud | Source
Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis
Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis | Source
  • Their furry coat of is dark brown with black stripe running along the back that ends at the tail. The hair is fine and glossy. Their legs are dark with two white patches above the hooves.
  • Their tail has three different colours (Brown on top, cream in the middle and black at the end) and ends in a fluffy tassel.
  • They have white patches / markings on their face in the cheek area, in the chin and lips and also above the eyes.
  • The thickness of the skin is between 1 to 2 mm over most areas of its body and is 5 mm thick at the back side of the neck and upper shoulders. This is a unique adaptation to protect themselves from the predators and while fighting.

  • They have large maxillary glands in their cheeks. They open a fleshy flap on their nose to expose the scent glands and rub the under surface against objects, leaving a musky and pungent paste. This could be used to attract mates or to mark their territories.
  • The saola grows up to a height of 85 cm (shoulder height) and weighs around 80 to 100 kg. Their head and body length can be around 150 cm and tail length around 25 cm
  • They are very shy animals and stay away from human habitat. They are usually solitary and have sometimes been seen in groups of two (male and female or mother and offspring) or three and very rarely more than three.
  • They are active in the mornings and afternoons and the only sound they produce is a soft, short bleat.
  • Tiger, leopards, crocodiles and dholes (Fierce wild dog of the forests of central and southeast Asia that hunts in packs) could be their predators.

Greater Annamites Ecoregion
Greater Annamites Ecoregion | Source

Habitat and food of the Saola:

  • The only habitat of the Saolas is the Annamite range of mountains of Vietnam and Laos that have moist forests and the Eastern Indochina dry and monsoon forests.
  • There are estimates of patchy populations from Ca River in the north of Vietnam to Quang Nam province in the south of Vietnam. They have been spotted in Southern parts of Nakai-Nam Theun which is NBCA in Lao. They are also reported to have been spotted in Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Hue and Quang Nam in Vietnam and Sekong in Lao.

Saola Habitat

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Wild saola camera-trapped in Bolikhamxay Province, central Laos in 1999. © William Robichaud.Saola habitat, Au Rong, Greater Annamites, central Vietnam. © Jeremy Holden/WWFSaola habitat, Au Rong, Greater Annamites, central Vietnam. © Jeremy Holden/WWFAnnamite range of habitat
Wild saola camera-trapped in Bolikhamxay Province, central Laos in 1999. © William Robichaud.
Wild saola camera-trapped in Bolikhamxay Province, central Laos in 1999. © William Robichaud. | Source
Saola habitat, Au Rong, Greater Annamites, central Vietnam. © Jeremy Holden/WWF
Saola habitat, Au Rong, Greater Annamites, central Vietnam. © Jeremy Holden/WWF | Source
Saola habitat, Au Rong, Greater Annamites, central Vietnam. © Jeremy Holden/WWF
Saola habitat, Au Rong, Greater Annamites, central Vietnam. © Jeremy Holden/WWF | Source
Annamite range of habitat
Annamite range of habitat | Source
  • The actual number of Saolas found in the wild is not known. There is none in captivity. The population could be a few tens to a few hundreds while only 11 saolas that are alive have been recorded. IUCN estimates the total Saola population to be much less than 750. It could even be a few dozens!
  • Saolas have also been seen in river valleys at a height of 300 to 1,800 m. These valleys have either evergreen forests or evergreen and woodland forests and also indicates the fact that these species like to live around the edges of forests.
  • During rainy seasons, the saolas stay in mountain forests where there are plenty of water in rivers and streams and move to the low lying areas during winter.
  • They are herbivores and eat small plants including fig leaves, stems, bushes along the riverbanks. They are browsers and their main food is leaves.

Reproduction in Saola:

  • The Saolas give birth between the months of April and June. This shows that they have a fixed breeding season which could be between the end of August till mid-November..
  • The pregnancy period is estimated to be around eight months.They are estimated to give birth to one young one at a time.
  • Details about maturity and the period for which the young one is looked after by the mother are unknown.
  • They are estimated to live for eight to eleven years

Main threats and reasons why the Saolas are endangered:

  • Hunting is a major threat to the Saolas. They are hunted for their meat and for their horns as trophies.

Threats for the Saola

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Patrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William RobichaudPatrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William RobichaudPatrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William RobichaudVillager and saola horns, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 2002. © William RobichaudKa Tu hunter with saola skull, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam © Jeremy Holden/WWF
Patrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William Robichaud
Patrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William Robichaud | Source
Patrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William Robichaud
Patrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William Robichaud | Source
Patrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William Robichaud
Patrol team with wire snares collected in saola habitat, central Laos (Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area), 2009. © William Robichaud | Source
Villager and saola horns, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 2002. © William Robichaud
Villager and saola horns, Bolikhamxay Province, Laos, 2002. © William Robichaud | Source
Ka Tu hunter with saola skull, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam © Jeremy Holden/WWF
Ka Tu hunter with saola skull, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam © Jeremy Holden/WWF | Source
  • Illegal wildlife trade for traditional medicines, fur, meat are the reasons why wildlife is hunted.
  • They also get caught in snares that are set by the villagers for other wild animals like the sambar deer, muntjac deer, barking deer, wild boar, etc. , in order to protect their crops.
  • Another reason for the loss of these species is loss in habitat. Humans destroy the forests where Saolas live and use them for agriculture and other infrastructures. This either fragments the Saola population or reduces the size of their habitat. Fragmentation will also decrease genetic diversity and create issues like inbreeding.
  • Decrease in the size of habitat also makes the saolas more vulnerable in the sense that they are in easy access to the hunters.

Conservation efforts taken to protect and conserve the Saolas:

  • WWF is working towards protecting the Saolas by establishing protected areas and by strengthening the laws.

Conservation efforts for the Saola

Saola Working Group (SWG)
Saola Working Group (SWG) | Source
  • WWF is working with the communities to get them to help with protecting and conserving the Saolas.
  • WWF has taken on projects to improve managements in the Vu Quang Nature Reserve and has also established two new nature reserves for the Saolas in Thua-Thien Hue and Quang Nam provinces.
  • WWF also conducts surveys and research on the Saolas, of which very little information is available at the moment.
  • More than 26,651 snares have been removed between February 2011 and November 2012 from the saola habitat with the help of privately funded and trained forest guards who were hired from local communities. WWF, WCS, SWG and other organisations were involved in this project
  • IUCN formed the SWG in 2006 to help protect the saolas and their habitat. This group comprises of the biologists and conservationists from WWF, WCS, around 40 experts from the forestry departments of Laos and Vietnam, Vietnam Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources and Vinh University.

  • WWF has also set camera traps to monitor saolas and to conduct studies and research.
  • WWF produced and telecast a documentary on the plight of the Saolos in the Vietnamese television to create awareness among the community
  • Ministry of Forestry in Vietnam has cancelled its logging operations and has also issued a ban on capturing this animal for any purpose.
  • EDGE also has plans to support conserving the saolas through raising awareness, research and protecting them.

The Elusive Saola

Facts about the Saola:

  • Saola has been documented in the wild only four times in these 20 years.
  • Saola is the first large mammal that was newly discovered in the past 50 years and one of the rarest mammals in the world.
  • The other names for Saola are Vu Quang ox, Vu Quand bovid, Sao La, Vu Quang – Wildrindes, Sun Duong (meaning mountain goat), Yang (in Lao community) or Asian Unicorn.

Note: I am clarifying the word “Unicorn” here. It is referred to as “Asian Unicorn”, not because it looks like a unicorn, but because it is rare and cannot be sighted just like how we cannot sight a Unicorn.

  • All saolas in captivity have died, which leads to an assumption that this species cannot survive in captivity.
  • The scent glands of the Saola are the largest of any living mammals
  • The white markings on the Saola’s face represents a symbol for biodiversity.
  • They are very different from any known species and hence a different genus was constructed for it.
  • They are afraid of dogs and when they encounter one, their glands swell and they snort.
  • It is believed that these species may have lived at elevations below 400 m that are currently densely populated by people.
  • All of the thirteen saolas that were in captivity, died within days or weeks and none of them survived for more than five months.

Working Together to Save the Saola

What can you do to help conserve and protect the Saolas?

  • You can help by spreading the information about the Saolas to everyone.
  • You can donate to the SWG thereby helping with snare collection (thousands of snares have been removed by this group).
  • You can also donate to WWF to help with protection and conservation programs for the Saolas.
  • Please do not buy wildlife products that are sold illegally.
  • You can stop wearing coats made from the fur of wild animals and start using synthetics.
  • Please buy only those forest products that are FSC certified.

Did you know about the Saolas?

Have you heard about the Saolas before? Have you seen them?

  • Yes, I have heard about them
  • No, I have not heard about them
  • Yes, I have heard about them and I have seen them
See results without voting

I hope you enjoyed reading about this rare species that are hard to sight in the wild. These animals are under a serious threat towards extinction and we need to do the best we can to help save them from extinction.

Let us help save the Saolas and our planet. There are so many other critically endangered, endangered and threatened species all over the planet in various habitat / ecosystem. We have also lost so many other species due to the destruction caused by humans apart from natural catastrophes.

We need to work together to stop all these destructive activities and educate our children and the younger generation about the importance of conserving and protecting our environment.

Thank you for reading.

Livingsta

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Comments 42 comments

livingsta profile image

livingsta 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hello Vellur,

Thank you for stopping by. Yes, hopefully these animals and others can be saved from extinction. Have a lovely weekend.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hello Jodah,

Thank you for stopping by and the vote. I am also hoping that these beautiful animals can be saved from extinction :)

Have a good weekend.


Vellur profile image

Vellur 2 years ago from Dubai

Great hub about the endangered Saolas. I hope they do not become extinct. Hunting can really wipe out animals from earth and a cruel sport too.


Jodah profile image

Jodah 2 years ago from Queensland Australia

I had heard about the saola, but had no idea they had only been discovered so recently and were so rare. I hope the small number still surviving can be protected and do not become extinct like so many other beautiful creatures. This may prove difficult if they can't be kept alive in captivity. Hopefully all poaching and trapping can be stopped. Voted up.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 2 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Deb, thank you for stopping by and sharing your thoughts and feelings on these beautiful animals. Let's hope for the best :-)


aviannovice profile image

aviannovice 2 years ago from Stillwater, OK

I truly hope that these beautiful and cherished animals will have a second chance. It appears that they were pushed from their natural homes, and forced to survive elsewhere, which didn't help the survival rate. A great piece!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi thumbi7, thank you for stopping by. It is sad indeed. I am glad that you found this interesting. :-)


thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 3 years ago from India

It was very interesting to read this article.

I have never heard about this animal. So sad to hear that they come under critically endangered.

Beautiful animals.

Thanks for sharing this hub


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi pstraubie48, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts on this hub. I do agree with you. There are serious conservation efforts being undertaken and I too hope that we can save these beautiful animals from extinction. Thank you for stopping by.

Sending you Hugs and blessings :-)


pstraubie48 profile image

pstraubie48 3 years ago from sunny Florida

Livingsta

Thank you so much for sharing in detail this unusual creature. It would be so tragic if they were to become extinct.

I hope that the efforts that are under way prevent that from happening to this amazing creature.

Angels are on the way to you this evening ps :)


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi FlourishAnyway, thank you so much for reading and sharing your thoughts. I am pleased that you found this helpful. Have a great week ahead :-)


FlourishAnyway profile image

FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

Very impressively researched and well written hub. I had never heard of this beautiful endangered animal. So sad that we are doing this to our fellow creatures. It's good that you provide some options for how to help.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Vinaya, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts. Yes, we all need to try what best we can do to save the species and our planet. Have a great weekend! :-)


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Rose, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts and concerns. I am glad that you found this information useful and interesting. Thank you for the vote. Have a great weekend! :-)


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Cris, thank you for reading. I am glad that you found this information useful and I am so happy to hear that you support the WWF.

Thank you for the votes and share. Have a great weekend! :-)


Vinaya Ghimire profile image

Vinaya Ghimire 3 years ago from Nepal

Your research on Saola is very detailed. There are many critically endangered species and if we don't act now, they may vanish from earth. Thanks for this activism.


rose-the planner profile image

rose-the planner 3 years ago from Toronto, Ontario-Canada

Wow....this is fascinating! What a shame that such a recently discovered, beautiful species like the saola is endangered. This was a very thorough and interesting article. I totally lobed your images. Thank you for sharing. (Voted Up) -Rose


CrisSp profile image

CrisSp 3 years ago from Sky Is The Limit Adventure

Very interesting! I've never heard of this animal. So, thank you for sharing and for the education. I support WWF here for the love of all these wonderful creatures.

Beautiful, up and sharing.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Suhail, I am in all smiles after reading your comment. I am so pleased to hear that you donate to WWF and that you are a conservationist. Thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts and experience. Maybe since the Saola was discovered only recently, their low population and the difficulty in sighting them, less information available, have all add up to them not being known to many people. Interesting about the Kakapos, I will look them up, thank you.

Thank you again and you have a good day :-)


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Rajan, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts. Thank you for the votes too. Have a good day!


Suhail and my dog profile image

Suhail and my dog 3 years ago from Mississauga, ON

Thank you for sharing about an animal that even a person like me, who is a wildlife lover and a conservationist, hasn't heard or read about. This reminds me of the New Zealand's Kakapos. there are only 81 of them as of now under a closely supervised captivity and breeding program.

Since I donate to WWF on a regular basis, I will have some funds earmarked for Saola prevention too.


rajan jolly profile image

rajan jolly 3 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar,INDIA.

I haven't even heard of the Saola. It is a beautiful animal. We do need to make all out efforts to preserve such endangered species.

Thanks for the information. Voted up, useful and interesting.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Travel_man1971, thank you for reading. I am glad that you found this interesting. Have a great rest of the week!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Debbie, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts. They do look like the deer with their antlers that way, don't they? Thank you for sharing this hub.

Have a good day. Sending you blessings!


travel_man1971 profile image

travel_man1971 3 years ago from Bicol, Philippines

A firsthand information coming from you. Wow! It's really a living testimony that unicorns do exist!


Deborah Brooks profile image

Deborah Brooks 3 years ago from Brownsville,TX

Oh I hope they can save the Saola.. what a beautiful animal remind me of the deer.. thank you fir sharing about this beautiful animal

blessings

sharing

Debbie


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Alocsin, thank you for reading. It indeed is a beautiful animal. I was so surprised too, to read about this animal and was saddened to read about the plight of these animals. I am pleased that you found this interesting. Thank you for your votes. Have a good weekend :-)


alocsin profile image

alocsin 3 years ago from Orange County, CA

What a beautiful animal -- I've never even heard of it, let alone seen it on Discovery Channel or in zoos. Voting this Up and Interesting.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Imogen French, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts. I am glad that you found this information useful.

Hopefully, with serious efforts and help from everyone, we will be able to save all the threatened and endangered species.

Have a great week :-)


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi midget38, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts. Have a great week ahead! :-)


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Tony,

Thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts and feelings on this issue. As you say, unless we take serious steps to protect and conserve our environment, we will be losing everything in the world around us.

I am pleased that you found this information interesting.

Have a great week ahead :-)


Imogen French profile image

Imogen French 3 years ago from Southwest England

I hadn't heard of the saola before, either. Such a beautiful creature - it is an absolute tragedy that they are so threatened.

You have done a great job here in raising its profile, Livingsta, in a very well written, nicely illustrated and informative article.

I truly hope that the conservationists have some success in saving those that are left.


midget38 profile image

midget38 3 years ago from Singapore

Another beautiful creature man takes for granted. Thanks for sharing, Livingsta.


tonymead60 profile image

tonymead60 3 years ago from Yorkshire

I do follow the plight of wildlife, but I have to admit that I knew nothing of this creature. I dispair these days because soon there will not be any natural habitat left anywhere on the planet. Unless the humans start controlling their numbers everything else will be lost and then where will we be.

Thank you for this interesting article, let us hope that something can be done soon for these creatures. Don't tell the chinese nedcine people that they are rare, or they will be slaughtering them for their big toe or horn to put in some useless medicine.

regards

Tony


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi azrestoexp, thank you for stopping by! So true and I agree with you. I am glad that you found this useful! Thank you for the votes. Have a good weekend!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi kidscrafts, yes, they do look beautiful! I was quite fascinated too, that they were discovered recently and that sighting them has been so difficult.

I am so pleased that you found this information interesting! Thank you for the votes.

Have a wonderful weekend!


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Thank you Martin! Glad that you liked :-)


azrestoexp profile image

azrestoexp 3 years ago

Well said billybuc . . . it is very sad!!! So much beauty in the world but it seems to be slipping away day by day. What part of once it's gone, it's gone don't we understand?!!!

Great hub, keep writing. Voted up


kidscrafts profile image

kidscrafts 3 years ago from Ottawa, Canada

I have never heard of the saola before. Very interesting hub, Livingsta.

They are beaufiful creatures; what a very nice marking!

How strange that they have been discover so recently. And as for many other species, it's so sad that they are endangered. I think we really need international laws for protecting the environment and all those different species.

As usual, you cover so many aspects! Great pictures and videos!

Thanks for sharing!

Voted up, interesting and awesome!


Mhatter99 profile image

Mhatter99 3 years ago from San Francisco

Thank you for your hard and excellent work on this.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom Author

Hi Bill, extinction of this elusive animal is sad to even think about! Thank you for your support as always :-)

Hugs and blessings to you!

Have a good day!


billybuc profile image

billybuc 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

What a beautiful animal and sadly I have never heard of it, and based on this information we as a society may never see it again. So sad! Thank you for once again raising awareness.

Blessings and a hug coming your way

bill

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