Secondary Sources on American Veterans, the Holocaust, the Concentration Camps

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How This Informational Hub Came To Be

This Hub began as a response to a question posed by Rebecca E. She had just finished reading “What Did Most Germans Know about the Nazi Concentration Camp System? “ (pt. I), and asked for some reading suggestions.

Perhaps these materials will be useful for anyone wishing to delve deeper into these topics. I am not claiming to have “read” all these books, although I have read 25-30 of them from cover to cover.

However, they were all books that I examined, and in many cases used to supplement the American GI /concentration camp liberator testimony that formed the basis of my dissertation, "Confronting the Holocaust: American Soldiers Who Liberated the Concentration Camps." _____________________________________________________________________

Rebecca -- Thank you for visiting and commenting. Because this was once upon a time "original" research for a dissertation (Emory University), I relied most heavily on "primary sources - diaries, letters, veterans surveys, and lots of military reports, documents, etc., that were sent back to Army headquarters in Washington, from 1943-1947. They comprise 80% of my source material.

However, I did use many books as sources of background material and to situate the individual veteran's testimonies with in a larger historical frame work. And I have taught European history, including the Holocaust for 18 years...so I can give you an abbreviated list of very solid books.

Rebecca, I think I will also post about two thirds of my extended bibliography of Secondary Sources, eliminating sources that would be extremely difficult for most people to locate. Many of them were published by American soldiers in Germany in very limited numbers (1945-1947) and copies were given to me by American veterans . Perhaps there will be someone on HubPages who could make use of such a bibliography.

I don't think I will post my list of primary sources (20+ pages) because there is no way for anyone to access them without visiting twelve different historical archives and digging through hundreds and hundreds of boxes. Finding those materials was a difficult task even for a trained researcher. (I cannot say enough about the historical archivists who assist researchers in sleuthing out the necessary materials.) Thank you for providing me with the opportunity to do this.

Secondary Sources Bibliography -- 1

Note: I am bolding the secondary sources that were extremely useful and/or interesting.


Abzug, Robert H. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Allen, L.M. The History of the American Field Service. New York: 1956.

Allen, Robert Sharon. Lucky Forward, The History of Patton's Third U.S. Army. New York: Vanguard Press, 1947.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Band of Brothers: E Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne, From Normandy to Hitler's Eagle's Nest. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany, June 7, 1944-May 7, 1945, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.

Ambrose, Stephen E. The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1970.

Barish, Louis, ed. Rabbis in Uniform: The Story of the American Jewish Military Chaplain. New York: Jonathan David, 1962.

Berben, Paul. Dachau, 1933-1945: The Official History. London: Latimer Trend, 1975.

Block, Sam E. Holocaust and Rebirth: Bergen-Belsen, 1945-65. New York: Bergen-Belsen Press, 1965.

Blumenson, Martin. The Patton Papers, 1940-1945. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1957.

Bridgman, Jon. The End of the Holocaust: The Liberation of the Camps. Portland, Oregon: Areopagitica Press, 1990.

Cashman, Sean Dennis. America, Roosevelt, and World War II. New York: New York University Press, 1989.

Secondary Sources Bibliography -- 2


Chamberlin, Brewster, and Feldman, Marcia K. eds. The Liberation of The Nazi Concentration Camps 1945. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1987.

Collis, Robert and Hogerzeil, Han. Straight On: Journey to Belsen and The Road Home. London: Metheune & Co. Ltd., 1947.

Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1975.

Dinnerstein, Leonard. America and the Survivors of the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. [Appendix C "ARMY TALK" 151. Washington, DC: War Department, 30 November 1946.]

Eliach, Yaffa, and Gurewitsch, Brana. Holocaust Oral History Manual. Vol. 3, No. 7, New York: Center for Holocaust Studies, Documentation and Research, 1991.

Eliach, Yaffa, and Gurewitsch, Brana. The Liberators: Eyewitness Accounts of The Liberation of Concentration Camps. New York: Center for Holocaust Studies, Documentation and Research, 1981.

Feig, Konnelyn G. Hitler's Death Camps: The Sanity of Madness. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981.

Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and The Holocaust, 1938-45. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Holocaust Library, 1980. (Rutgers University Press, 1970).

Gavin, Janes M. On to Berlin: Battles of an Airborne Commander, 1943-1946. New York: The Viking Press, 1978.

Gilbert, Martin. Exile and Return. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1978. (Bergen-Belsen).

Ginzberg, Eli; Herma, John L., and Ginsberg, Sol W. Psychiatry and Military Manpower Policy: A Reappraisal of the Experience in World War II. Columbia University, New York: King's Crown Press, 1953.

GIs Remember: Liberating the Concentration Camps. National Museum of American Jewish Military History, Jewish War Veterans, National Memorial, Inc., 1993.

Grinker, Roy R. and Spiegel, John P. Men Under Stress. Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1945.

Grygier, Tadeusz. Oppression: A Study in Social and Criminal Psychology. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1954.

Gushwa, Robert L. The Best and Worst of Times: The U.S. Army Chaplaincy, 1920-1945. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Department of the Army, 1977.

Secondary Sources Bibliography -- 3


Hardman, Leslie. The Survivors: The Story of The Belsen Remnant. London: Valentine-Mitchell, 1958.

Hoffman, Alice M. and Hoffman, Howard S. Archives of Memory: A Soldier Recalls World War II. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1990.

Hoffman, Dr. George F. The Super Sixth: History of the 6th Armored Division in World War II and Its Post-war Association. Louisville, Kentucky: Sixth Armored Division Association.

Holmes, Richard. Acts of War: The Behavior of Men in Battle. New York: The Free Press, 1985.

Kaufman, I. American Jews in World War II: the Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom. New York: The Dial Press, 1947.

Kennett, Lee B. GI: The American Soldier in World War II. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1987.

Korman, Gerd., ed. Hunter and Hunted: Human History of the Holocaust. New York: The Viking Press, 1973.

Kogon, Eugene. The Theory and Practice of Hell. New York: Coward-McCann, 1970.

Krausnick, Helmut., Buchheim, Hans., Broszat, Martin., and Jacobsen, Hans - Adolf. Anatomy of the SS State. New York: Walker and Company, 1968. Walter-Verlag AG, 1965.

Laqueur, Walter. The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth About Hitler's Final Solution. 1980.

Laqueur, Walter and Breitman, Richard. Breaking the Silence. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.

Le Chêne, Evelyn. Mauthausen: History of a Death Camp. London: Methueen, 1971.

Leitner, Isabella. Fragments of Isabella. New York: Crowell, 1978. (Bergen-Belsen)

Lifton, Robert Jay. History and Human Survival. New York: Random House, 1970.

Lipstadt, Deborah E. Beyond Belief: The American Press and The Coming of The Holocaust, 1933-1945. New York: Free Press, 1986. (She was on my dissertation committee and we were all terrified of her.)

Secondary Sources Bibliography -- 4


Lookstein, Haskel. Were We Our Brothers' Keepers? The Public Response of American Jews to the Holocaust 1938-1944. New York: Vintage Books, 1985.

Lustig, Arnost. Darkness Casts No Shadow. New York: Avon, 1978.

MacDonald, Charles Brown. The Last Offensive. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1973.

MacDonald, Charles Brown. The Mighty Endeavor: American Armed Forces in the European Theater in World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

MacDonald, Charles Brown. The Siegfried Line Campaign. Washington, DC: Office of The Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1963.

Marrus, Michael Robert. Public Opinion and Relations to The Jews in Nazi Europe. Westport, Connecticut: Meckler, 1989.

McMahon, Gerald. Farthest East: A History of the 71st Infantry Division. Le Roy, New York: Yaderman Books, 1986.

McMahon, Gerald. Riding Point for Patton: The Fifth Infantry Regiment in World War II. Le Roy, New York: Yaderman Books, 1987.

McMahon, Gerald. The Siegfried and Beyond. Woodbridge, Virginia: 71st Infantry Division Association, 1993.

Meerloo, Major A. M. Total War and the Human Mind. International Universities Press Inc., 1945.

Mendelson, John, ed. The Holocaust: Selected Documents. 18 volumes. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1982.

Morse, Arthur D. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. New York: Random House, 1967.

Nadich, Judah. Eisenhower and The Jews. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1953.

Neuhäusler, Johann. What Was It Like In The Concentration Camp at Dachau?. Munich: Dachau Museum, 1954.

Secondary Sources Bibliography -- 5


Penkower, Monty N. The Jews Were Expendable: Free World Diplomacy and The Holocaust. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. (Reprint, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988).

Phibbs, Brendan. The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1987.

Ross, Robert . So It Was True: The American Protestant Press and The Nazi Persecution of the Jews. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

Selzer, Michael. Deliverance Day: The Last Hours of Dachau. Philadelphia─New York: J.B. Lippencott, 1978.

Sereny, Gita. Into That Darkness: From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder. London: Andre' Deutsch Limited, 1974.

Smith, Marcus J. Dachau: The Harrowing of Hell. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1972.

Snyder, Louis L. Encyclopedia of The Third Reich. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.

Stewart, Charles Fyfe. The Ninth Evacuation Hospital. New York: Vantage Press, Inc. 1990.

Trepman, Paul. Among Man and Beasts. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1978.

Tumey, Ben. GIs View of World War II. (Private, C Battery, 904th Field Artillery, 79th Division) New York: Exposition Press, 1959.

Wallace, Brenton Greene. Patton and His Third Army. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Military Publishing Company, 1946.

Weinberg, Gerhard L. World in the Balance: Behind the Scenes of World War II. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1981.

Winston, Keith. V-Mail: Letters of a World War II Combat Medic. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books, 1985.

Wyman, David S. The Abandonment of The Jews: America and The Holocaust 1941-45. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984.

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Comments 25 comments

billybuc profile image

billybuc 4 years ago from Olympia, WA

Talk about an in-depth response to a question! You did more research and preparation for this hub than I have done in one hundred of mine. Well done, thorough....what I would expect from you my friend.


Kathleen Cochran profile image

Kathleen Cochran 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia

This hub could constitute a graduate level independent study all by itself. Thanks for the great references on a fascinating subject. (Still wish you'd rewrite your disertation for commercial publication! Have I mentioned that before?)


teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 4 years ago

You have posted some really great resources, so extensive that they should be included in the national library of research! With all the latest hype about what really happened during this time period, your selection will help many to find answers. Good job!


Natashalh profile image

Natashalh 4 years ago from Hawaii

Wow. Thanks for the great collection of resources and the color photos. This is a very informative hub!


Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

Gypsy Rose Lee 4 years ago from Riga, Latvia

Voted up and interesting. You've done a great and thorough job on research. Great information.


rebekahELLE profile image

rebekahELLE 4 years ago from Tampa Bay

Now that is research! You should include a hyperlink to your hub that generated this question. You can make the title to the hub you referenced, What Did Most Germans Know About Nazi Concentration Camps, a link by highlighting it and clicking on the chain icon. That hub is very informative, interesting reading. Well done, and thanks for supplying these detailed resources.


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Kathleen - What a great idea. I knew I deserved more college course credit for all the work I did. :) Perhaps this information will be helpful to someone else.

Yes, you have mentioned it before and I expect you will mention it again. :) Maybe after I retire. Right now, thinking about tackling the dissertation makes me feel depressed and anxious...but writing conference papers, writing HP essays, teaching classes, even writing academic committee proposals...all these things make me feel positive and energetic.

I think the dissertation is so overwhelming, that if I ever tackle it again, it will have to be the "only" thing on my plate, in other words it might be a retirement project. But you can keep mentioning it if you want. :)


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

rebekah - Thank you for the positive and encouraging comments. And for explaining how easy it is to link essays. I never thought much about it, but I shall get busy. :) Thanks for stopping by and I hope you have a wonderful weekend. :)to lik


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Thank you teaches. What a wonderful compliment. I hope it can be the starting place for some real research for someone else. Hope your weekend is going well. North Georgia is sunny, breezy and 85. We are in heaven. :)


Frank Atanacio profile image

Frank Atanacio 4 years ago from Shelton

Your research is impeccable.. I am amazed how you disseminate this information for anyone to follow, understand what went on and clearly keep the easy flow. The thing about your hubs is you hold nothing back.. every time I read these ( lets call it Historical events) I hate using historical.. but what other word can I use? ) I'm entering a fenced in yard where the information is accessible and you allow the readers to research the sources. It's educational and unconcealed.. voted up Phdast7 Frank


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

You are very welcome. I hope it is helpful. :)


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Thank you Gypsy. I thought somebody might find a really thorough bibliography helpful. Hope all is well with you. :)


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Hello Frank, Impeccable, what a wonderful word. :) Thank you. No one else describes my research and writing the way you do. If I was publishing a book, I would ask permission to use your comments on the back cover! :) Seriously, I would.

I appreciate you taking the time to read and comment, and lovely comments they are. :) Have a great week.


John Sarkis profile image

John Sarkis 4 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

Hi Theresa, what a great and informative hub this is. I know you're a great source on history. I'm impress, but I always expect great writing from you.

Take care and enjoy the remaining hours of the weekend.

John


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Hello John - Thank you. I realized I had all these hundreds of bibliographic entries from various papers and projects I have done over the years, so it made sense to organize them and make them available.

Its warm and sunny here, but not broiling hot, so I spent a few hours this afternoon planting a few flowers. Twenty years ago all my flowers always died, but I decided if I go real slow and ask master gardeners for lots of advice that maybe I will be successful this year. :) I hope you have a good week. Theresa


arb profile image

arb 4 years ago from oregon

Well done Theresa, however, there is something which troubles me in all of this. Is it really possible in today's world, to still think that this was the best kept secret the world has ever known? Perhaps, I merely want to believe that by now, we all know the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.


arb profile image

arb 4 years ago from oregon

Just read a news release that german doctors have made a public apology for medical atrocities during holucoust, admitting they were not forced but were willing volunteers. I have saved it my doc file.


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Alan - it doesn't seem possible that people would still not believe, after all the testimony, articles, books and films. In answer to your first question, I find that there are people who still don't believe ; they tend to fall into one of two groups. One, is the full fledged Holocaust denier; they actually have an association and a publication. Their headquarters is in California, the Institute for Historical Review. They are not historians, they are not even bad historians. They are liars, deceivers, and racists.

Strong words, yes, and I would describe them that way based on an examination of their literature and periodicals, but I have actually met them in person. They occasionally tour publicly with the British historian/Holocaust denier David Irving. About nine years ago they came to the Atlanta and held a public meeting. So I went so that I will always be able to speak from first-hand experience about who they are and what they promote.

It was quite an experience, lots of press and police. They presented Hitler as a strong and good leader who had been maligned and misunderstood and they admire him for taking a stand and trying to achieve racial purity. Not unlike the KKK, they believe and say some horrendously racist things against both black people and Jews. Irving was there as their guest speaker at a one-time actually was considered a pretty decent historian.

He is not a "complete denier," he is a "partial denier." Which I think may actually be worse. Not too many people will accept that absolutely nothing happened in the heart of Europe, that it was all a complete fabrication. But Irving is actually quite clever because he doesn't ask you to believe that.

What he asks people to believe is that the numbers were greatly exaggerated. He clearly states that a few tens of, maybe a few hundred thousand Jews perished, but there was no design or plan or intention to do so on the part of the Nazis.

There was a question and answer period at the end of the meeting and I asked a question. Well, actually I made a statement. I told them that I had spent over six months working in the National Archives in DC, and another six months working in various museums and archives across the country and that I had found ample evidence - military reports, diplomatic reports, and thousands of photographs which clearly establish the torture, starvation, and death of millions Jews and non-Jews.

Then I asked Irving how he would explain such a preponderance of evidence. Of course I wasn't expecting to persuade him, but there were a lot of teenagers in the audience and they looked like they had been drug their by their parents who were true believers. I framed my statement and questions in the hope that they would begin to think and read for themselves and walk away from the IHR and its pernicious beliefs.

Irving responded by agreeing with me that the National Archives has tens of thousands of pictures of starving and dead prisoners, many of them Jewish.

However, the Nazis did not kill those people, they simply incarcerated them in a camp, just like troublemakers are put in jail in America. He went on to explain that the deaths were caused by the American military who deliberately prevented the Germans from sending food supplies to the camps.

According to Irving when American GIs arrived, they staged the piles of bodies and took photographs in order to turn the world against Germany. Based on research I happen to know that GIs discovered warehouses full of food in several towns near every one of the concentration camps, not that that would've mattered to Irving or the members of the IHR. They believe what they believe because they want to and because it fulfills some need they have.

Two, the other group I have run across in my classes, sometimes in the general public, are people who minimize everything that is extreme, intense, or terrible. They do this about the Holocaust but typically, they do it about a lot of things. They seem are convinced that everything is greatly exaggerates, and but everybody has a vested interest in making things sound and look much worse than they really are.

So they believe that Holocaust numbers are greatly exaggerated, but they don't deny that Hitler and the Nazis intended to cause great harm to Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, Soviet soldiers, Polish intellectuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and many other groups. What they do not believe and can not come to grips with is the sheer scale, the enormity of the crime. But often they minimize all tragedies.

If there is an epidemic somewhere, the numbers must be inflated tenfold. Or if there is a hurricane or a typhoon, several thousand people probably died, but not 29,000. When discussing slavery in America, they will say it certainly wasn’t fun being a slave, but it probably wasn't that bad. After all, everybody had to work really hard back then, black or white.

Of course there "are" exaggerations, even falsehoods that circulate in the popular media. On more than one occasion I have had someone say the reason they don't believe in anything anymore, is because of the unreliability of the media. They are convinced that everybody exaggerates everything, so to their way of thinking they are simply taking everything with a grain of salt.

I'm not sure if I have answered your question. I don't know that I will ever fully understand why people need to minimize the Holocaust, slavery, or the near eradication of Native Americans. But those attitudes do persist and as long as they do, I will feel compelled to do what I can to present accurate history and encourage students/people to carefully consider the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that lead, and could lead, to an atrocity, to a genocide, to the Holocaust.

Returning to your second question -

“Perhaps, I merely want to believe that by now, we all know the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.”

I think that many of us want to believe, fervently hope, that we know and are willing to recognize and deal with the truth. I think the Holocaust is much more than a historical event that occurred during World War II.

I have come to believe that the Holocaust is a watershed event in modern history that makes many of us uncomfortable, disturbed about the kind of society and civilization we have developed?

I am not surprised that moral people, thinking people, realize that the Holocaust says something to and about all of us. This kind of tragic and dark knowledge should be wrestled with, as should all evidence of mankind’s inhumanity and cruelty. I fear some people resent and resist doing the hard and painful inner work of grappling with these terrible events. Perhaps the minimization originates there.

You were probably not expecting an answer this length. I don't think I was expecting my answer to be so long. But since it is, I would like to publish it as a hub. I would like to mention that your questions prompted me, if I have your permission to do so.

Thank you for asking thoughtful, probing questions…in a way, I think I became a professor in part to grapple with such questions, not that I could have articulated that at the time. Theresa

P.S. How shall I say this without appearing to be asking for sympathy? Occasionally I employ Dragon (voice recognition software). Even speaking into a microphone, I still make mistakes, but a ninety minute project becomes a thirty minute project. About seven years ago I suffered a cerebral infarction which resulted in a lot of nerve damage to my left hand, so I only type with one finger on my left hand.

Dragon is a godsend, but I have noticed sometimes there is an awkwardness, a stiltedness to my writing when I use Dragon. So this may not sound like me, or may read awkwardly. I try to smooth out the language and catch the errors, but I am not always successful. So why am I going on about this? I just realized this is my ego talking, afraid my writing will not be up to standard. Rather neurotic, aren’t I? :)


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Very interesting...and quite surprising. I wouldn't have thought that many of the doctors would still be alive. I wonder what prompted them to speak out at this particular time. Would you tell me where to find it on the internet please?

Graduation party this evening for a niece, hosting a luncheon at my house for my daughter-in-law's family tomorrow. They live in Alabama and are here for the weekend. May not get back to respond to your comment until Sunday. I hope you have a great weekend. It will be in the nineties here and I am not a happy camper. :)


arb profile image

arb 4 years ago from oregon

Hi Theresa! Copied the link to my hub "Will America lose its soul to gain the world." After you get it, let me know and I will delete it. You have my permission.


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

Thank you Alan. I found the link and accessed the information. And thank you for your permission. Theresa


molometer profile image

molometer 4 years ago

What an exceptional resource for anyone that needs to delve into these ideas. Thank you for sharing your sources with us.

I have never seen these photo's before. They are incredible.

I cannot believe that there are still people out there, that deny that the holocaust happened.

I think it is safe to assume they have an agenda.

Well done Theresa. The truth is there for all to see.

Voted up, awesome, interesting and useful.


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

You are more than welcome. I have only had them for about 6 weeks. A young man at Reinhardt who took my Modern German history course found them on-line somewhere, scanned them for viruses, and then sent them to me.

Apparently they were part of the Life magazine "lost film" archives and had recently been posted on the web. What an incredible find and in color!

The Holocaust Deniers, or revisionists as they like to call themselves, definitely have an agenda. I am in the middle of a hub about this very topic. Maybe I will finish it before too long. Thank you for your encouraging comments. :) Theresa


Pavlo Badovskyy profile image

Pavlo Badovskyy 4 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine

I guess propaganda of Germany made all possible before the war and during the war to convince people of Germany in the necessity of war and elimination of the Jewish people. I judge it on the fact that the communist party in the USSR also reached their goals by massive brainwashing. I guess it was the same in Germany. People truly believed in the necessity of war and were probably proud that they live in a "Great Germany". It is always nice to feel that you are different from the other nations. Gebbels and his propaganda managed to implement an idea of exclusiveness of a german nation in the minds of the majority of people. Besides the military regime had enough instrument to "convince" those who had another opinion... Thank you for the information. The photos are really great.


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia Author

I think you are right Pavlo, for anything like this (Stalinist USSR or Nazi Germany) to happen, there must be a very effective propaganda and misinformation campaign to manipulate and control the people. You are so welcome for the information and thank you for noticing the photographs. Thank you as always for your thoughtful comments. :)

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